Teachers performance managementIntroductionEducation is sacrosanct to national development. Education and national development arethe two sides of a coin that mutually reinforce and challenge each other. Jega affirmed, "Education is generally regarded as a necessary and essential requirement fornational development. It is central to socioeconomic and technological advancement, andit is critical to self-sustaining and self-generating process of positive transformation ofmodern society."The government appreciates the significance of education to national development andwill marshal its resources to attain its avowed goal of a reinvigorated public service.Odumosu  said, "Education in Nigeria is ... a huge government venture that haswitnessed evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention and activeparticipation. The Federal Government has adopted education as an instrument perexcellence for effective national development."It is antithetical that service delivery in the education sector is unattractive despite itsstrategic role in effective national development. It is palpable that the sector is a not-for-profit public enterprise. There is, however, a general consensus among stakeholdersranging from government supervisory agencies, practitioners, parents and the press tolearners that the standard of education falls far below expectations.Who is a Teacher?Achimugu  stated that Nigerian Teachers Union NUT (1994) defines a teacher "asa person who has the registrable professional qualification, which enables him to beappointed to teach at any appropriate level of recognized education in any nation and whois of sound mind and who is mentally alert."The World Book Encyclopedia  expanded the scope to include "those of a schoolcounselor, school psychologist, general supervisor or supervisor of a subject area, readingspecialist, coordinator of guidance, school principal, director of vocational education,teacher of handicapped children, superintendent of schools, director of instruction, deanof students, college administrator, or teacher in a demonstration school."In Search of A Better Performance Management SystemThe traditionally appraisal method of evaluation that polarize the performance of teachersbetween qualitative and quantitative indices is an annual or biennial ritual in the schoolsystem today. Unfortunately, it has become a routine. It is ineffectual because of theprevalence of teachers suboptimal performance and poor service delivery. The method is
subject to abuse by supervising officers who disregard meritocracy for the NigerianFactor variables such as nepotism, length of service and godfather syndrome to adjudgeteachers performance and promote the lucky few despite glaring gaps in output andabsence of total quality management.The major problem policy makers and administrators face aside getting teachers withrequisite quality is that of guaranteeing quality service from these teachers. Therecommendation of Afe  that "When well-qualified people are recruited intoteaching, high standards are ensured" cannot achieve this objective. The performance ofthese qualified and productive teachers will not be measured and sustained if the systemof performance management is defective.Concept of Balanced ScorecardKaplan and Norton  developed Balanced Scorecard [BSC] in 1992 at HarvardBusiness School in United States of America. The Balanced Scorecard is a strategicmanagement system that enables institutions to spell out their vision and strategy, andtransform them in actions capable of achieving its mission. It is fundamentally used todetermine organizational performance using financial and non-financial measurement infour perspectives: financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth.Kaplan & Norton  said,"We created the Balanced Scorecard because financial measurements had becomeinsufficient for contemporary organizations. Strategies for creating value had shiftedfrom managing tangible assets to knowledge-based strategies that created and deployedan organizations intangible assets, including customer relationships; innovative productsand services; high-quality and responsive operating processes; skills and knowledge ofthe workforce; the information technology that supports the workforce and links the firmto its customers and suppliers; and the organizational climate that encourages innovation,problem-solving, and improvement."The Balanced Scorecard is a performance management approach that is flexible andadaptable to fit any size institution. It aligns vision and mission with stakeholdersexpectations and the day-to-day activities of the institution, manages and evaluatesstrategy and guides operation efficiency plans. It also assists to develop organizationcapacity. The scorecard allows the institution to measure financial and customer results,operations, and organization capacity as shown in Figure 1 below:Figure 1: Balanced Scorecard Links Performance Measures [Source: Kaplan S. R. &Norton P. D.  The Balanced Scorecard - Measures that DrivePerformance, Harvard Business Review Magazine - January-February 1992 Edition,Boston, Massachusetts]Figure 2: Howard Rohms Design of Balanced Scorecard Performance System [Source:Performance Management in Action - A Balancing Act. Perform Volume 2, Issue 2]
Balanced Scorecard in EducationThe Balanced Scorecard takes into cognizance that mission is the key driver of theperformance of institutions in the public sector. In application to the education sector,therefore, the scorecard framework will change from profit making in Figure 2 to reflectits mission-driven nature stated in Figure 3. The Federal College of Education[Technical] Akoka as a not-for-profit institution has a mission to train quality teachersthat would in turn educate learners in lower levels of the education sector, and empowerentrepreneurs to establish micro businesses to boost the economy of the nation. BalancedScorecard will entrench strategies to measure the performance of teachers in the Collegeto determine their operational efficiencies in curriculum implementation and classroomteaching towards the actualizing of its mission.Figure 3: Design of Education Sector Balanced Scorecard [An adaptation from HowardRohm design of public sector balanced scorecard]There is a paradigm shift of emphasis in the focus and positions of the perspectives of thebasic design of the public sector scorecard system in Figure 3 in contrast to the genericBalanced Scorecard performance system in Figure 2 because of the emphasis on Missionin the former. Employees & Institutional Capacity in Figure 3 substitutes Learning &Growth in Figure 2 to underscore the relative significance of teachers as a leadingelement to synchronizes other components for achieving institutional mission. Again,budget in Figure 3 is preferred to financial perspective in Figure 2 because of theimportance of budget formulation and execution processes in the management ofgovernment funds.Balanced Scorecard Benefits to Education1. The Balanced Scorecard invents the concept of continuous learning in performancemanagement system of the institutions. It aligns all the staff to strategy in a singleframework and eliminates multiplicity of strategy institution-wide implementation. Itinvolves the selection of metrics for the measurement processes, selection of initiatives,cohesively mould these initiatives into a single platform for strategic deployment andSpartan allocation of resources to eliminate waste.2. It entrenches strategic planning as a way of life rather than as a convenient alternative.It helps to build a rational budgeting system in a tightly regulated economy with finitenational financial resources. It ties resource allocations to performance and replacesreliance on intuition in decision making to a systematic fact-based executive decision-making. It forecasts future outcome by generating cause-effect predictions and creatingscenarios.3. It assists to improve the institutions facilities, perception and rating of teachers in themind of the stakeholders as well as raises visibility of teachers activities in implementinggovernments reform programmes, facilities feedback and entrench a culture of publicaccountability.
4. It enables institutions to benchmark best practices in terms of teachers performanceand output of service delivery by using performance measurement data collected as abasis of comparison with global data resources.5. It alleviates the funding burden on government. Education is not only a costly venturebut also an economic venture without immediate return. Balanced Scorecard will clarifythe budgetary goals of the institution and accelerate its budgeted economic returns. AsColleges of Education gains funding autonomy, the scorecard will entrench a culture ofbudgetary prudence and fiscal discipline.Building & Implementing A Balanced ScorecardThis paper proposes a seven-step framework for the implementation of balancedscorecard for measuring teachers performance in the education sector in Nigeria.1. Select Balanced Scorecard TeamA team should be selected and charged with a responsibility to design and implement thebalance scorecard. The team will evaluate the institutions mission, core beliefs, publicexpectations, budgetary position, short- and long-term goals and outline value creationparameters for stakeholders. It should obtain resource requirements to develop andsustain the scorecard, and develop a rollout communications plan for teachers buy-in andresultant support for the changes from stakeholders. This communications plan willinvolve internal and external public information activities to educate teachers andstakeholders about the Balanced Scorecard initiative and how it works.2. Clarify Institutional Strategy & ObjectivesThe institution will design a number of overarching themes that will be crafted intospecific institutional strategies. Examples could be to Improve Teacher Education,Upgrade Quality of Teaching Materials or Create a New Venture. Certain level ofcreative thinking from the rank and file of teachers is required in order to achieve resultsat this stage. The team should collation of these themes. In the process, it should notimpose any premeditated themes on the process. This will eliminate hidden agenda fromany interest group and allow for effective selection of specific strategies for adoption.The next level is to split the chosen institutional strategy smaller components is calledobjectives. The objectives are the basic building blocks of strategy, that is thecomponents that make up complete strategies. In this instance, the strategy of a centraltheme of Improve Teacher Education or Create a New Venture could have suchobjectives as Deploy effective teaching methodology and traditional discipline, IncreasedTeacher trainers expertise, skills and abilities, Improved Technology Capacity orEffective and Effective and Efficient Corporate Governance, Improved Service Value,Reduce Reliance on Government Allocation among others.3. Design Strategic Map
The team, at this stage, will build a strategic map for the institutions overall businessstrategy. This map is the mechanism that shows how an objective [effect] is dependent onanother objective [cause], and how, taken together, they form a strategic thread fromactivities to desired end outcomes. It usually will use the cause-effect linkages [i.e. if-thelogic connections]. Thereafter, the components [objectives] of strategy are connected andplaced in appropriate scorecard perspective categories. The relationship among strategycomponents is used to identify the key performance drivers of each strategy that, takentogether, chart the path to successful outcome as will be perceived through the eyes ofcustomers and stakeholders.4. Develop Performance MeasuresThe team will develop performance measures to track both strategic and operationalprogress. At the stage, the desired outcomes and the processes that are used to producethese outcomes are clearly spelt out. Desired outcomes are measured from the perspectiveof internal and external outcomes, and processes are measured from the perspective of theprocess owners and the activities needed to meet customer requirements. Relationshipsamong the anticipated results and the process needed to get the results should be fullyunderstood before the team can assign meaningful performance measures. Specifically,the Strategic Map should be used to develop meaningful performance measures for eachobjective.5. Champion New InitiativesThe team will now identify new initiatives that are needed for implementation to ensurethat the new strategies evolved are successful in the institution. The focal point of Steps 1to 4 is that it will lead the team to evolve new initiatives. These new initiatives developedat the end of the scorecard building process are more strategic than if they are developedin the abstract.6. ImplementationThis stage involves the implementation of the new initiatives developed through thebalanced scorecard by transmitting the details of implementation milestones andresponsibilities throughout the institution to the various schools and departments, andultimately to teachers, non-academic staff and students. The corporate scorecard will betranslated into the various schools and departments scorecards that are aligned with theinstitutional strategy. The team should note that the most effective way of achieve this isto start with the objectives and measures from the institution-wide strategy map, anddevelop supporting objectives [and measures] for the various schools and department,teachers, non-academic staff and students.7. Post Implementation ReviewAt this stage, the Balanced Scorecard gains advantage over other traditional methods ofappraisal because it allows of the inbuilt mechanism of post-implementation auto-evaluation. The success of the institutional strategies adopted is reviewed to determine
whether the anticipated results have been attained. The team will need to align the overallstrategy of the institution [that is, the mission] to ensure that there is no deviation.Feedback mechanism is created to test the strategy assumptions to determine theireffectiveness. This feedback is analyzed and public expectations are factored into theanalysis for effective review.RecommendationsThe following recommendations are offered to the Federal Ministry of Education toconsider Balanced Scorecard approach for achieving better teachers performancemanagement in the education sector in Nigeria.1. Balanced Scorecard should be adopted as a performance management system forteachers and administrators in the school system. The scorecard is not expensive toimplement because it can build on existing appraisal methods and synchronize methodsinto a single platform of performance management.2. A national central working committee comprising of team of seasoned professionalsdrawn from the academia and Organized Private Sector should be set up to advance thestudy of Balance Scorecard beyond the precursory template of this paper and conductextensive research with the objective of designing a national strategic map for thedifferent levels of educational institutions in Nigeria from the Universities, Polytechnics,Colleges of Education. Competent and resourceful professionals should be appointed intothe various scorecard teams at the national and local levels.3. A phased introduction and implementation of Balanced Scorecard over a period oftwelve to twenty-four is advocated. This will allow for effective orientation anddissemination of the communications plans to carry along all stakeholders. Changemanagement will be effective to eliminate resistance and sabotage of the scorecard willbe taken care of with this strategy.4. Government should have the national will to approve the adoption of BalancedScorecard and make adequate funds and resources like technology, and literatureavailable for its successful implementation.5. There should be knowledge exchange programme through the use of resourcecommunity at the local and international level. This activity will deepen the knowledgeand competence of the local and national teams that are empowered to facilitate theintroduction and implementation of the scorecard.ReferencesAchimugu, L. , The agonies of nigerian teachers: nut - friend or foe.Kano: Baron Press Limited
Afe, J.O. (2001), Reflections on becoming a teacher and: challenges ofteacher education. University of Benin: Inaugural Lecture Series 64Aghenta, J.A. (1991) Teacher effectiveness in the nigerian educationalsystem. Edited by B.C. Emenogu, O.V.N. Okoro et al Onitsha, Orient Publishers Ltd.Berkman, Eric  How to use the balanced scorecard, CIO Magazine Issue ofMay 15, 2002. International Data Group CompanyFederal Republic of Nigeria (1998). National policy on education. Lagos,Jega, A.M. (1997): The state and education in Nigeria today, paper presented atthe "Kano Week 97, organized by the Kano State Students Association,Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, September 15.Kaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  The balanced scorecard - measures thatdrive performance, Harvard Business Review Magazine - January-February1992 Edition, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School PressKaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  The balanced scorecard: translatingstrategy into action, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School PressKaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  The strategy-focused organization: howbalanced scorecard companies thrive in the new businessenvironment, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School PressKaplan S. R. & Norton P. D.  Partnering: the new face of leadership,AMACOMOdumosu, A. I. O.  Basic principles of education and methods ofteaching. Ibadan: Olu-Akin Publishershttp://performanceappraisalebooks.info/ : Over 200 ebooks, templates, forms forperformance appraisal.