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Networking Standards And Protocols
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Networking Standards And Protocols


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  • 1. Networking
    Standards and Protocols
  • 2. Standards and Protocols
    The OSI Model
  • 3. What is the OSI Model?
  • 4. What is the OSI Model?
    OSI Stands for Open Systems Interconnection.
    The OSI model is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design.
    The Open Systems Interconnection model is a set of standard specifications that allows various computer platforms to communicate with each other openly.
    It is concerned with the interconnection between systems – the way the systems exchange information – and not with the internal functions of the particular system
  • 5. What is the OSI Model?
    It divides the network architecture into seven layers:
    Data Link
  • 6. What is the OSI Model?
    Each of these different layers has its own set of functions and only communicates with the layers directly above and below and with its opposite layer on other computers.
  • 7. Why a Layered Model?
  • 8. Why a Layered Model?
    When changes are made to one layer, the impact on the other layers is minimized.
    If the model consists of a single, all-encompassing layer, any change affects the entire model.
  • 9. Why a Layered Model?
    A layered model defines each layer separately.
    As long as the interconnections between layers remain constant, protocol designers can specialize in one area (layer) without worrying about how any new implementations affect other layers.
  • 10. Why a Layered Model?
    The layered approach reduces a very complex set of topics, activities, and actions into several smaller, interrelated groupings.
    This makes learning and understanding the actions of each layer and the model generally much easier.
  • 11. Why a Layered Model?
    The protocols, actions, and data contained in each layer of the model relate only to the purpose of that layer.
    This enables troubleshooting efforts to be pinpointed on the layer that carries out the suspected cause of the problem.
  • 12. Why a Layered Model?
    Probably the most important reason for using a layered model is that it establishes a prescribed guideline for interoperability between the various vendors developing products that perform different data communications tasks.
    Remember, though, that layered models, including the OSI model, provide only a guideline and framework, not a rigid standard that manufacturers can use when creating their products.
  • 13. The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
  • 14. Physical Layer
  • 15. Physical Layer
    The Physical layer is the lowest or first layer of the OSI Model. This layer contains the physical networking medium, such as cabling, connectors, and repeaters.
    The Physical Layer defines:
    Physical network structures
    Mechanical and electrical specifications for using the transmission medium
    Bit transmission encoding and timing rules
  • 16. Physical Layer
    The physical layer does not include a description of the medium and does not provide any sort of error correction.
    However, implementations of physical protocols are transmission-media-specific
  • 17. Physical Layer
    The following network connectivity hardware are normally associated with the OSI physical layer:
    Network interface boards (NIC, adaptors, and so on)
    Hubs, and repeaters that regenerate electrical signals
    Transmission media connectors, which provide the mechanical interface to interconnect devices to the transmission media (cables, BNC connectors, etc)
    Modems and codec's, which perform digital analogue conversions.
  • 18. Data Link Layer
  • 19. Data Link Layer
    The second layer of the OSI Model, the Data Link Layer, controls communications between the Network layer and the Physical layer.
    Its primary function is to divide data it receives from the Network layer into distinct frames that can be transmitted by the Physical layer.
  • 20. Data Link Layer
    The basic purposes of the data link layer protocol implementations are:
    Organise the physical layer’s bits into logical groups of information called frames
    Detect and correct errors
    Control data flow
    Identify computers on the network
  • 21. Network Layer
  • 22. Network Layer
    The primary function of the Network Layer, the third layer in the OSI Model has the main objective of moving data to specific network locations.
  • 23. Network Layer
    It does this by translating logical addresses into the appropriate physical address and then decides on the best route for the data to take from sender to receiver.
    This appears similar to what the data link layer accomplishes through physical decide addressing.
    However, data link layer addressing only operates on a single network
  • 24. Network Layer
    The network layer describes methods for moving information between multiple independent networks, called internetworks.
  • 25. Transport Layer
  • 26. Transport Layer
    The transport layer provides enhancements to the services of the network layer.
    Its main tasks is to ensure that data sent form one computer arrives reliably, in the correct sequence and without errors at the receiving computer.
    To ensure reliable delivery, the transport layer builds on the error control mechanism provided by the lower layer
  • 27. Transport Layer
    This layer is the last chance for error recovery. The transport layer is also responsible for flow control.
    It s here that there rate of transmission is determined, based on how fast the receiving computer can accept the data packets being sent to it.
    Data on the sending computer is broken down into packets that are the maximum size that the type of network can handle.
  • 28. Session Layer
  • 29. Session Layer
    The Session Layer is responsible for establishing and maintaining communication between two nodes on the network.
  • 30. Session Layer
    The term session refers to a connection for data exchange between two parties; it is most often used in the context of terminal and mainframe communications, in which the terminal is a device with little (if any) of its own processing or disk capacity that depends on a host to supply it with applications and data processing services.
  • 31. Session Layer
    Often, this layer also helps the upper layers identify and connect to the services that are available on the network.
    If a communication session is broken, is the session layer that determines where to restart the transmission once the session has been reconnected
  • 32. Session Layer
    This layer is also responsible for determining the terms of the communication session – it will determine which computer or node can communicate first and for how long
    It is sometimes known as the ‘traffic cop’ of the network
  • 33. Presentation Layer
  • 34. Presentation Layer
    The Presentation Layer serves as a translator between the application and the network.
    At the Presentation layer, data become formatted in a schema that the network can understand; this format varies with the type of network used.
    The Presentation Layer manages data encryption and decryption, such as the scrambling of system passwords.
  • 35. Application Layer
  • 36. Application Layer
    The top or seventh layer of the OSI Model is the Application layer.
    The Application provides interfaces to the software that enable programs to use network services.
  • 37. Application Layer
    The term “Application Layer” does not refer to a particular software application, such as Microsoft Word, running on the network.
    Instead, some of the services provided by the Application layer include file transfer, file management, and message handling for electronic mail.
  • 38. Application Layer
    Examples of common functions include:
    Protocols for providing remote file services, such as open, close, read, write, and shared access to files
    File transfer services and remote database access
    Message handling services for electronic mail applications
    Global directory services to locate resources on a network
    A uniform way of handling a variety of system monitors and devices
    Remote job execution