Carson was a scientist, but worked primarily in nature writing for the general public about ecology and the interconnectedness of all creatures and their environments. Concerned about DDT spraying near her hometown in MD, she proposed to write about it for Reader’s Digest. They rejected her. Her work, Silent Spring, was eventually published in the New Yorker, serially. Chemical companies put out books about what a nightmare the world would be without pesticides. Attacked her credentials and authority to discredit her. (Example of false criticisms of Carson. Carson died in 1962 from breast cancer.
The counterculture of the 1960s was a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American society.
Young Americans believed that society’s values were hollow and its priorities were misplaced.
They called the mainstream the Establishment .
They wanted to create an alternative culture based on peace and love.
Where did the counterculture come from? The number of teens and young adults in the United States rose dramatically in the 1960s. These young people were living in turbulent times: threat of nuclear war, racial discrimination and segregation, the Vietnam War, and environmental pollution. Rebellion against the dominant culture was not new. The Beat generation of the 1950s questioned traditional values, challenged authority, and experimented with non-conformist lifestyles.
Back lash against the staid, conservative, uniformity of the 50’s
San Francisco was the birthplace of the counterculture/hippy movement.
By 1965 hippies had taken over the Haight Ashbury district.
Haight Ashbury district contains Golden Gate Park home of the Trips Festival and “be-ins.”
This is a 20,000-strong be-in at Golden gate park in 1967
1967 Summer of Love . The Flower Power movement reached its short but intensive climax in the "Summer of Love" in 1967. Many different people came together to build a new society. They wanted a new, individual style. The postwar generation tried to build its own culture in the 50's. They refused traditional standards and values. Their most important colors were black, red and white - white for the drugs, black for their clothes and the coffee and red for the wine. Their values were radical individualism, an uncontrolled way of life expressed in parties,drugs and free love.
Haight-Ashbury Streets This "revolution" took place mainly in Haight Ashbury, a small neighborhood in San Francisco. The Haight Ashbury was little more than a few square blocks which stretched from the edge of Golden Gate Park for a half-mile down Haight Street .One could find cafes, head shops , poster shops, hip boutiques, the Oracle office and the Straight Theatre
Haight-Ashbury was the center of the hippie movement in the 1960s. As the popularity of the movement increased, many people flocked to the area, leading to an increase in crime, the gradual deterioration of the neighborhood, and the decline of the hippie image. To escape this negative association, members of the movement decided to symbolically “kill off” the hippies by holding mock funerals.
and the Pig Commune Commune style living became Popular among Hippies after The Summer of Love. This style Of living gave Hippies a chance To connect with nature and religion. Wavy Gravy was a leader of one of the Pig Commune in New Mexico. Wavy Gravy also was the MC at the Woodstock festival.
Monterey Music Festival The idea for the Monterey International Pop Festival came out of the mid-60's belief that what had been pop music was now a much more serious art form, and could take its place alongside jazz Artists agreed to perform for free, and the Summer of Love was born. The first major music festival was held on June 16, 17 and 18, 1967 at the Monterey County Fairgrounds in Monterey, California.
Or Hippie Era was marked by Rock ‘N’ Roll music, outrageous clothing, sexuality, and illegal drugs.
When the Moon is in the Seventh House, and Jupiter aligns with Mars Then peace shall guide the planets, and love will steer the stars This is the dawning of the Age of Aquarius .... from: Aquarius / Let The Sunshine In ; by Rado/Ragni/MacDermot;EMI Music.
Language of the Counterculture Different slang word from the Counterculture movement included; Flower Power. Make love, not war. Peace. Love. Cool. Hip. Hippie. Hippie girl. Groovy. Groove on that. Live for today. Mellow out. Mellow down. Mellow yellow. Electrical banana. Far out. Out of sight. Can you dig it? You dig it? Dig it? Dig? Dig. Dig it. I dig it. I can dig it. Like, wow. Like...like, hey man, wow. Safe as mother's milk. Hell no, we won't go. Are you straight? Are you bent? Are you a narc? Twisted. Alice. Acid. Acid Head. Acid Freak. Bad trip. Bum trip. Grass. Pot. Pot Head. Mary Jane. Shrooms. Morning Glorys. Uppers. Downers. Reds. Whites. Yellows. Crosses. Hard stuff. Speed. Speed Freak. Flying. Trip. Trippy. Tripping. Trip out. Tripping out. Freak. Freaky. Freaking. Freak out. Freaking out. High. Up. Spacey. Space out. Spaced out. Spacing. Spacing out. Strung out. Down. Downer. Coming down. Cold Turkey. Crash. Crashing. Crashing and burning. Biting the big one. The ultimate bad trip. Dying. Good friends gone forever. Total bummer.
Woodstock Music Festival The legendary Woodstock Festival took place over three days in August 1970- August 15, 16, 17. Among the performers, there were Janis Joplin, Santana, Richie Havens, Sly and the Family Stone, Jefferson Airplane, Sha Na Na and Jimi Hendrix, or as he called his band, Gypsy Sun and Rainbows. Hendrix was scheduled to close the show on Sunday night, but due to delays, Hendrix and band took the stage on Monday morning, to a crowd of only about thirty-thousand: far less than the estimated peak crowd of four hundred- thousand
Woodstock was not just a music concert. “For thousands who couldn’t even hear the music” it was a “profound religious experience.”
Meager resources were shared with everyone.
Many people at Woodstock used illegal drugs
Chicago Democratic Convention Anti-war demonstrators protested throughout the convention, clashing with police all around the convention center, the Chicago International Amphitheater (in the streets, as well in Lincoln Park and Grant Park ). Mayor Richard J. Daley took a particularly hard line against the protesters, refusing permits for rallies and marches, and calling for whatever use of force necessary to subdue the crowds. The Chicago Police were being taunted by the rioting "counterculture" with at first paperballs and marshmallows. They then began to throw glasses of urine and fecal matter. When U.S. Sen.rt Abraham Ribicoff (D-Conn.) delivered a shluck nominating George McGovern for President, he infuriated Daley by saying, "with George McGovern as President of the United States, we wouldn't have Gestapo tactics in the streets of Chicago."
Days of Rage The Days of Rage riots occurred in Chicago over a four day period beginning October 8 , 1969 after 287 members of the militant group, the Weathermen , converged on the city to confront the police in the streets after protesting the trial of the group that was commonly referred to as " the Chicago Seven ."
Kent State Massacre The Kent State shootings , also known as May 4 or the Kent State massacre , occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent , Ohio , and involved the shooting of students by the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4 , 1970 . The altercation killed four students and wounded nine others.
As the counterculture ended if left America with more liberating views in the areas of dress, appearance, lifestyle, and social behavior. While some Americans found it liberating, some said it was the start of moral decay in the country
Mainstream Reactions to the Counterculture Some observers of the counterculture were put off by the unkempt appearance of hippies. On a deeper level, many mainstream Americans objected to the unconventional values of the counterculture. They saw hippies as disrespectful, uncivilized, and threatening. To many in the Establishment, it appeared that society was unraveling. The television show All in the Family highlighted the older generation’s distrust of the counterculture and the younger generation’s desire to change society.
Detailed the frustrating lives of countless American women who were expected to find fulfillment primarily through the achievements of husbands and children.
Set off shock waves around the country and is now regarded as the catalytic work of the women's movement
Triggering a period of change that continues today.
Friedan has been central to this evolution for women, through lectures and writing.
Start of the 60’s Feminist Movement
Friedan Breaks the Silence “ The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the mind of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the 20 th century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night – she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question – “Is this all?’”
The Philosophy: NOW is the largest organization of feminist activists in the United States with 250,000 members and 550 chapters in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. NOW's official priorities are winning economic equality and securing it with an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that will guarantee equal rights for women; championing abortion rights, reproductive freedom and other women's health issues; opposing racism and fighting bigotry against lesbians and gays; and ending violence against women.
Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1963) detailed the impact of chemicals in the environment
Cold War: down-winders
Toxic chemicals, PCB’s, DDT, dioxin, mercury, arsenic, lead, nuclear waste, dumping in rivers, CO2, global warming, endangered species, Ozone
Environmentalist Movement of the 1960s-1970s Concerned not only with resource conservation, but with pollution control as well as issues like pop growth, atomic power and weapons, and recycling Reaction to post WWII industrial expansion 1962 Rachel Carson writes Silent Spring , which brings attention to effect of pollution, particularly from pesticides, on humans and other species Sparked public outcry and government initiatives to control pollution Chemical companies immediately began campaign against Carson (birth of anti-environmentalism)
Carson described research demonstrating that DDT caused egg shells to thin for many species of birds, increasing infant mortality rates. Effects rippled through food chain. May also affect humans directly. Difficult to prove effects on humans. Not really.