What Is Morality


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  • Morality is human conduct in all aspects of person's social,personal and professional life.
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What Is Morality

  1. 1. Chapter 1 What is Morality? <br />Ethics: Theory and Practice 9thEd<br />Thiroux and Krasemann<br />Adapted from power points created by: Kim Waltz <br />Northcentral Technical College 2007<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Introduction to the Chapter: <br />Objectives<br />Define philosophy and explain the relationship of ethics to it.<br />Define key terms concerning ethics or morality.<br />Explain various approaches to the study of morality.<br />Understand what morality is and how it differs from aesthetics, nonmoral behavior and manners.<br />Understand to whom morality applies.<br />Have some idea of where morality comes from.<br />Distinguish between morality and the law.<br />Distinguish between morality and religion.<br />Understand why humans should be moral.<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Morality<br />Write a definition of Morality<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Morality<br />Dilbert Minisode – Ethics<br />Ethical Issues in this cartoon?<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />What is Philosophy?<br />Philosophy literally means love of wisdom. <br />Comes from the Greek words<br />Philia - meaning love or friendship<br />Sophia - meaning wisdom<br />Is concerned with three areas<br />epistemology – study of knowledge<br />metaphysics – the study of the nature of reality<br />ethics – the study of morality<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Epistemology: <br />The study of knowledge, belief, truth, falsity, certainty, and perception.<br />What is knowledge?<br />what is truth?<br />What is reality and perception?<br />optical illusions<br />Are there differing realities?<br />How do differing realities change peoples perceptions of what is right and wrong?<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Metaphysics: <br />The study of what exists, the nature of what exists, cause and effect, freedom, and determinism-(the doctrine or belief that everything, including every human act, is caused by something that there is no real free will<br />What is freedom?<br />What do you mean my nature?<br />How do we know if one thing truly causes another? (examples of cause and effect)<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Cause and Effect<br />Does Death Penalty Deter Crime? : NPR<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Ethics: <br />The study of morality, good, bad, right, wrong, human conduct and behavior in a moral sense, and moral issues.<br />What are morals?<br />Define good, right, and wrong<br />Goodness – decency, kindness, honesty, integrity, righteousness<br />Right – correct, true, accurate, exact, precise<br />Wrong – incorrect, mistaken, erroneous, not right, immoral, dishonest, unethical<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Amorality <br />Having no moral sense or being indifferent to right and wrong.<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Examples of amorality?<br />?????<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Non-moral:<br />The immoral person knowingly violates human moral standards, the amoral person may also violate moral standards because he or she has no moral sense<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Examples of Immorality<br />Is Killing Immoral?<br />Is downloading copyrighted material off a web site immoral?<br />Is misrepresenting someone else immoral?<br />Is undercutting someone else work immoral?<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Two approaches to the study of morality: <br />1. The scientific, or Descriptive, approach is used in the social sciences, and is concerned with how human beings do, in fact, behave<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Two approaches to the study of morality: <br />2. The Philosophical approach is divided into two parts<br />a.Normative or prescriptive Ethics – deals with norms or standards<br />b.Meta-ethics or Analytical Ethics – this approach is analytical in two ways.. (meta- means go beyond).<br />● analyzes language<br />● analyzes the rational foundations of ethical systems, or the logic and reasoning of various ethicists<br />Note: This book uses a combination of descriptive, normative, and analytical ethics with a heavy emphasis on using ethics in a HUMAN Community.. That means placing a larger focus on the normative.<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Two approaches to the study of morality:<br />The Philosophical approach is divided into two parts<br />a.Normative or prescriptive Ethics – deals with norms or standards<br />b.Metaethics, or Analytical Ethics – Looks at the logic of ethical Theorists<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Four Aspects related to Morality:<br />Religious Morality – is concerned with human beings in relationship to supernatural beings (aka..theists).<br />Highway 61 Revisited - 07 Highway 61 Revisited<br />The “Christian Right” in America often are referred to as “values voters” – does this imply that only religious people are moral and that others lack value, or what?<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Four Aspects related to Morality:<br />2. Morality from Nature?<br />Morality and nature – concerned with human beings in relationship to nature.<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Four Aspects related to Morality:<br />Individual morality – concerned with human beings in relation to themselves.<br />How does culture play into this?<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Four Aspects related to Morality:<br />Social morality – noted as the most important aspect of morality is concerned with human beings in relation to other human beings.<br />Again how does Culture play into this?<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Where does morality come from?<br />Objective – that is outside of human beings.<br />Subjective – strictly within human beings<br />Or is morality a combination of the two?<br />There are 3 ways of looking at values when they are taken as being totally objective<br />They come from Supernatural Beings<br />There are moral laws somehow embedded within nature itself<br />The world and objects in it have value with or without the presence of valuing human beings.<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />The Supernatural Theory: objective<br />The belief that values come from some higher supernatural being, or beings, or principle – the Good (Plato); the gods (the Greeks and Romans); Yahweh or God (Jews); God and His son Jesus Christ (The Christians); Allah (the Muslims); and Brahma (the Hindus), just to name a few. – Think 10 Commandments or the Five Pillars of Islam<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Brothers Karamazov<br />&quot;If you were to destroy in mankind the belief in immortality, not only love but every living force maintaining the life of the world would at once be dried up. Moreover, nothing then would be immoral; everything would be lawful, even cannibalism.&quot;  <br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Criticisms of the Supernatural Law Theory:<br />Albert Einstein – said “I do not believe in morality of the individual, and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern with no superhuman authority behind it.”<br />It’s possible that supernatural exists, and this belief is based on faith, with no conclusive proof of the existence of a supernatural beings, or principle.<br />Which of the values from which of these supernatural beings do we use, since there are a variety in many parts of the world?<br />The author of your text is not saying that we should stop searching for truth from these sources, but it does mean that it is difficult to establish with any certainty that morality comes from this source or sources<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />The Natural Law Theory: objective <br />Others believe that morality somehow is embodied in nature that there are “natural laws.” <br />Tomas Aquinas argued for this<br />Natural Law theory was also central to the ethical theory of Immanuel Kant<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />Natural law<br />The Declaration of Independence<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Subjective:<br />Some hold the theory that values are totally subjective: that morality and values reside strictly within human beings and that there are no values or morality outside of them.<br />Others believe that the world and the objects in it embody values whether or not there are any human beings around to perceive and appreciate them.<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Values are both subjective and objective, determined by three variables<br />1. The first variable is the thing of value, or the thing valued (a car).<br />2. The second is a conscious being who values, the valuer (the auto-body repairman).<br />3. The context or situation in which the valuing takes place (on the street, in the showroom, at a car show).<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Where does morality come from? A Theory.<br />Values, then, would seem to come, most often from a complex interaction between conscious human beings and “things” in specific contexts.<br />By looking at the origins of the human being and social groups, we can see that complex interaction start to evolve<br />As we look at that process we will see that morality has risen largely from human needs and desires and that it is based upon human emotion and reason.<br />
  30. 30. 30<br />Think of Morality Globally/Culturally<br />Are things different in other countries<br />Concept of Individualist and Collectivist Cultures<br />Other Cultures<br />Polygamy Discussion (materials in BB NWTC Site)<br />
  31. 31. 31<br />Customary or Traditional and Reflective Morality<br />Customary or Traditional Morality <br />We are born into it<br />Based in tradition<br />Examples?<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Reflective Morality<br />Reflective morality involves the movement beyond conditioned or reactionary reactions and self-interest to principled action where acceptance of the principles of one&apos;s behavior is the result of a careful reflection which takes into account the moral integrity of the agent and rights and interests of others.<br />
  33. 33. 33<br />Reflective Morality:<br />Think about following blindly.. What has happened in the past when people have been sheep?<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />
  35. 35. 35<br />Morality and Law<br />Morality is not necessarily based on law<br />Jim Crow laws<br />Apartheid<br />There is a relationship because much of our morality has become embodied in our legal codes<br />Where do morality and legality part, when is acting illegally moral?<br />
  36. 36. 36<br />Differences between morality and law<br />Morality provides the basic reasons for any significant laws<br />But even if laws were abolished tomorrow.. Most people would not go out an steal, rape, and kill people<br />Law needs morality just as morality needs law<br />Law is a public expression of a society that provides sanctions for social morality<br />
  37. 37. 37<br />Morality and Religion<br />Morality need not and should not be based solely on religion alone for the following reasons<br />It is difficult to prove conclusively the existence of a supernatural being<br />Religious people can be immoral, and nonreligious people can be moral too<br />It is difficult to provide a rational foundation for religion, which makes it difficult to provide such a foundation for morality<br />If religion were to be the foundation of morality, which religion would provide this foundation and who would decide?<br />
  38. 38. 38<br />Why should human beings be moral?<br />The question focuses not on one individual.. But on WHY HUMAN BEINGS (as a whole) SHOULD BE MORAL!<br />Various reasons for why have been posited;<br />Because a supernatural being said we should be moral<br />Enlightened self interest.. To know yourself better<br />Tradition and Law have been given as a reason to be moral<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />Humanitarian Ethics<br />Adhering to morals enables human beings to live their lives peacefully, happily, creatively and meaningfully as possible.<br />It’s easy to see that if we want to be free from the fear of being mutilated, stolen from, lied to, cheated, severely restricted or imprisoned we need morals for our society.. Not just the individual, but our society!<br />
  40. 40. 40<br />Your Authors’ Theory<br />Morality or ethics deals basically with human relationships, how humans treat other beings so as to promote mutual welfare, growth, creativity, and meaning as they strive for good over bad and right over wrong.<br />
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