Art 110 wk 1 (Intro/chs 1.1,1.2,1.3)
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Art 110 wk 1 (Intro/chs 1.1,1.2,1.3) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION ART 110 INTRO TO ART  WEEK 1 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 2. INTRODUCTION What Is Art?  Art communicates ideas and emotions by visual means: it is a form of language  Art helps us see the world in new and exciting ways  Art is not made of a defined, prescribed set of media  Art has many purposes Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 3. 0.1The Journey of the Sun God Re, detail from the inner coffin of Nespawershefi, Third Intermediate Period, 990–969 BCE. Plastered and painted wood. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
  • 4. The Journey of the Sun God Re • Sun god Re in the underworld at night • Reflects importance of rivers in Egypt • Refers to Egyptian beliefs about the afterlife
  • 5. 0.2 William G. Wall, Fort Edward, from The Hudson River Portfolio, 1820. Hand-colored aquatint,14½ × 21⅜‖
  • 6. William G. Wall, Fort Edward • 1820. Hand-colored aquatint (print) from a watercolor • Painting by William G. Wall; print by John Hill – Landscape with one small human figure: a native American woman. Conveys the passing of the native American way of life as a result of the arrival of European settlers – Reflects nation-building and expansion of 19th-century America
  • 7. 0.3 Louise Nevelson, White Vertical Water, 1972. Painted wood, 18 × 9’. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • 8. Louise Nevelson, White Vertical Water • Not an immediately recognizable portrayal of its subject: river or waterfall, and fish • By making us look closely, artist evokes sensations of water falling and fish swimming
  • 9. INTRODUCTION Where Is Art?  Art is in many places:  Objects as diverse as coffins or books  Museums  Parks and public places  Our homes Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 10. 0.4 Simon Rodia, Watts Towers, 1921–54. Seventeen mortar-covered steel sculptures with mosaic, 99½’ high at tallest point. 1761–1765 East 107th Street, Los Angeles, California
  • 11. Simon Rodia, Watts Towers • Made by a construction worker, not a trained artist • Media: found materials (steel rods, pipes, wire mesh, mortar, broken glass, and pottery) • Named Nuestro Pueblo by Rodia but now called Watts Towers • Originally viewed as controversial, but now a National Historic Landmark
  • 12. 0.5 Thomas Jefferson, Virginia State Capitol Building, 1785–8, Court End District, Richmond, Virginia
  • 13. Thomas Jefferson, Virginia State Capitol Building • 1785–8 • Civic building modeled on Roman temple in Nîmes, France • Used symbolic power of ancient Rome to communicate strength of the Republic and its institutions
  • 14. INTRODUCTION Who Makes Art?  A single individual or many  Artists or artisans – craftspeople also make beautiful and useful works  Famous or anonymous  Not all artists make their art themselves  Making of art also influenced by patrons who commission it  Can be affected also by training (or lack of): artist as follower of tradition or as innovative genius Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 15. 0.6 Jeff Koons, Rabbit, 1986. Stainless steel, 41 × 19 × 12‖. Edition of 3 and artist’s proof
  • 16. Jeff Koons, Rabbit • 1986. Stainless steel • Jeff Koons had the idea – His employees made the artwork
  • 17. 0.7 Tea bowl, 16th century. Stoneware with red glaze (Karatsu ware), 3 × 19⅞‖. Indianapolis Museum of Art
  • 18. Tea bowl • “High art” or craft? • In Japan ceramic tea bowls highly valued • Appreciated for subtle variations of color and tactile sensations • Artist followed a long tradition and wellestablished methods of working and making
  • 19. 0.8 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503. Oil on wood, 30⅜ × 20⅞‖. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
  • 20. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa • Mona Lisa – Made in an era and in a culture that valued individual ingenuity – Portrait not simply a likeness: a meditation on the human soul • Leonardo da Vinci (1452– 1519) – Artist as genius: visual artist, engineer, scientist
  • 21. 0.9 Titian, Isabella d’Este, 1536. Oil on canvas, 40¼ × 25¼‖. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
  • 22. Titian, Isabella d’Este • Art may not be the result of the work of the artist alone: patrons, collectors, dealers, and critics all help determine what art is made • Isabella d’Este, Marchesa of the city of Mantua, Italy funded many artists – Her money and taste determined what art was produced – This portrait was painted when she was in her sixties but because of her influence the artist showed her flatteringly as a youthful beauty
  • 23. INTRODUCTION The Value of Art  Value can mean sale price in money  Value can mean rarity or uniqueness  Fame of the artist can influence value  Objects can have a ceremonial or spiritual value  Art can be valuable because it expresses a society’s cherished ideals and identity  Art can be valued for its beauty and power to inspire awe Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 24. 0.10 Gustav Klimt, Adele Bloch-Bauer, 1912. Oil on canvas, 6’2⅞‖ × 3’11¼‖. Private collection
  • 25. Gustav Klimt, Adele Bloch-Bauer • • • Painted by famous artist: Gustav Klimt (1862–1918) Wealthy patrons commissioned such portraits Portrait sold for $135 million in 2006 (much more than artist was ever paid in his lifetime) – Value increased because of painting’s controversial history: looted by Nazis and became subject of a lawsuit – Also by 2006 had become rarer: artist no longer alive and fewer of his works available to buy – An artist’s achievement often comes to be better appreciated after his or her lifetime, as it is studied and stands the test of time
  • 26. 0.11 Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-portrait, 1630. Oil on copper, 6⅛ × 4¾‖. Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 27. Robert Wittman What Is the Value of an Artwork? • Monetary value of art = price paid by a willing buyer to a willing seller • Stolen art is worth much less: 10% or less of free market value (it is very hard to resell) • Rembrandt, Self-portrait – Stolen from Swedish National Museum in Stockholm in 2000 – Painting was not only by great artist but also very rare: only known portrait by Rembrandt that is painted on copper – Thieves tried to resell it for $250,000 – less than one percent of its market value – in 2005; painting was thereby recovered by police
  • 28. 0.12 The Lincoln Memorial statue by Daniel Chester French, 1920. Marble, 19’ high. The Mall, Washington, D.C.
  • 29. Daniel Chester French, The Lincoln Memorial statue • Memorial dedicated 1922. Statue made of marble • Lincoln Memorial – Honors a great president – Abraham Lincoln – Symbolizes and celebrates American values and identity – Work of three artists: architect Henry Bacon, sculptor Daniel Chester French, mural painter Jules Guerin
  • 30. 0.13 Johannes Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, c. 1665. Oil on canvas, 17½ × 15⅜‖. Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands
  • 31. Tracy Chevalier Art Inspires a Novel and a Movie • Portrait titled Girl with a Pearl Earring, painted by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, c. 1665 • Vermeer portrait inspired Tracy Chevalier’s novel of the same name, which was then made into a movie in 2003 – Painting is mysterious: is the girl happy or sad? – A single, flickering moment captured in permanent oil paint on canvas – A static painting but girl never seems to remain the same
  • 32. INTRODUCTION Censorship of Art  Art can be very powerful: it can challenge or offend  Art can be censored for many reasons:  Because it is pornographic  Because it offends religious beliefs  Because viewers object to its political message  Because it expresses values that others do not share Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 33. 0.14 Marc Quinn, Self, 1991. Blood (artist’s), stainless steel, perspex, and refrigeration equipment, 81⅞ × 24¾ × 24¾‖. Private collection
  • 34. Marc Quinn, Self • Self was part of 1999 Sensation exhibition at Brooklyn Museum, which showed controversial works • Many people objected to another work on show, Chris Ofili’s The Holy Virgin Mary, for religious reasons • Mayor Giuliani demanded that work be removed but the museum refused • Giuliani attempted to evict museum from its building and withhold funding • Federal court ruled for the museum
  • 35. 0.15 Otto Dix, Kriegeskrueppel (War Cripples), 1920. Drypoint, 12¾ × 19½‖ (sheet size). MOMA, New York
  • 36. Otto Dix, Kreigeskrueppel (War Cripples) • • • Otto Dix (1891–1969) served in the army during the World War I and recorded his grim experiences of war in his art Nazi regime in 1930s Germany objected to modern art that did not promote its goals Nazis – Confiscated 21,500 works of art and destroyed many – Fired artists and museum directors from jobs – Attempted to ridicule other works, including Dix’s drawing, in the “Degenerate Art” Exhibition in 1937 • But five times more visitors went to Degenerate Art Exhibition than to a show of Nazi-approved “Great German Art” that was on at the same time
  • 37. INTRODUCTION Why Do We Study Art?  There are many ways to see and interpret a work of art  We can analyze art as visual language  What can historical or social context tell us about art?  Alternatively, can art teach us something about history and culture?  Does art reflect its creator’s opinions? Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 38. 0.16 Winslow Homer, Prisoners from the Front, 1866. Oil on canvas, 24 × 38‖. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 39. Winslow Homer, Prisoners from the Front • Visual analysis: how does the artist direct the viewer’s eye, what colors did he choose, and why? • How does the painting reflect its historical moment? • How does the painting reflect the artist’s views? • What can we learn by comparing it with other paintings of war?
  • 40. 0.17 Eugène Delacroix, The Massacre at Chios, 1824. Oil on canvas, 13’8‖ × 11’7⅜‖. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
  • 41. Eugène Delacroix, The Massacre at Chios • Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) was a French painter who worked in the Romantic style • Historical context: conflict between Greeks and Turks. The painting depicts a massacre of Greek people by Turks (the event was a reprisal for Greek destruction of Turkish mosques) • Is Delacroix’s painting objective or biased? • How does the painting reflect the opinions of its audience, who were Europeans? • How does the artist influence our own reaction to the painting?
  • 42. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Video The Master Sculptors of Benin and Ife Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 43. 0.18 Carved ivory mask-shaped hip pendant, mid-16th century. Ivory inlaid with iron and bronze, 9⅝ × 5 × 2⅜‖. British Museum, London, England
  • 44. Carved ivory mask-shaped hip pendant, Benin, Africa • Viewer’s eye directed downward to concentrate on the woman’s beauty • Made of rare materials for a wealthy king • Now displayed in a museum case but originally decoration on a king’s belt • Symbolism of Portuguese heads and mudfish carved around the top of the headdress, once we are aware of it, adds to our appreciation of the pendant
  • 45. INTRODUCTION STUDY QUESTIONS INTRODUCTION PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
  • 46. • 1. Hokusai is said to have used a live chicken’s footprints in a painting that communicated ______. • • • • • a. the artist’s views on animal rights b. the sensations of a fall day by the river c. the artist’s views on Japanese politics d. Buddhist ideas about the meaning of life e. all of the above
  • 47. • 1. Hokusai is said to have used a live chicken’s footprints in a painting that communicated ______. • • • • • a. the artist’s views on animal rights b. the sensations of a fall day by the river c. the artist’s views on Japanese politics d. Buddhist ideas about the meaning of life e. all of the above
  • 48. 2. William G. Wall’s print Fort Edward is a vehicle for expressing the artist’s thoughts about ______. • a. the expansion and development of America • b. the beauty of the American landscape • c. the struggles between Native and European Americans • d. all of the above • e. none of the above
  • 49. 2. William G. Wall’s print Fort Edward is a vehicle for expressing the artist’s thoughts about ______. • a. the expansion and development of America • b. the beauty of the American landscape • c. the struggles between Native and European Americans • d. all of the above • e. none of the above
  • 50. • 3. Western artists since the Renaissance have usually considered ______ to be the highest forms of art. • a. painting and ceramics • b. painting and calligraphy • c. sculpture and painting • d. sculpture and furniture • e. none of the above
  • 51. • 3. Western artists since the Renaissance have usually considered ______ to be the highest forms of art. • a. painting and ceramics • b. painting and calligraphy • c. sculpture and painting • d. sculpture and furniture • e. none of the above
  • 52. • 4. During his lifetime, Vincent van Gogh ______. • a. opened a museum in his native Netherlands • b. sold a single painting for millions of dollars • c. produced more than 10,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolors • d. practiced as an artist for only ten years • e. all of the above
  • 53. • 4. During his lifetime, Vincent van Gogh ______. • a. opened a museum in his native Netherlands • b. sold a single painting for millions of dollars • c. produced more than 10,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolors • d. practiced as an artist for only ten years • e. all of the above
  • 54. • 5. Traditionally, artists in China learned their craft by ______. • a. copying the work of a great master • b. attending a school or academy that taught artistic technique • c. practicing painting in the open air without a teacher • d. producing still life drawings that were sold to local people • e. traveling to Beijing and looking at art in museums and galleries
  • 55. • 5. Traditionally, artists in China learned their craft by ______. • a. copying the work of a great master • b. attending a school or academy that taught artistic technique • c. practicing painting in the open air without a teacher • d. producing still life drawings that were sold to local people • e. traveling to Beijing and looking at art in museums and galleries
  • 56. • 6. Stolen art loses much of its value because ______. • a. art is only valuable if the public can come to see it • b. the thieves are likely to damage the artwork • c. lacking good title and proper provenance prevents its resale • d. reputable auction houses will pay only 10% of the market value • e. the Mafia are not art experts and do not understand its true value
  • 57. • 6. Stolen art loses much of its value because ______. • a. art is only valuable if the public can come to see it • b. the thieves are likely to damage the artwork • c. lacking good title and proper provenance prevents its resale • d. reputable auction houses will pay only 10% of the market value • e. the Mafia are not art experts and do not understand its true value
  • 58. • 7. African masks displayed in museums were originally made ______. • a. to be worn during spiritual or magic ceremonies • b. to be worn during elaborate tea-drinking ceremonies • c. to be exchanged as gifts with people from other communities • d. to be displayed as beautiful, finely crafted museum objects • e. for sale to European travelers
  • 59. • 7. African masks displayed in museums were originally made ______. • a. to be worn during spiritual or magic ceremonies • b. to be worn during elaborate tea-drinking ceremonies • c. to be exchanged as gifts with people from other communities • d. to be displayed as beautiful, finely crafted museum objects • e. for sale to European travelers
  • 60. • 8. Art is sometimes censored by the authorities because: • a. it offends people’s religious beliefs. • b. its sexual content seems pornographic. • c. it carries a political message that worries the authorities. • d. its moral values seem improper. • e. all of the above
  • 61. • 8. Art is sometimes censored by the authorities because: • a. it offends people’s religious beliefs. • b. its sexual content seems pornographic. • c. it carries a political message that worries the authorities. • d. its moral values seem improper. • e. all of the above
  • 62. 10. The Turkish soldiers in Delacroix’s painting The Massacre at Chios are shown wearing turbans because the artist wanted ______. • a. the Turks to seem exotic and attractive • b. the Turks to seem exotic and frightening • c. to show his skill at depicting bright colors and elaborate fabrics • d. to focus our attention on the Turks rather than the Greeks • e. to represent accurately contemporary fashions
  • 63. 10. The Turkish soldiers in Delacroix’s painting The Massacre at Chios are shown wearing turbans because the artist wanted ______. • a. the Turks to seem exotic and attractive • b. the Turks to seem exotic and frightening • c. to show his skill at depicting bright colors and elaborate fabrics • d. to focus our attention on the Turks rather than the Greeks • e. to represent accurately contemporary fashions
  • 64. ART 110 LINE/SHAPE/CONTRAST
  • 65. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.1 Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 66. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 67. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 68. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 69. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 70. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 71. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 72. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 73. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 74. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 75. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Dimensional Art  Elements of art  The basic vocabulary of art  Line is a fundamental element of art  Principles of art  The “grammar” of art  A set of rules an artist uses to organize his or her design  Two-dimensional art  Is flat  Has height and width, but not depth  Includes drawing, painting, graphic design, and printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 76. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Definition and Functions of Line  Connects two points  Defines the boundaries between planes  Defines shapes  Directs the viewer’s eye  Conveys a sense of movement and energy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 77. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Definition and Functions of Line  Connects two points  Defines the boundaries between planes  Defines shapes  Directs the viewer’s eye  Conveys a sense of movement and energy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 78. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Definition and Functions of Line  Connects two points  Defines the boundaries between planes  Defines shapes  Directs the viewer’s eye  Conveys a sense of movement and energy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 79. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Definition and Functions of Line  Connects two points  Defines the boundaries between planes  Defines shapes  Directs the viewer’s eye  Conveys a sense of movement and energy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 80. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Definition and Functions of Line  Connects two points  Defines the boundaries between planes  Defines shapes  Directs the viewer’s eye  Conveys a sense of movement and energy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 81. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Definition and Functions of Line  Connects two points  Defines the boundaries between planes  Defines shapes  Directs the viewer’s eye  Conveys a sense of movement and energy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 82. Spider, Nazca, Peru • Known as the Nazca Lines • Located on the high desert plains of Peru • Enormous scale – Spider is 150 feet long – Can only be seen from the sky (discovered by aircraft) • Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing the white gypsum that lies just beneath the surface • Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines
  • 83. Spider, Nazca, Peru • Known as the Nazca Lines • Located on the high desert plains of Peru • Enormous scale – Spider is 150 feet long – Can only be seen from the sky (discovered by aircraft) • Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing the white gypsum that lies just beneath the surface • Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines
  • 84. Spider, Nazca, Peru • Known as the Nazca Lines • Located on the high desert plains of Peru • Enormous scale – Spider is 150 feet long – Can only be seen from the sky (discovered by aircraft) • Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing the white gypsum that lies just beneath the surface • Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines
  • 85. Spider, Nazca, Peru • Known as the Nazca Lines • Located on the high desert plains of Peru • Enormous scale – Spider is 150 feet long – Can only be seen from the sky (discovered by aircraft) • Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing the white gypsum that lies just beneath the surface • Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines
  • 86. Spider, Nazca, Peru • Known as the Nazca Lines • Located on the high desert plains of Peru • Enormous scale – Spider is 150 feet long – Can only be seen from the sky (discovered by aircraft) • Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing the white gypsum that lies just beneath the surface • Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines
  • 87. Spider, Nazca, Peru • Known as the Nazca Lines • Located on the high desert plains of Peru • Enormous scale – Spider is 150 feet long – Can only be seen from the sky (discovered by aircraft) • Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing the white gypsum that lies just beneath the surface • Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines
  • 88. Ducal Palace and Piazzetta, Venice, Italy • This photograph shows the Ducal Palace in Venice • It shows the division between the top of the building and the blue sky • But there is no line to indicate the division between the two • (just the implied line created by the tips of the triangles at the top of the building)
  • 89. Ducal Palace and Piazzetta, Venice, Italy • This photograph shows the Ducal Palace in Venice • It shows the division between the top of the building and the blue sky • But there is no line to indicate the division between the two • (just the implied line created by the tips of the triangles at the top of the building)
  • 90. 1.2b Canaletto, The Maundy Thursday Festival before the Ducal Palace in Venice, 1763/6. Pen and brown ink with gray wash, heightened with white gouache, 15⅛ x 21¾‖. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  • 91. Canaletto, The Maundy Thursday Festival before the Ducal Palace in Venice • The artist uses line to show where the building meets the sky • Line also gives a feeling of depth and texture to the work • The artist indicates information that would not otherwise be apparent by using line (for example, accentuating the pattern on the facade)
  • 92. 1.3 CLAMP, page from the Tsubasa RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE, volume 21, page 47
  • 93. CLAMP, page from the Tsubasa RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE • Line can communicate direction and movement • Directional lines converge in the upper section of the image • Then our attention is directed to the figure at the left who is being blasted by an explosion • The strong diagonal lines add an intense feeling of movement – CLAMP is a mangaka (group of Manga artists)
  • 94. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Lines to Regulate and Control  The variety of different types of line is virtually infinite  Whether straight or curved, a line can be regular and carefully measured  Regular lines express control and planning  Regulated line communicates objectivity and accuracy Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 95. 1.4 Mel Bochner, Vertigo, 1982. Charcoal, Conté crayon, and pastel on canvas, 9’ x 6’2‖. AlbrightKnox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York
  • 96. Mel Bochner, Vertigo • Mel Bochner used ruled line in his work Vertigo from 1982 • The lines, created with a straightedge, imply mechanical planning • Bochner contradicts the sense of control by applying the regular lines in a hectic crossing pattern that creates a contrasting feeling of disarray • Like a machine gone out of whack
  • 97. 1.5 Barbara Hepworth, Drawing for Sculpture (with color), 1941. Pencil and gouache on paper mounted on board, 14 x 16‖. Private collection
  • 98. Barbara Hepworth, Drawing for Sculpture • Hepworth used regular line to plan sculptures • Lines represent feelings and sensations in her work – “I rarely draw what I see. I draw what I feel in my body.” • The artist projects four views of the planned work • Hepworth has revealed the kind of lines that she feels, rather than sees • The drawing is a translation of feelings into visual form • The feelings are then translated into a sculpture
  • 99. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Lines to Express Freedom and Passion  Lines can be irregular, reflecting the wildness of nature, chaos, and accident  Such lines—free and unrestrained—seem passionate and full of feelings that are otherwise hard to express Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 100. 1.6 André Masson, Automatic Drawing, 1925–6. Ink on paper, 12 x 9½‖. Musée National d’Art Moderne. Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
  • 101. André Masson, Automatic Drawing • These lines reflect Masson’s drawing and thinking process • He wanted to express the subconscious • Masson would go for days without food or sleep • He believed that this would allow him to explore deep-rooted sources of creativity and truth • The drawings are free, spontaneous expressions
  • 102. 1.7 Jean Dubuffet, Suite avec 7 Personnages, 1981. Ink on paper, 13¾ x 16⅞‖. Private collection
  • 103. Jean Dubuffet, Suite avec 7 Personnages • Uses an uninhibited style • Lines are irregular and loose • In spite of its chaotic appearance, the work is orderly
  • 104. Regular and Irregular Lines • Most works use both regular and irregular lines
  • 105. 1.8 George Bellows, Woodstock Road, Woodstock, New York, 1924. Black crayon on wove paper, image 6⅛ x 8⅞‖, sheet 9¼ x 12⅜‖. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  • 106. George Bellows, Woodstock Road • Combines irregular lines of sky with regular lines of architecture • This work appears to be a preliminary sketch for another work • Center bottom inscription: – “all lights as high as possible / get color out of shadows.” – Probably written as a reminder of details to come
  • 107. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Implied Line  Line can be implied by a series of marks  Implied line gives us the impression we are seeing a line where there is no continuous mark  No actual solid line is present; just the idea of a line is created Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 108. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.9 Actual and Implied Lines Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 109. Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and the Five Scrolls • Implied lines are created with small passages of text • Detail of work shows the lines of text • The added text is more than decoration – Tiny text is a masorah – Provides pronunciation and intonation guidance
  • 110. 1.10 Franco-German hand, Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and the Five Scrolls, 13th–14th century. Illustrated manuscript. British Library, London, England
  • 111. 1.11 Detail of Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and the Five Scrolls
  • 112. Sauerkids, The Devil Made Me Do It • Implied line influences visual rhythms in this design • Dashes and grid imply horizontal and vertical lines • Title of work is spelled out using implied lines – Sauerkids is the name used by a pair of Dutch designers – Their names are Mark Moget and Taco Sipma
  • 113. 1.12 Sauerkids, The Devil Made Me Do It, 2006. Digital image, 16½ x 8¼‖
  • 114. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Directional Line  Artists can use line to direct a viewer’s attention to a particular part of a work Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 115. Goya, The Third of May, 1808 Using Line to Guide the Viewer’s Eye • Directional lines can be either actual or implied • Goya uses implied line to direct the viewer’s gaze • Directional line is used in these instances: – (A) Actual line directs the viewer from left to right where sky meets the lighted hillside – (B) An implied line created by the feet of the soldiers leads right to left – (C) A shadow at the bottom continues the same direction – (D) and (E) Direct the viewer upward toward (A) • The strong horizontal of the rifles draws attention to victims
  • 116. • 1.13 slide 1: Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 8’4⅜‖ x 11’3⅞‖. • Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, Spain
  • 117. 1.13 slide 2: Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 8’4⅜‖ x 11’3⅞‖. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, Spain
  • 118. 1.14 James Allen, The Connectors, 1934. Etching, 12⅞ x 9⅞‖. British Museum, London, England
  • 119. James Allen, The Connectors • The viewer’s attention is directed downward as the lines of the girders get closer toward the bottom of the image • This accentuates the great height – This is a depiction of construction workers – Shows the Empire State Building being built – Tallest building in the world when completed – Background buildings add to feeling of great height
  • 120. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Contour Line  A contour is the outer edge or profile of an object  Contour lines can suggest a volume in space by giving us clues about the changing character of a surface Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 121. 1.15 Egon Schiele, Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, Standing, with Hands on Hips, 1915. Black crayon on paper, 18 x 11¼‖. Private collection
  • 122. Egon Schiele, Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, Standing, with Hands on Hips • The work is drawn almost entirely using contour lines • Fingers and shirtsleeves are drawn with great economy • Lines of hair vary in thickness and regularity • Lines suggest an organic surface • Machine-like pattern of clothing, contrasting with the other lines, helps to reinforce expression of organic surface
  • 123. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Communicative Line  The directions of lines both guide our attention and suggest particular feelings  Vertical lines tend to communicate strength and energy  Horizontal lines can suggest calmness and passivity  Diagonal lines are associated with action, motion, and change Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 124. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.16 Communicative qualities of line Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 125. 1.17 Carolyn Davidson, Nike Company logo, 1971
  • 126. Carolyn Davidson, Nike Company logo • Diagonals can express the excitement of athletic activity • Conveys action with a shape comprising a stylized, diagonal line
  • 127. 1.18 Vincent van Gogh, The Bedroom, 1889. Oil on canvas, 28¾ x 36¼‖. Art Institute of Chicago
  • 128. Vincent van Gogh, The Bedroom • Line gives an unsettling energy to this painting of a bedroom – Lines that make up the floor are strong verticals • Suggests that Van Gogh’s bedroom was not a calm place of rest • Floor also changes in color and value, adding anxiety • Strong verticals combine with diagonals to add to uneasiness • Van Gogh committed suicide in 1890 (the following year) • He died in this bed
  • 129. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Shape: Geometric and Organic Shapes  A shape is a two-dimensional area the boundaries of which are defined by lines or suggested by changes in color or value  Shapes can be classified into two types: geometric and organic   Organic shapes are made up of unpredictable, irregular lines that suggest the natural world A geometric shape is mathematically regular and precise 1.19 Geometric and Organic Shapes Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 130. 1.20 Miriam Schapiro, Baby Blocks, 1983. Collage on paper, 29⅞ x 30‖. University of South Florida Collection, Tampa
  • 131. Miriam Schapiro, Baby Blocks • • • • Named for a popular quilting pattern The organic shapes of the flowers are clearly distinct from the hard geometric shapes of the “blocks” and the red frame The floral shapes have an irregularity that reflects the kind of shape we find in living things The geometric regularity of the blocks acts as a foil to the organic shapes casually arranged “on” them – Shapiro calls these works “femmages” (homages to the work of women – This work is a collage, or a work assembled by gluing pieces
  • 132. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Implied Shape  Implied shapes are shapes we can see where no continuous boundary exists  Just as line can be implied, so too can shape 1.21 Implied shapes Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 133. 1.22 Saul Bass, Bass & Yager, AT&T logo, 1984
  • 134. Saul Bass, Bass & Yager, AT&T logo • Uses horizontal lines to imply a sphere or globe • Twelve horizontal lines are trimmed to form a circle • The image is simple, creating an appropriately meaningful and readily recognizable symbol for a global company – The AT&T logo was created in the 1980s by American graphic designer Saul Bass
  • 135. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Contrast  When an artist uses two noticeably different states of an element, he or she is applying the principle of contrast  Strong differences in the state of an element can be a very useful effect for an artist to use  It is especially effective to use opposites Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 136. 1.23a Shepard Fairey, Obey, 1996. Campaign poster
  • 137. 1.23b Shepard Fairey, Obey, 1996. View of the posters as they were installed in public
  • 138. Shepard Fairey, Obey • Black features and the blank white space contrast with and complement each other • The contrast between positive and negative shapes draws our attention – Fairey wants strong impact because he needs to catch his audience’s attention quickly as they pass by – The image is based on Andre the Giant, a professional wrestler (Fessick in The Princess Bride) – Fairey posted these images in public spaces as an act of street theater and guerrilla marketing
  • 139. 1.24 Georgia O’Keeffe, Music—Pink and Blue II, 1919. Oil on canvas, 35 x 29⅛‖. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
  • 140. Georgia O’Keeffe, Music—Pink and Blue II • Shapes derive from a close observation of organic objects • Emphasis on the negative blue shape in the bottom right of the picture • Positive shape of the pink arc above – O’Keeffe’s paintings use landscape and flower shapes to make associations with the female body – The interplay of positive and negative space becomes symbolic of the erotic and life-giving nature of womanhood
  • 141. 1.25 Al Grivetti, Big Ten logo, 1991
  • 142. Al Grivetti, Big Ten logo • Graphic designers use negative shape to convey information subtly • The alternation of positive and negative shape communicates the new and old titles of the conference in a single image – Al Grivetti ingeniously inserted the number “11” in the negative space on either side of the capital “T”
  • 143. 1.26 M. C. Escher, Sky and Water I, 1938. Woodcut, 17⅛ x 17⅜‖. The M. C. Escher Company, Netherlands
  • 144. M. C. Escher, Sky and Water I • The negative shape changes from white in the upper part of the picture to black in the lower • The most refined version of each animal occurs at the top and bottom extremes of the image • Each refined version becomes more vague until it transforms into the negative ground of the other • This is a figure–ground reversal
  • 145. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Conclusion  Artists use line, shape, and contrast to communicate in two dimensions  Within two dimensions we can communicate nearly every interaction in mankind’s history of understanding Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 146. 1.27 Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212–50. Silk and gilt thread tapestry, 10’10‖ x 7’2⅝‖. Monasterio de las Huelgas, Museo de Telas Medievales, Burgos, Spain
  • 147. Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa • • • • • • The banner is composed of a central medallion surrounded by several concentric shapes The free-flowing and vigorous letterforms create strong horizontal implied lines Uses contrasting positive and negative shape as a series of patterned organic shapes Multitude of simple shapes combines to create a masterpiece of complexity Made during the time when Spain was under Islamic rule It is supposed to have been captured in battle from the Muslim occupying forces
  • 148. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.The dark printed words on the page of a book are easily read because they are printed on a light ground. This is an example of the principle of ________. a. harmony b. variety c. contrast d. proportion e. emphasis PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
  • 149. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.The dark printed words on the page of a book are easily read because they are printed on a light ground. This is an example of the principle of ________. a. harmony b. variety c. contrast d. proportion e. emphasis PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
  • 150. 1. These 1300-year-old South American drawings, which include an enormous image of a spider, were first discovered by overflying commercial aircraft because they are so huge.      a. Nazca Lines b. Pampas Incisions c. Amazon Sketches d. Rio Etchings e. Andean Carvings
  • 151. 1. These 1300-year-old South American drawings, which include an enormous image of a spider, were first discovered by overflying commercial aircraft because they are so huge.      a. Nazca Lines b. Pampas Incisions c. Amazon Sketches d. Rio Etchings e. Andean Carvings
  • 152. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS  2. Line can be used as a tool to __________ .  a. demarcate boundaries  b. imply direction  c. give a sense of surface  d. indicate movement  e. all of the above answers Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 153. Chapter 1.1Art in Two Dimensions: Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS  2. Line can be used as a tool to __________ .  a. demarcate boundaries  b. imply direction  c. give a sense of surface  d. indicate movement  e. all of the above answers Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 154. 3. Barbara Hepworth uses line to plan and visualize her threedimensional artwork. What kind of three-dimensional artwork does she produce? • • • • • a. sculpture b. fibers c. ceramics d. performance e. video
  • 155. 3. Barbara Hepworth uses line to plan and visualize her threedimensional artwork. What kind of three-dimensional artwork does she produce? • • • • • a. sculpture b. fibers c. ceramics d. performance e. video
  • 156. 4. This artist would sometimes go for days without food or sleep in an attempt to explore the deep-rooted sources of creativity and truth. • • • • • a. George Bellows b. Canaletto c. Andre Masson d. CLAMP e. Sauerkids
  • 157. 4. This artist would sometimes go for days without food or sleep in an attempt to explore the deep-rooted sources of creativity and truth. • • • • • a. George Bellows b. Canaletto c. Andre Masson d. CLAMP e. Sauerkids
  • 158. 5. Dashes and grids in The Devil Made Me Do It, by Sauerkids, are a good example of this kind of line. • • • • • a. Directional b. Implied c. Actual d. Rhythmic e. Organic
  • 159. 5. Dashes and grids in The Devil Made Me Do It, by Sauerkids, are a good example of this kind of line. • • • • • a. Directional b. Implied c. Actual d. Rhythmic e. Organic
  • 160. 6. In the work The Connectors, the artist James Allen uses this kind of line to draw the viewer’s attention to the great height that faced the builders of the Empire State Building. • • • • • a. Directional b. Organic c. Implied d. Unfettered e. Irregular
  • 161. 6. In the work The Connectors, the artist James Allen uses this kind of line to draw the viewer’s attention to the great height that faced the builders of the Empire State Building. • • • • • a. Directional b. Organic c. Implied d. Unfettered e. Irregular
  • 162. 7. Vertical lines tend to communicate __________ . • • • • • a. calmness b. passivity c. action d. strength e. change
  • 163. 7. Vertical lines tend to communicate __________ . • • • • • a. calmness b. passivity c. action d. strength e. change
  • 164. 8. This kind of shape is mathematically regular and precise. • • • • • a. Geometric b. Organic c. Implied d. Negative e. Positive
  • 165. 8. This kind of shape is mathematically regular and precise. • • • • • a. Geometric b. Organic c. Implied d. Negative e. Positive
  • 166. 9. This artist used contrasting positive and negative shapes to create his "Obey" campaign, an expression of guerrilla marketing and street theater. • • • • • a. Canaletto b. James Allen c. CLAMP d. Barbara Hepworth e. ShepardFairey
  • 167. 9. This artist used contrasting positive and negative shapes to create his "Obey" campaign, an expression of guerrilla marketing and street theater. • • • • • a. Canaletto b. James Allen c. CLAMP d. Barbara Hepworth e. ShepardFairey
  • 168. 10. Using negative shape, the graphic designer Al Grivetti inserted this number into the Big Ten logo to express the league’s expansion. • • • • • a. 12 b. 10 c. 11 d. 22 e. 42
  • 169. 10. Using negative shape, the graphic designer Al Grivetti inserted this number into the Big Ten logo to express the league’s expansion. • • • • • a. 12 b. 10 c. 11 d. 22 e. 42
  • 170. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.2 Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture Copyright © 2011 Thames& Hudson
  • 171. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Three Dimensional Art  Three-dimensional works  Have height, width, and depth  Pyramids are an example  Possess four of the visual elements: form, volume, mass, and texture 1.28 Three dimensions: height, width, and depth Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 172. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Form  Shapes are flat; forms are three-dimensional  Scale refers to the size of an object  Forms have two fundamental attributes: volume and mass  Volume is the amount of space a form occupies  Mass is the expression of solidity  Texture is the sensation of touching  Artists sometimes evoke our memory of touch  Materials can communicate ideas Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 173. 1.29 Great Sphinx of Giza, c. 2650 BCE, Giza, Egypt
  • 174. Great Sphinx of Giza • Largest carving in the world from a single stone – Artists sculpted the living rock – Symbol of the power to change our surroundings • Name derived from Greek, not Egyptian, mythology
  • 175. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Geometric Form  Regular forms, readily expressible in words or numbers  Cubes, spheres, cylinders, cones, and pyramids are simple examples Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 176. 1.30 Great Pyramid of Khufu, c. 2560 BCE, Giza, Egypt
  • 177. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateway to Art: Great Pyramid of Khufu The Importance of Geometric Form  Regulated and controlled geometric form  Stands as a monument to the engineering and construction skills of the ancient Egyptians  Base of Khufu’s pyramid is level to within less than an inch  Greatest difference in the length of the sides is 1¾”  Originally encased in fine white limestone  Egyptian art and architecture exhibit carefully ordered and controlled characteristics  Work of these artists was governed by a canon, or set of rules Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 178. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateway to Art: Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 179. 1.31 David Smith, Cubi XIX, 1964. Stainless steel, 113¼ x 21⅝ x 20⅝‖
  • 180. David Smith, Cubi XIX • Uses cubes, cuboids, and a thick disk • Combines geometric forms in angular relationships • Diagonal angles imply movement – Smith learned welding in an automobile factory and became expert while fabricating tanks of thick armor plate during World War II
  • 181. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Organic Form  Organic forms are derived from living things  Irregular and unpredictable  Can be used for expressive effect Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 182. 1.32Vesperbild (Pietà), Middle Rhine region, c. 1330. Wood, 34½‖ high. Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, Germany
  • 183. Vesperbild (Pietà) • The human body is an organic form • Artists can use irregular awkward forms for expressive effect • Artist distorted the bodies of Mary and Jesus to communicate pain and suffering • Twisting and distorting Mary’s face expresses sorrow
  • 184. 1.33 Lino Tagliapietra, Batman, 1998. Glass, 11½ x 15½ x 3½‖
  • 185. Lino Tagliapietra, Batman • Artist uses a form that is lively and organic • The natural energy of light is captured in the glowing transparency of the glass • The artist says of this work: – “I imaged pieces that allow the viewer to see both the reality and fantasy of Batman’s world.”
  • 186. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Form in Relief and in the Round  A relief is a work in which forms project from a flat surface  It is designed to be viewed from one side only  A form in the round can be seen from all sides Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 187. 1.34 Imperial Procession, from the Ara Pacis Augustae, 13 BCE. Marble altar. Museo dell’Ara Pacis, Rome, Italy
  • 188. • • • Imperial Procession, from the Ara Pacis Augustae A relief can be mounted on a wall or other surface A sculptor can create the illusion of a three-dimensional space, with dramatic results The unknown artist uses the depth of the carvings to suggest that some areas of the composition are farther away from us than others – The figures in the foreground are deeply carved (in high relief) – The figures behind those in the foreground are also carved in relief, but not quite so deeply – The artist suggests even greater depth by using a third group of figures who are carved in shallow relief
  • 189. 1.35 Stela with supernatural scene, Mexico or Guatemala, 761 CE. Limestone, 92 x 42 x 3‖. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
  • 190. Stela with supernatural scene • Done in bas-relief (low relief) • Stela: upright stone slab decorated with inscriptions or pictorial relief carvings • All elements of the composition are of equal depth
  • 191. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Volume  Volume is the amount of space occupied by an object  Architectural forms usually enclose a volume of interior space to be used for living or working 1.36 Volume and mass Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 192. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Open Volume  When artists enclose a space with materials that are not completely solid, they create an open volume Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 193. 1.37a Ralph Helmick and Stuart Schechter, Ghostwriter, 1994. Cast metal/stainless cable, 36 x 8 x 10’. Evanston Public Library, Illinois
  • 194. 1.37b Detail of Ghostwriter
  • 195. Ralph Helmick and Stuart Schechter, Ghostwriter • An open volume that, when looked at as a whole, creates the image of a large human head • Made of carefully suspended pieces of metal • In the stairwell where the piece hangs, the empty space and the “head” are not distinct or separate, but the shape is nonetheless implied
  • 196. 1.38 Vladimir Tatlin, Model for Monument to the Third International, 1919
  • 197. Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International Intended to be a huge tower • • To commemorate the triumph of Russia’s Bolshevik Revolution • Never built, but it would have been much higher than the Eiffel Tower in Paris • Spiraling open volume of the interior • Designed to be made from steel and glass • Tatlin believed that art should support and reflect the new social and political order
  • 198. 1.39 Carol Mickett and Robert Stackhouse, In the Blue (Crest), 2008. Painted cypress, 24 x 108 x 11’. Installation at St. Petersburg Art Center, Florida
  • 199. • Carol Mickett and Robert Stackhouse, In the Blue (Crest) Open volume can make a work feel light • Creating negative space (the openings between the wooden slats) makes the work seem to float • Many subtle changes in direction • The artists hope that viewers will experience a feeling of being surrounded by water as they walk through the passage
  • 200. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Mass  Mass suggests that something is solid and occupies space  Our perception of mass is derived from our imagination, our previous experience with smaller objects, and our understanding of the forces of nature  Mass can suggest weight in a three-dimensional object  Mass does not necessarily imply heaviness, only that a volume is solid and occupies space Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 201. 1.40 Colossal Head, Olmec, 1500–1300 BCE. Basalt. Museo de Antropología, Veracruz, Mexico
  • 202. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateway to Art: Colossal Olmec Heads Mass and Power  The monumental quality of some artworks is directly related to their mass  The sheer size of the work was almost certainly intended to impress and overwhelm  At La Venta, Mexico, three heads were positioned in a “processional arrangement”  The massive scale of this head makes an imposing statement  Size suggests the power of a mighty ruler or an important ancestor Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 203. 1.41 Rachel Whiteread, House, 1993. Concrete. Bow, London, England (demolished 1994)
  • 204. Rachel Whiteread, House • Suggests great weight and solidity • Filled the interior space of a house with tons of concrete • This building’s interior was transformed into a lasting memorial of the lives of the people who used to live in it • Associations with life and death, memory, and change
  • 205. 1.42 Marisol (Escobar), Father Damien, 1969. Bronze, State Capitol Building, Honolulu, Hawaii
  • 206. Marisol (Escobar), Father Damien • Father Damien was a Catholic missionary who supervised a leper colony on the Hawaiian island of Molokai during the nineteenth century • Steadfast compassion is suggested by the foursquare mass of Marisol’s work • The stout form communicates stability and determination • Father Damien died of leprosy while serving its victims
  • 207. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Texture  Texture is the tactile sensation we experience when we physically encounter a three-dimensional form  When we think of texture, we mostly rely on the impressions we receive from our hands  When we look at a surface we can imagine how its texture feels Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 208. 1.43 Nam June Paik, TV Buddha, 1974. Closed-circuit video installation with bronze sculpture, monitor, and video camera, dimensions vary with installation. Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • 209. Nam June Paik, TV Buddha • Viewers experience actual texture when they see and touch the work • The artist successfully draws on our past tactile experiences to give us a fuller experience of the artwork • The low-tech sense of touch contrasts with the high-tech process of capturing a visual image • A camera installed in the work shoots video of the actual texture and translates it into an image that can be experienced only from our tactile memory
  • 210. 1.44 Méret Oppenheim, Object, 1936. Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon, 2⅞‖ high. MOMA, New York
  • 211. Méret Oppenheim, Object • A subversive texture contradicts our previous tactile experience • Artists and designers use the contradictions and contrasts of subversive texture to invite viewers to reconsider their preconceptions about the world around them • Méret Oppenheim (1913–85) used texture to contradict the conscious logical experiences of viewers • The artist counts on our tactile memory to conflict with the actual experience
  • 212. 1.45 Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, 1997, Bilbao, Spain
  • 213. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao • Bilbao was once a center for ship-building, and the undulating surfaces of Gehry’s creation suggest ships and ship construction • Uses contrasts in geometric and organic form • Gehry used computer programs originally invented for aerospace design • Irregular, curving organic forms that rise and fall unpredictably • Employs both sculptural relief and in-the-round forms • Covered with titanium tiles
  • 214. 1.46 Louise Bourgeois, Maman, 1999 (cast 2001). Bronze, stainless steel, and marble, 29’4⅜‖ x 32’9⅛ x 38’1‖. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain
  • 215. Louise Bourgeois, Maman • Means “Momma” in French • The sculpture stands beside the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao. The museum’s apparently solid mass is contrasted with the spindly form and open volume of Maman • The subtle variations of angle in the legs imply movement • Even though this spider is made of bronze, the effect is one of lightness • Bourgeois wants to suggest both the tenderness and the fierce protectiveness of motherhood
  • 216. Chapter 1.2Three Dimensional Art: Form, Volume, Mass, and Texture PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Conclusion  Three-dimensional art is expressed in height, width, and depth  Forms can be geometric or organic  Volume is the amount of space occupied by the form  Mass is the impression that the volume is solid and occupies space  The surface of the form can be described in terms of its texture  Artists can use the language of three-dimensional art to express many ideas and emotions Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 217. 1. Which of these is a form?      a. Triangle b. Circle c. Pyramid d. Square e. Rectangle
  • 218. 1. Which of these is a form?      a. Triangle b. Circle c. Pyramid d. Square e. Rectangle
  • 219. 2. This famous object is the largest carving in the world created from a single stone.      a. The Sphinx b. Pyramid of Khufu c. Vesperbild d. AraPacis e. Colossal Head
  • 220. 2. This famous object is the largest carving in the world created from a single stone.      a. The Sphinx b. Pyramid of Khufu c. Vesperbild d. AraPacis e. Colossal Head
  • 221. 3. Which of these is not a geometric form?      a. Leaf b. Sphere c. Cube d. Pyramid e. Cylinder
  • 222. 3. Which of these is not a geometric form?      a. Leaf b. Sphere c. Cube d. Pyramid e. Cylinder
  • 223. 4. The human figure communicates the rich experience of humanity, and artists emulate this experience using this kind of form:      a. geometric. b. subversive. c. regular. d. static. e. organic.
  • 224. 4. The human figure communicates the rich experience of humanity, and artists emulate this experience using this kind of form:      a. geometric. b. subversive. c. regular. d. static. e. organic.
  • 225. 5. There are two kinds of relief sculpture, a pronounced surface treatment called high relief and a shallow surface low relief called:      a. facade relief. b. bas relief. c. intaglio relief. d. stela relief. e. planar relief.
  • 226. 5. There are two kinds of relief sculpture, a pronounced surface treatment called high relief and a shallow surface low relief called:      a. facade relief. b. bas relief. c. intaglio relief. d. stela relief. e. planar relief.
  • 227. 6. This element of art is used to describe the usable interior space of an architectural form.      a. Volume b. Mass c. Texture d. Shape e. Color
  • 228. 6. This element of art is used to describe the usable interior space of an architectural form.      a. Volume b. Mass c. Texture d. Shape e. Color
  • 229. 7. This element of art is used to describe the solidity of a form, such as that of the Colossal Olmec Heads.      a. Volume b. Texture c. Shape d. Mass e. Color
  • 230. 7. This element of art is used to describe the solidity of a form, such as that of the Colossal Olmec Heads.      a. Volume b. Texture c. Shape d. Mass e. Color
  • 231.      8. A slick cold surface of a finely finished metal object, the rough-hewn splintery character of a broken branch, and the pebbly surface of a rocky beach are all examples of this element of art: a. mass. b. texture. c. volume. d. shape. e. color.
  • 232.      8. A slick cold surface of a finely finished metal object, the rough-hewn splintery character of a broken branch, and the pebbly surface of a rocky beach are all examples of this element of art: a. mass. b. texture. c. volume. d. shape. e. color.
  • 233. 9. Artists use this kind of texture if they want to contradict a viewer’s normal expectations of a textured surface.      a. Organic b. Geometric c. Implied d. Actual e. Subversive
  • 234. 9. Artists use this kind of texture if they want to contradict a viewer’s normal expectations of a textured surface.      a. Organic b. Geometric c. Implied d. Actual e. Subversive
  • 235. 10. Frank Gehry’s design for the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, uses contrasts of:  a. subversive and implied texture.  b. soft and hard texture.  c. natural and manmade materials.  d. organic and geometric form.  e. large and small shapes.
  • 236. 10. Frank Gehry’s design for the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, uses contrasts of:  a. subversive and implied texture.  b. soft and hard texture.  c. natural and manmade materials.  d. organic and geometric form.  e. large and small shapes.
  • 237. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.3 Implied Depth: Value and Space Copyright © 2011 Thames& Hudson
  • 238. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Introduction  When artists create an image in two dimensions, they are creating an illusion  Techniques artists use to imply depth—value, space, and perspective  Value—the lightness or darkness of a surface  Space—the distance between identifiable points or planes  Perspective—the creation of the illusion of depth in a two-dimensional image by using mathematical principles Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 239. 1.47 René Magritte, The Treachery of Images (“This is not a pipe”), 1929. Oil on canvas, 23¾ x 32‖. LACMA
  • 240. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS René Magritte, The Treachery of Images (“This is not a pipe”)  Uses value and perspective to imply depth    Painted in varying values The top of the pipe bowl is composed of two concentric ellipses Magritte understands our habits of visual perception  Magritte wants us to recognize that what appears to be a pipe is not really a pipe  Nothing more than paint on a flat surface Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 241. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Value  An artist’s use of value can produce a sense of solidity and influence our mood   Film noir, French for “dark film” The serious mood of these mysteries was enhanced by the filmmaker’s choice of dark values  Artists use dark and light values as tools for creating depth Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 242. 1.48 Buckminster Fuller, Geodesic Dome (Art Dome), 1963–79, Reed College, Portland, Oregon
  • 243. Buckminster Fuller, Geodesic Dome (Art Dome) • Demonstrates the effect of light on planes in varying locations – Many triangular flat planes make up this surface – Each of these planes has a different relative degree of lightness or darkness – Value changes occur gradually – The relative dark values increase as the planes get further away and face away from the light – There is a value range of black, white, and eight values of gray • Formerly used as a sculpture studio at Reed College in Portland, Oregon
  • 244. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.49 Values and planes of a geodesic sphere, vector graphic Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 245. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chiaroscuro  Italian for “light dark”  A method of applying value to a two-dimensional piece of artwork to create the illusion of three dimensions  Renaissance artists identified five distinct areas of light and shadow  Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 246. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.50 Diagram of chiaroscuro Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 247. 1.51 slide 1: Pierre Paul Prud’hon, Study for La Source, c. 1801. Black and white chalk on blue paper, 21¾ x 15¼‖. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts
  • 248. 1.51 slide 2: Chiaroscuro graphic with Pierre Paul Prud’hon, Study for La Source, c. 1801. Black and white chalk on blue paper, 21¾ x 15¼‖. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts
  • 249. Pierre Paul Prud’hon, Study for La Source • Uses chiaroscuro in the drawing of a female figure – There is an area of highlight on the knee, leading into the lighted thigh – Under the knee and thigh there is a strong core shadow – Reflected light can be seen on the calf and the underside of the thigh – The reflected light is accented by the dark cast shadow behind the calf • Use of black and white chalk on a gray paper allows the artist to accentuate the lightest and darkest areas
  • 250. 1.52 Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1599–1600. Oil on canvas, 11’1‖ x 11’5‖. Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesci, Rome, Italy
  • 251. Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew • Dramatic effects can be achieved through the use of chiaroscuro • Uses strongly contrasting values to convert a quiet gathering into a pivotal and powerful event – The intense difference between lights and darks places extra emphasis on Christ’s hand – The light also frames Matthew
  • 252. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Hatching and Cross-Hatching  Hatching consists of a series of lines, close to and parallel to each other  Cross-hatching (a variant of hatching in which the lines overlap) is used to suggest values that create a greater sense of form and depth Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 253. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.53 Creating value using hatching and cross-hatching Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 254. 1.54 Michelangelo, Head of a Satyr, c. 1520–30. Pen and ink on paper, 10⅝ x 7⅞‖. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
  • 255. Michelangelo, Head of a Satyr • Cross-hatched pen-and-ink drawing • By building up layers of brown ink, Michelangelo overcomes the restrictions created by the thin line of the pen • The bright white highlight uses no lines; the surrounding hatch lines define the transition from bright light to a darker value • As the hatching lines cross over and over, the value appears to get darker
  • 256. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Space  The strategies whereby an artist creates a sense of depth and the illusion of space include:  Size  Overlapping  Position  Alternating value and texture  Changing brightness and color  Atmospheric perspective Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 257. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Size, Overlapping, and Position  The size of one shape compared to another often suggests that the larger object is closer to us  If one shape overlaps another, the shape in front seems to be closer  A shape lower in the picture plane appears to be closer Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 258. 1.55 Katsushika Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,‖ from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • 259. ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa‖ The Artist’s Methods for Implying Depth • The artist makes one boat shape smaller than the others • The shape of the wave overlaps the two largest boat shapes • By placing the wave shape at the lowest point on the page, the artist suggests that it is closest to the viewer • The placing of Mt. Fuji lower than the top of the waves deliberately confuses the composition – Adds to our sense of the size of the wave
  • 260. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Alternating Value and Texture  Artists intersperse value and visual texture to create a sense of rhythm Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 261. 1.56 Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Sung Dynasty, 11th century. Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 81¼ x 40⅜‖. National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 262. Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams • Each area of light and dark occupies different amounts of space, making the design more interesting • Note the change in visual texture from bottom to top • These visual layers create a sense of depth
  • 263. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Brightness and Color  Lighter areas seem to be closer as dark areas appear to recede  Especially true of color  We are more likely to think that a green that is very pure and intense is closer to us than a darker green Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 264. 1.57 Thomas Hart Benton, The Wreck of the Ole ’97, 1943. Egg tempera and oil on canvas, 28½ x 44½‖. Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee
  • 265. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Thomas Hart Benton, The Wreck of the Ole ’97  Used brightness and color to create a sense of distance in his painting  We see the bright, pure greens come forward as the darker, less intense greens fall away  We perceive color that is more intense as being closer Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 266. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Atmospheric Perspective  Distant objects lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because the air that surrounds us is not completely transparent  The atmosphere progressively veils a scene as the distance increases  Contemporary filmmakers use this atmospheric effect to give the illusion of great depth Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 267. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.58The effects of atmospheric perspective Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 268. 1.59 Asher Brown Durand, Kindred Spirits, 1849. Oil on canvas, 44 x 36‖. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas
  • 269. Asher Brown Durand, Kindred Spirits • The trees in the foreground are detailed and bright green, but as the trees recede into the landscape behind the two figures they become a lighter gray and increasingly out of focus • By using atmospheric perspective, Durand conveys an impression of the vastness of the American landscape
  • 270. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Perspective  Artists, architects, and designers who wish to suggest the illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface use perspective   Isometric perspective uses parallels to communicate depth Linear perspective relies on a system where lines appear to converge at points in space Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 271. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Isometric Perspective  Arranges parallel lines diagonally in a work to give a sense of depth  Derives from the Greek meaning “equal measure”  It was particularly suitable for painting on scrolls, which can be examined only in sections Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 272. 1.60 Xu Yang, The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the Grand Canal, Qing Dynasty, 1770 (detail). Handscroll, ink, and color on silk, 2’3⅛‖ x 65’4½‖. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 273. 1.61 Graphic detailing isometric perspective: The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the Grand Canal (detail)
  • 274. Xu Yang, The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour • Parallel diagonal lines define the small L-shaped building in the center of the work • This method of implying depth is not “realistic” • The artist makes use of other spatial devices—for example, the diminishing size of the trees as they recede into the distance—to help us understand how the space is structured
  • 275. 1.62 Screenshot from The Sims, a computer simulation game, 2000
  • 276. The Sims • Isometric perspective is common in contemporary computer graphics • The designers have created the architecture of the game using parallel diagonal lines to make “tiles” • Allows players to manipulate the architecture without distortion
  • 277. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Linear Perspective  A mathematical system that uses lines to create the illusion of depth in a two-dimensional artwork  The linear perspective systems used by artists are based on observation of space in the world  The theory of linear perspective was developed in detail by the fifteenth-century artist Leon Battista Alberti  The Italian Filippo Brunelleschi was the first artist to apply the theories of Alberti and others to create works of art using linear perspective Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 278. 1.63 slide 1: Edith Hayllar, A Summer Shower, 1883. Oil on panel, 21 x 17⅜‖. Private collection
  • 279. 1.63 slide 2: The effect of convergences: Edith Hayllar, A Summer Shower, 1883. Oil on panel, 21 x 17⅜‖. Private collection
  • 280. Edith Hayllar, A Summer Shower • The artist, British painter Edith Hayllar, uses linear perspective to create an orderly composition that reflects the well-regulated life of Victorian aristocracy in England • The converging lines represent planes that are parallel to each other in reality • Parallel lines appear to converge on one single point in front of the male tennis player on the left • Edith Hayllar exhibited many works at the Royal Academy in London—a rare honor for a woman artist at the time
  • 281. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS One-Point Perspective  One-point perspective relies on a single vanishing point  Unless the viewer is situated in direct line of sight it is not as easy to see how the perspective creates the illusion of a recession of space  Uses a single vanishing point Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 282. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1.64 Applying one-point perspective technique Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 283. 1.65 Use of one-point perspective: Masaccio, Trinity, c. 1425–6. Fresco, 21’10½‖ x 10’4⅞‖. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy
  • 284. Masaccio, Trinity • Places the horizon line, an imaginary line that mimics the horizon, at the viewer’s eye level • The horizon line represents our eye level • The orthogonals (lines of convergence) create an illusion that the background is an architectural setting
  • 285. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Two-Point Perspective  Uses two separate vanishing points  Relies on horizon line Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 286. 1.66a Raphael,The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’8‖ x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
  • 287. 1.66b Applying two-point perspective: detail from Raphael,The School of Athens
  • 288. Raphael, The School of Athens Perspective and the Illusion of Depth • Raphael introduces two additional vanishing points into a one-point perspective composition – One vanishing point is positioned to the left of the central vanishing point – The right vanishing point is outside of the picture • Since the block in the center of the picture is turned at an angle, Raphael had to integrate another level of perspective into the work
  • 289. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Multi-Point Perspective  If we are looking at an object from a position other than ground level, then we need points away from the horizon line and other variations on perspective  Many objects are made up of multiple angles that need even more vanishing points  The most common multiple-point perspective system is three-point perspective  A vanishing point is placed above or below the horizon line to accommodate a high or low angle of observation  Worm’s-eye view: looking up  Bird’s-eye view: looking down Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 290. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Cone of vision 1.67 Cone of vision Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 291. 1.68 slide 1: M. C. Escher, Ascending and Descending, March 1960. Woodcut, 14 x 11¼‖. The M. C. Escher Company, Netherlands
  • 292. 1.68 slide 2: Three-point perspective, bird’s-eye view: M. C. Escher, Ascending and Descending, March 1960. Woodcut, 14 x 11¼‖. The M. C. Escher Company, Netherlands
  • 293. M. C. Escher, Ascending and Descending • Three distinct vanishing points – Two of the vanishing points are placed on the horizon line – One point is well below horizon line
  • 294. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Foreshortening  Results when the rules of perspective are applied to represent unusual points of view  Especially applies to figures Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 295. 1.69 Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman, 1525. Woodcut. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria
  • 296. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman  At this oblique angle the usual proportions of different parts of the body do not apply  The artist has a fixed lens or aperture in front of him to make sure he always views from the same point   He looks through the gridded window to view the figure Then he aligns his drawing to a similar grid marked on the piece of paper in front of him Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 297. 1.70 Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c. 1480. Tempera on canvas, 26¾ x 31⅞‖. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy
  • 298. • Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ The figure of Christ is oriented so that the wounded feet are placed in the extreme foreground • Rest of the body receding away from the viewer back into space • Mantegna only slightly enlarges the feet • Depicts the body in shortened sections
  • 299. Chapter 1.3Implied Depth: Value and Space PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Conclusion  Artists anticipate the effects of light on an object by subtle variations in value  We see depth when an artist overlaps different shapes, or contrasts their sizes in a particular way  From observation of the real world, the artist mimics variations in texture, brightness, color intensity, and atmospheric perspective to create an imaginary space  Different systems of perspective allow artists to create a new and convincing sense of depth Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 300. 1. In The Treachery of Images, Magritte tell us that painting is a______. • • • • • a. visual trick b. matter of romance c. a window to the soul d. political tool e. rectangle
  • 301. 1. In The Treachery of Images, Magritte tell us that painting is a______. • • • • • a. visual trick b. matter of romance c. a window to the soul d. political tool e. rectangle
  • 302. 2. These two values are at the extreme ends of a value range. • a. Dark gray and light gray • b. White and dark gray • c. Black and gray • d. Light gray and white • e. Black and white
  • 303. 2. These two values are at the extreme ends of a value range. • a. Dark gray and light gray • b. White and dark gray • c. Black and gray • d. Light gray and white • e. Black and white
  • 304. 3. Artists sometimes use this method of applying value to give a feeling of three-dimensionality. • a. Chiaroscuro • b. Tinting • c. Atmospheric perspective • d. Smoothing • e. Contrast
  • 305. 3. Artists sometimes use this method of applying value to give a feeling of three-dimensionality. • a. Chiaroscuro • b. Tinting • c. Atmospheric perspective • d. Smoothing • e. Contrast
  • 306. 4. A series of closely arranged parallel lines that are overlapped by another set of parallel strokes to create a sense of value is called ? • • • • • a. chiaroscuro b. cross-hatching c. isometric perspective d. pigment e. scumbling
  • 307. 4. A series of closely arranged parallel lines that are overlapped by another set of parallel strokes to create a sense of value is called ? • • • • • a. chiaroscuro b. cross-hatching c. isometric perspective d. pigment e. scumbling
  • 308. 5. Artists intersperse value and texture to create a sense of ______. • • • • • a. relief b. disquiet c. mystery d. rhythm e. chaos
  • 309. 5. Artists intersperse value and texture to create a sense of ______. • • • • • a. relief b. disquiet c. mystery d. rhythm e. chaos
  • 310. 6. An artist can create an illusion of depth using only color by varying the ______ . • • • • • a. relief b. mass c. complements d. volume e. intensity
  • 311. 6. An artist can create an illusion of depth using only color by varying the ______ . • • • • • a. relief b. mass c. complements d. volume e. intensity
  • 312. 7. Contemporary filmmakers use this aerial effect to give the illusion of great depth, even when the scene is in a limited space. • a. Mass • b. Texture • c. Atmospheric perspective • d. Shape • e. Color
  • 313. 7. Contemporary filmmakers use this aerial effect to give the illusion of great depth, even when the scene is in a limited space. • a. Mass • b. Texture • c. Atmospheric perspective • d. Shape • e. Color
  • 314. 8. This type of perspective is used by game designers because it allows them to create depth using parallel diagonal lines. • • • • • a. Isometric b. Linear c. Atmospheric d. One-point e. Multi-point
  • 315. 8. This type of perspective is used by game designers because it allows them to create depth using parallel diagonal lines. • • • • • a. Isometric b. Linear c. Atmospheric d. One-point e. Multi-point
  • 316. 9. This Italian artist was the first to apply the tenets of linear perspective to the creation of artworks. • • • • • a. Michelangelo b. Leonardo da Vinci c. Raphael d. Warhol e. Brunelleschi
  • 317. 9. This Italian artist was the first to apply the tenets of linear perspective to the creation of artworks. • • • • • a. Michelangelo b. Leonardo da Vinci c. Raphael d. Warhol e. Brunelleschi
  • 318. 10. This kind of perspective is best used when the artist is confronted by a complex scene where some of the image is placed at a high or low angle. • • • • • a. Isometric b. Atmospheric c. Multi-point d. One-point e. Two-point
  • 319. 10. This kind of perspective is best used when the artist is confronted by a complex scene where some of the image is placed at a high or low angle. • • • • • a. Isometric b. Atmospheric c. Multi-point d. One-point e. Two-point
  • 320. 11. The method whereby rules of perspective are applied to represent unusual points of view is called ______. • • • • • a. woodcutting b. variable angling c. coordinating d. foreshortening e. alternating twodimensionality
  • 321. 11. The method whereby rules of perspective are applied to represent unusual points of view is called ______. • • • • • a. woodcutting b. variable angling c. coordinating d. foreshortening e. alternating twodimensionality
  • 322. • Next Class: • Quiz: chs Intro- 1.3 • (15 questions) Draw a scene ( outdoors or interior) (Sketchbook) • Powerpoint: • Chapters 1.4- 1.7 • Video