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  • 1. Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 2. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Introduction  Emphasis is the principle by which an artist draws attention to particular content in a work of art or design  A focal point is a specific place of visual emphasis  An artist can emphasize focal points through the use of line, implied line, value, color—any of the elements of art  Emphasis and focal point usually accentuate concepts, themes, or ideas the artist wants to express
  • 3. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Emphasis and Subordination  When an artist emphasizes different elements in a work of art, he or she creates visual relationships and connections between them  The opposite of emphasis is subordination  Subordination draws our attention away from certain areas of a work
  • 4. Double-chambered vessel with mouse • The mouse attracts our attention because it is so detailed • The spout of the vessel also stands out, not only because of its color but also because of its geometric simplicity • Third and fourth areas of emphasis are found in the decorations on the two chambers of the vessel • These areas connect because they share common shapes, coloration, and texture that draw our attention away from the undecorated—subordinated— areas of the vessel
  • 5. 1.141 Double-chambered vessel with mouse, Recuay, Peru, 4th–8th century. Ceramic, 6” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 6. 1.142 Jules Olitski, Tin Lizzie Green, 1964. Acrylic and oil/wax crayon on canvas, 10’10” x 6’10”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 7. Jules Olitski, Tin Lizzie Green • Because abstract works can never directly evoke our memories of things or people, they frequently rely on compositional principles, such as emphasis • Olitski frames our attention on the color field in the center of the work with three colored dots on the right, red horizontal strokes on the top and bottom, and a tan-colored stroke on the left • These color shapes support the real focus of this work, which is the blue-green color in the center
  • 8. 1.143 Mark Tobey, Blue Interior, 1959. Tempera on card, 44 x 28”
  • 9. Mark Tobey, Blue Interior • When a work does not have areas of emphasis, that changes the way we respond to it • Tobey was interested in creating a meditative response to the landscape of the Pacific Northwest, where he grew up • Because Tobey does not use areas of emphasis, we are free to roam visually in his painting • We can immerse ourselves in the work, as if it were an ocean
  • 10. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Focal Point  A focal point is the specific part of an area of emphasis to which the artist draws our eye
  • 11. Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus • The story of Icarus is one from Greek mythology – His wax wings melt as he flies too close to the sun • Bruegel diverts our attention so that we barely notice Icarus plunging to his doom • Instead the artist’s main area of emphasis is the plower in the foreground, possibly illustrating the proverb “No plow stands still because a man dies.”
  • 12. 1.144 slide 1: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, c. 1555–8. Oil on canvas, mounted on wood, 29 x 44⅛”. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium
  • 13. 1.145 Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c. 1620. Oil on canvas, 6’6⅜” x 5’3¾“. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy
  • 14. 1.145 slide 2: Directional lines in Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith Decapitating Holofernes
  • 15. Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes Emphasis Used to Create Drama • Through Gentileschi’s use of directional line and contrasting values we are drawn irresistibly to the point where the climax of the story is unfolding • Judith’s arms and those of her maidservant (visually connected to the sword itself) stretch toward the dark values of their victim’s head • The light values of the five bare arms create strong directional lines that lead to the focal point where blood spurts from the violent attack on Holofernes’ neck
  • 16. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Emphasis and Focal Point in Action  Artists can use direction, dramatic contrasts, and placement relationships to organize the elements in a work and draw our attention to areas of emphasis and focal points
  • 17. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Emphasis and Focal Point in Action: Line  Line is an effective way to focus a viewer’s attention in an artwork
  • 18. 1.146 slide 1: The Emperor Babur Overseeing his Gardeners, India, Mughal period, c. 1590. Tempera and gouache on paper, 8¾ x 5⅝”. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England
  • 19. 1.146 slide 2: Detail of The Emperor Babur Overseeing his Gardeners, showing directional lines
  • 20. The Emperor Babur Overseeing his Gardeners • The gardener/artist Babur is pointing to a feature that channels water in four directions • The strong diagonal of the channel draws our attention to the water as it runs toward us • The central cross-shaped confluence of the waters becomes the focal point of the composition • In this work, water is the focal point conceptually as well as visually
  • 21. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Emphasis and Focal Point in Action: Contrast  Artists look to create effects of contrast by positioning elements next to one another that are very different  For example, areas of different value, color, or size
  • 22. 1.147 Francisco de Zurbarán, The Funeral of St. Bonaventure, 1629. Oil on canvas, 8' 2” x 7' 4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
  • 23. Francisco de Zurbarán, The Funeral of St. Bonaventure • Most of the lightest values in the painting are reserved for the clothing adorning the dead body of St. Bonaventure • These create a central focal point that stands out in contrast to the surrounding dark values • The whiteness of his clothing symbolizes Bonaventure's spotless reputation • Enough light value is distributed to the other figures to allow our eyes to be drawn away from the saint’s body, making the composition more interesting
  • 24. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Emphasis and Focal Point in Action: Placement  The placement of elements within a composition controls rhythm and creates multiple focal points
  • 25. 1.148 Ando Hiroshige, “Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyobashi,” from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, 1857. 15 x 10⅜”. James A. Michener Collection, Honolulu Academy of Arts, Hawaii
  • 26. Ando Hiroshige, “Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyobashi” • The positions of the moon, the bridge, and the figure in a boat form three separate focal points • Each shape commands our attention and draws more of our focus to the right side of the work • The varying distances between the placements of the three focal points also create rhythm that adds visual interest
  • 27. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Conclusion  All the elements and principles of art can serve to create emphasis  Both actual and implied lines shape our examination of a work of art by directing the movement of our gaze  Contrasts between different values, colors, or textures can sometimes be so dramatic and distinct that we cannot help but feel drawn to that area of a work
  • 28. Click the image above to launch the video PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 29. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 1.8 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 30. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 1.141 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Nathan Cummings, 1966, 66.30.2. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 1.142 Photo © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Courtesy Jules Olitski Warehouse LLC. © Estate of Jules Olitski, DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2011 1.143 © Estate of Mark Tobey, ARS, NY/DACS, London 2011. Courtesy Sotheby’s 1.144 Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels 1.145 Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence 1.146 Victoria & Albert Museum, London 1.147 Musée du Louvre, Paris 1.148 James A. Michener Collection, Honolulu Academy of Arts Picture Credits for Chapter 1.8
  • 31. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Study Questions chapter 1.8
  • 32. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 1.This is a specific place of visual emphasis in a work of art. a. Focal point b. Variety c. Subversion d. Vanishing point e. None of these answers
  • 33. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 1.This is a specific place of visual emphasis in a work of art. a. Focal point b. Variety c. Subversion d. Vanishing point e. None of these answers
  • 34. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 2. When an artist wants to draw attention away from a particular part of the work, he or she uses__________. Topic: n/a a. subordination b. focal point c. emphasis d. distortion e. balance
  • 35. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 2. When an artist wants to draw attention away from a particular part of the work, he or she uses__________. Topic: n/a a. subordination b. focal point c. emphasis d. distortion e. balance
  • 36. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 3. The abstract work Tin Lizzie Green by Jules Olitzki draws attention to this part of the work. a. top b. bottom c. center d. left e. right
  • 37. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 3. The abstract work Tin Lizzie Green by Jules Olitzki draws attention to this part of the work. a. top b. bottom c. center d. left e. right
  • 38. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 4. Blue Interior by Mark Tobey focuses the viewer’s attention squarely on this area of emphasis: a. there is no area of emphasis b. the blue marks. c. the light marks. d. the center. e. the bottom edge. Feedback/Reference: Page 137
  • 39. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 4. Blue Interior by Mark Tobey focuses the viewer’s attention squarely on this area of emphasis: a. there is no area of emphasis b. the blue marks. c. the light marks. d. the center. e. the bottom edge. Feedback/Reference: Page 137
  • 40. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 5. In Bruegel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, the viewer is directed away from Icarus plunging into the sea through the use of __________ . a. subordination b. focal point c. emphasis d. balance e. proportion Feedback/Reference: Page 138
  • 41. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 5. In Bruegel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, the viewer is directed away from Icarus plunging into the sea through the use of __________ . a. subordination b. focal point c. emphasis d. balance e. proportion Feedback/Reference: Page 138
  • 42. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 6. In Artemisia Gentileschi’s work Judith Decapitating Holofernes, the viewer is directed to the __________ that is indicated by directional lines. a. area of emphasis b. subordinated point c. vanishing point d. the top of the work e. focal point Feedback/Reference: Page 139
  • 43. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 6. In Artemisia Gentileschi’s work Judith Decapitating Holofernes, the viewer is directed to the __________ that is indicated by directional lines. a. area of emphasis b. subordinated point c. vanishing point d. the top of the work e. focal point Feedback/Reference: Page 139
  • 44. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 7. This kind of line tends to be more visually active so it can draw the viewer’s attention. a. Vertical b. Diagonal c. Horizontal d. Solid e. None of these Feedback/Reference: Page 140
  • 45. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 7. This kind of line tends to be more visually active so it can draw the viewer’s attention. a. Vertical b. Diagonal c. Horizontal d. Solid e. None of these Feedback/Reference: Page 140
  • 46. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 8. Placement of elements in a composition controls this and creates multiple focal points. a. Size b. Proportion c. Rhythm d. Line e. Focal point Feedback/Reference: Page 140
  • 47. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 8. Placement of elements in a composition controls this and creates multiple focal points. a. Size b. Proportion c. Rhythm d. Line e. Focal point Feedback/Reference: Page 140
  • 48. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 9. Hiroshige used this process to create the work "Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyobashi.” a. Sculpture b. Ceramics c. Tapestry d. Printmaking e. Glass Feedback/Reference: Page 141
  • 49. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 9. Hiroshige used this process to create the work "Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyobashi.” a. Sculpture b. Ceramics c. Tapestry d. Printmaking e. Glass Feedback/Reference: Page 141
  • 50. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 10. Which of these elements of art and principles of design can be used to create emphasis? a. All of the other answers b. Shape c. Color d. Contrast e. Rhythm
  • 51. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point 10. Which of these elements of art and principles of design can be used to create emphasis? a. All of the other answers b. Shape c. Color d. Contrast e. Rhythm
  • 52. Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 53. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Introduction  Artists use pattern and rhythm to bring order to space and to create a dynamic experience of time  When events recur, this creates a pattern  Patterns are created by the recurrence of an art element  In a work of art, the repetition of such patterns gives a sense of unity  Rhythm arises through the repetition of pattern  The rhythm of a series of linked elements guides the movement of our eyes across and through a design
  • 54. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Pattern  The use of repetition in a work of art usually results in the creation of a pattern  Artists often create unity in works of art by repeatedly using a similar shape, value, or color, for example  An artist can use repetition of a pattern to impose order on a work  Sometimes artists use alternating patterns to make a work more lively  The area covered by pattern is called the field
  • 55. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 1.149 Horizontal alternating pattern
  • 56. Suzanne Valadon, The Blue Room • Includes three contrasting patterns – The blue bed covering, in the lower portion of the painting – The green-and-white striped pattern in the woman’s pajama bottoms – Above the figure is a mottled pattern • The differences in these patterns energize the work
  • 57. 1.150 Suzanne Valadon, The Blue Room, 1923. Oil on canvas, 35½ × 45⅝”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
  • 58. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Motif  A design repeated as a unit in a pattern is called a motif  Motifs can represent ideas, images, and themes that can be brought together through the use of pattern  An artist can create a strong unified design by repeating a motif
  • 59. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateway to Art: Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Huqqa base  Elements, such as the flowers and leaves of the plants, recur at intervals
  • 60. 1.151 Huqqa base, India, Deccan, last quarter of 17th century. Bidri ware (zinc alloy inlaid with brass), 6⅞ x 6½ in. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 61. 1.152 slide 1: Pashmina carpet with millefleur pattern, northern India, Kashmir or Lahore, second half of 17th century. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
  • 62. 1.152 slide 2: Detail of pashmina carpet with millefleur pattern
  • 63. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Pashmina carpet with millefleur pattern  Flower-like motifs are arranged in a pattern in the center
  • 64. Click the image above to launch the video PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 65. Chuck Close, Self Portrait • Uses motif to unify his paintings • Uses a repeated pattern of organic concentric rings set into a diamond shape as the basic building blocks for his large compositions • There is a difference between a close-up view of the painting and the overall effect when we stand back from this enormous canvas • The motif that Close uses is the result of a technical process • A grid that subdivides the entire image organizes the placement of each cell
  • 66. 1.153a Chuck Close, Self Portrait, 1997. Oil on canvas, 8’6” × 7’. MOMA, New York
  • 67. 1.153b Chuck Close, Self Portrait, detail
  • 68. 1.153c Chuck Close, Self Portrait, detail
  • 69. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Randomness  The introduction of chance symbolizes anti-order  Artists who introduce randomness to a work try to avoid predictable repetition  Works made in this way purposely contradict widely used traditional methods
  • 70. Hans Arp, Trousse d’un Da • Dada reveled in absurdity, irrationality, the flamboyantly bizarre, and the shocking • Arp worked on creating “chance” arrangements • Arp claimed that the arrangement of the shapes happened by random placement
  • 71. 1.154 Hans Arp, Trousse d’un Da,1920–21. Assemblage of driftwood nailed onto wood with painting remains, 15 x 10½ x 1¾”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
  • 72. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Rhythm  Rhythm gives structure to the experience of looking, just as it guides our eyes from one point to another in a work of art  There is rhythm when there are at least two points of reference in an artwork  The intervals between elements provide points of reference for more complex rhythms
  • 73. Pieter Bruegel, Hunters in the Snow • We see not only large rhythmic progressions that take our eye all around the canvas, but also refined micro-rhythms in the repetition of such details as the trees, houses, birds, and colors • The party of hunters on the left side first draws our attention into the work • Our gaze then travels from the left foreground to the middle ground on the right • We then look at the background of the work • As a result of following this rhythmic progression, our eye has circled round the whole picture
  • 74. 1.155 slide 1: Pieter Bruegel, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on panel, 46 x 63¾ in. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
  • 75. 1.155 slide 2: Detail of Pieter Bruegel, Hunters in the Snow
  • 76. 1.155 slide 3: Detail of Pieter Bruegel, Hunters in the Snow
  • 77. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Simple Repetitive Rhythm  A repeating “pulse” of similar elements sets up a visual rhythm that a viewer can anticipate  Such regularity communicates reassurance  The design of buildings is often intended to reassure us about the stability and durability of the structure  For this reason, architectural designs often incorporate simple repetition
  • 78. Great Mosque of Córdoba • Each of the repeating elements—columns, arches, and voussoirs— creates its own simple rhythm • The accumulation of these simple repetitions also enhances the function of the space and becomes a part of the activity of worship, like prayer beads, reciting the Shahada (profession of faith), or the five-times-a-day call to prayer
  • 79. 1.156 Great Mosque of Córdoba, prayer hall of Abd al-Rahman I, 784–6, Córdoba, Spain
  • 80. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Progressive Rhythm  Repetition that regularly increases or decreases in frequency creates a progressive rhythm as the eye moves faster or slower across the surface of the work
  • 81. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Alternating Rhythm  Artists can intertwine multiple rhythms until they become quite complex  Alternation of rhythms can add unpredictability and visual excitement
  • 82. Bai-ra-Irrai • The imagery above the entry of this bai begins, at the bottom, with the regular rhythms of horizontal lines of fish, but the images above become increasingly irregular as they change to other kinds of shapes
  • 83. 1.158 slide 1: Bai-ra-Irrai, originally built c. 1700 and periodically restored, Airai village, Airai State, Republic of Palau
  • 84. 1.158 slide 2: Detail of Bai-ra-Irrai
  • 85. Goya, The Third of May, 1808 Visual Rhythm in the Composition • It can be divided up into two distinct rhythmic groups • Although the number of figures in each group is the same, they are distributed very differently – The group of French soldiers on the right stands in a pattern so regulated it is almost mechanical – On the left side, the rhythms are irregular and unpredictable • The alternating rhythm in this painting leads our eye from the figure in white, through a group of figures, downward to the victims on the ground • It helps define our ideas about humanity and inhumanity
  • 86. 1.159 Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 8’4⅜” x 11’3⅞”. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
  • 87. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Rhythmic Design Structure  How artists divide visual space into different sections to achieve different kinds of effect
  • 88. Rosa Bonheur, Plowing in the Nivernais: The Dressing of the Vines• A horizontal structure leads our eye in sequence from one group of shapes to the next • Bonheur expertly organizes the composition, emphasizing the cumulative effect of the rhythm of the groupings as they move from left to right • By changing the width of the gaps between the animals, Bonheur suggests their irregular movement as they plod forward • Each group also has a different relative size and occupies a different amount of space, creating a visual rhythm
  • 89. 1.160a Rosa Bonheur, Plowing in the Nivernais: The Dressing of the Vines, 1849. Oil on canvas, 4’4¾” x 8’6⅜”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France
  • 90. 1.160b Rhythmic structural diagram of 1.160a
  • 91. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm Conclusion  In works of art, good composition articulates patterns and rhythms in a way that grabs our attention  Because the visual rhythm of pattern is predictable, it tends to unify a work of art  Some artists try to contradict pattern by imposing randomness and chance to free a work from what they see as suffocating orderliness  Irregular rhythm can make a work seem unpredictable or make us feel uneasy
  • 92. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 1.9 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 93. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 1.149 Ralph Larmann 1.150 Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris 1.151 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Louis E. and Theresa S. Seley Purchase Fund for Islamic Art, and Rogers Fund, 1984. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 1.152 Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 1.153a, 1.153b, 1.153c Museum of Modern Art, New York, Gift of Agnes Gund, Jo Carole and Ronald S. Lauder, Donald L. Bryant, Jr., Leon Black, Michael and Judy Ovitz, Anna Marie and Robert F. Shapiro, Leila and Melville Straus, Doris and Donald Fisher, and purchase, Acc. no. 215.2000. Photo Ellen Page Wilson, courtesy The Pace Gallery © Chuck Close, The Pace Gallery 1.154 © DACS 2011 1.155 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 1.156 iStockphoto.com 1.157 Please note that this image is not available for digital use but can be found on page 148 of the textbook. 1.158 © WaterFrame/Alamy 1.159 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid 1.160a Musée d’Orsay, Paris 1.160b Ralph Larmann Picture Credits for Chapter 1.9
  • 94. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm STUDY QUESTIONS CH 1.9
  • 95. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 1.This principle of design arises from repetition of a pattern. a. Balance b. Focal point c. Unity d. None of these answers e. Rhythm Feedback/Reference: Page 142
  • 96. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 1.This principle of design arises from repetition of a pattern. a. Balance b. Focal point c. Unity d. None of these answers e. Rhythm Feedback/Reference: Page 142
  • 97. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 2. Sometimes artists use this kind of changing pattern to make a work more lively. a. Alternating pattern b. Focal pattern c. Interval pattern d. Repetitive pattern e. Balanced pattern Feedback/Reference: Page 142
  • 98. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 2. Sometimes artists use this kind of changing pattern to make a work more lively. a. Alternating pattern b. Focal pattern c. Interval pattern d. Repetitive pattern e. Balanced pattern Feedback/Reference: Page 142
  • 99. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 3. In Islamic art it is not uncommon to see complex interlaced __________, which are designs repeated as units in a pattern. a. arabesques b. mihrabs c. motifs d. qiblas e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 143
  • 100. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 3. In Islamic art it is not uncommon to see complex interlaced __________, which are designs repeated as units in a pattern. a. arabesques b. mihrabs c. motifs d. qiblas e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 143
  • 101. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 4. The artist Chuck Close used a repeated pattern of organic concentric rings set into a diamond pattern to create his large __________ . a. sculptures b. ceramics c. paintings d. glassware e. prints Feedback/Reference: Page 144
  • 102. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 5. Chuck Close’s Self Portrait of 1997 is made up of small units that are unrecognizable, or __________ . a. abstract b. representational c. stylized d. realistic e. expressionistic Feedback/Reference: Page 144
  • 103. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 5. Chuck Close’s Self Portrait of 1997 is made up of small units that are unrecognizable, or __________ . a. abstract b. representational c. stylized d. realistic e. expressionistic Feedback/Reference: Page 144
  • 104. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 6. Using automatic reactions to apply art materials in such a way as consciously to deny order can lead to __________ in art. a. structure b. balance c. unity d. randomness e. proportion Feedback/Reference: Page 146
  • 105. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 6. Using automatic reactions to apply art materials in such a way as consciously to deny order can lead to __________ in art. a. structure b. balance c. unity d. randomness e. proportion Feedback/Reference: Page 146
  • 106. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 7. The German-French sculptor Hans Arp worked on creating "__________ " arrangements to communicate the ideas of the Dada movement. a. chance b. controlled c. rigid d. solid e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 146
  • 107. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 7. The German-French sculptor Hans Arp worked on creating "__________ " arrangements to communicate the ideas of the Dada movement. a. chance b. controlled c. rigid d. solid e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 146
  • 108. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 8. When there are at least two points of reference in an artwork, __________ is present. a. size b. rhythm c. proportion d. line e. focal point Feedback/Reference: Page 146
  • 109. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 8. When there are at least two points of reference in an artwork, __________ is present. a. size b. rhythm c. proportion d. line e. focal point Feedback/Reference: Page 146
  • 110. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 9. In this sixteenth-century work, the Dutch artist Pieter Bruegel uses rhythm to direct the viewer’s attention through the work. a. Trousse d’un Da b. The Third of May 1808 c. The Blue Room d. Hunters in the Snow e. Artichoke Halved Feedback/Reference: Pages 147–48
  • 111. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 9. In this sixteenth-century work, the Dutch artist Pieter Bruegel uses rhythm to direct the viewer’s attention through the work. a. Trousse d’un Da b. The Third of May 1808 c. The Blue Room d. Hunters in the Snow e. Artichoke Halved Feedback/Reference: Pages 147–48
  • 112. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 10. This is a way in which artists divide visual space into different kinds of sections to achieve different rhythmic effects. a. Randomness b. Unity c. Contrast d. Linear perspective rhythm e. Rhythmic design structure
  • 113. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.9 Pattern and Rhythm 10. This is a way in which artists divide visual space into different kinds of sections to achieve different rhythmic effects. a. Randomness b. Unity c. Contrast d. Linear perspective rhythm e. Rhythmic design structure
  • 114. Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 115. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Introduction  The artist uses a visual language to communicate ideas, beliefs, emotions, and opinions  Content: Subject  Analysis: Finding meaning  Imitation and individual style  Learning from the masters  Developing a unique style
  • 116. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Content  Content refers to the meaning and the subject of a work of art  Identifying the subject of an artwork:  Representational (one can identify the subject)  Non-objective (unrecognizable subject matter)  Abstraction
  • 117. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius  Representational  Recognizable as a man on a horse  Artist tries to create realistic movement and expressions
  • 118. 1.161 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, c. 175 CE. Bronze, 11’6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome, Italy
  • 119. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields José de Rivera, Infinity  Non-objective  Unrecognizable subject matter  Subjective: individual viewer creates his or her own interpretation
  • 120. 1.162 José de Rivera, Infinity, 1967. Stainless steel sculpture in front of National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • 121. Allan Houser, Reverie • Representational – Can identify two faces – Size of faces and positioning of forms suggest mother and child • Abstraction – To emphasize, distort or simplify forms – The degree to which an artwork is less representational and moves toward non- objective
  • 122. 1.163 Allan Houser, Reverie, 1981. Bronze, 25 x 23 x 13”, edition of 10. Allan Houser Archives
  • 123. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Modes of Analysis  Iconographic  Biographical  Feminist  Contextual  Psychological  Formal (or visual)
  • 124. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Iconographic Analysis  Interprets signs and symbols within an artwork  Historical and religious references
  • 125. Audrey Flack, Marilyn Monroe • Representational: – Marilyn Monroe – Still life objects • Symbols of vanitas (reminders of mortality): – Time: Calendar, watch, hourglass – Vanity: Cosmetics, mirror, jewelry, perfume – Death and decay: Candle, fruit, flowers – Wealth and fame: Marilyn, necklace • Individual meaning: – Our mortality – Photograph of artist and her brother
  • 126. 1.164 Audrey Flack, Marilyn Monroe, 1977. Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8 x 8’. Collection of the University of Arizona Museum of Art, Tucson
  • 127. Click the image above to launch the video PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 128. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Biographical Analysis  Relates artist’s life and experiences to artwork  Considers gender, race, nationality, and class
  • 129. Eva Hesse, Hang-Up • Representational – Empty frame – Materials are wood, cloth, steel tube, and cord • Biographical analysis – Title may relate to issue (hang-up) artist has not resolved: • Born a Jew in Nazi Germany • Mother’s suicide • Divorced – The artist herself did not claim these associations
  • 130. 1.165 Eva Hesse, Hang-Up, 1966. Acrylic, cloth, wood, cord, and steel, 72 x 84 x 78”. Art Institute of Chicago
  • 131. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Feminist Analysis  Role of women as:  Artists  Subjects  Viewers
  • 132. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque  Feminist analysis  Objectified subject (nude woman in a harem)  Male audience/viewer  Pose is sensual and submissive
  • 133. 1.166 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, 35⅞ x 63¾”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
  • 134. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Contextual Analysis  Interprets artwork based on time and place in which it was made  Considers historical, religious, political, economic, and social factors
  • 135. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Leni Riefenstahl, still from Triumph of the Will  Contextual analysis  Film made for Hitler of his speech in Nuremberg in 1934  Film as propaganda for Nazi regime
  • 136. 1.167 Leni Riefenstahl, still from Triumph of the Will, 1934
  • 137. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Psychological Analysis  Considers the mental state of the artist when the artwork was being made and uses this to help interpret the work
  • 138. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Edward Hopper, Nighthawks  Psychological analysis  Made during America’s entry into World War II  Emotion conveyed through figures and setting
  • 139. 1.168 Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942. Oil on canvas, 33⅛ x 60”. Art Institute of Chicago
  • 140. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Formal Analysis  Considers the elements and principles used by the artist  Elements of art: line, shape, form, mass, volume, color, texture, space, time and motion, and value  Principles of art: contrast, balance, unity, variety, rhythm, emphasis, pattern, proportion, and scale
  • 141. Diego de Silva y Velázquez, Las Meninas • Combining modes of analysis – Formal analysis—Multiple focal points discovered: • Princess Margarita • King and Queen • Velázquez painting • Nieto in doorway – Contextual analysis • Identification of members of the court in scene – Biographical analysis • Artist’s desire to be knighted • Artist’s relationship with King Philip IV – Iconographical analysis • Cross on Velázquez
  • 142. 1.169 Diego de Silva y Velázquez, Las Meninas, c. 1656. Oil on canvas, 10’5¼” x 9’¾”. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, Spain
  • 143. 1.170 Detail of Diego de Silva y Velázquez, Las Meninas
  • 144. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis What Is the Meaning of Las Meninas?  Velázquez used Las Meninas to show his importance as a painter and his intimacy with the royal family
  • 145. Click the image above to launch the video PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.8 Emphasis and Focal Point Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 146. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Imitation and Individual Style  Artists often train themselves by studying and copying earlier masterpieces  By referring to earlier masterpieces in new artworks, artists associate themselves with other artists who preceded them  By studying other artworks, artists may learn how to differentiate themselves
  • 147. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Picasso, Las Meninas  Picasso painted 45 paintings using a poster of the original Las Meninas (by Velázquez) as a model  Picasso competing with earlier Spanish master
  • 148. 1.171 Picasso, Las Meninas, first in a series, 1957. Oil on canvas, 6’4⅜” × 8’6⅜”. Museo Picasso, Barcelona, Spain
  • 149. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Comparison  Compare the original Las Meninas by Velázquez with the reinterpretation by Picasso
  • 150. Thomas Struth, Museo del Prado 7 • Artist is studying the act of looking • Discuss whether the students are viewers or are subjects of an artwork • Consider the experience of looking at this photograph while it hung next to Las Meninas in the Prado
  • 151. 1.172 Thomas Struth, Museo del Prado 7, 2005. Chromogenic print, 5’⅞” × 7’2”
  • 152. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis Conclusion  Artworks can be representational or non-objective; the degree to which they are non-objective is based upon the level of abstraction  Best interpretations are based on synthesis of several modes of analysis  Artists often look to earlier artists for inspiration
  • 153. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 1.10 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 154. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 1.161 iStockphoto.com 1.162 © Andia/Alamy 1.163 Allan Houser archives © Cliinde LLC 1.164 Collection University of Arizona Museum of Art, Tucson, Museum purchase with funds provided by the Edward J. Gallagher, Jr Memorial Fund 1982.35.1. © the artist 1.165 The Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Arthur Keating and Mr. and Mrs. Edward Morris by exchange, April 1988. © The Estate of Eva Hesse. Hauser & Wirth. Photo Susan Einstein, courtesy The Art Institute of Chicago 1.166 Musée du Louvre, Paris 1.167 Courtesy Archiv LRP 1.168 The Art Institute of Chicago, Friends of American Art Collection, 1942.51 1.169 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid 1.170 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid 1.171 © Succession Picasso/DACS, London 2011 1.172 © 2012 Thomas Struth Picture Credits for Chapter 1.10
  • 155. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis STUDY QUESTIONS CH1.10
  • 156. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 1. A work of art is the product of interrelationships between various art elements and __________. a. colors b. structures c. contexts d. shapes e. principles Feedback/Reference: Page 152
  • 157. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 1. A work of art is the product of interrelationships between various art elements and __________. a. colors b. structures c. contexts d. shapes e. principles Feedback/Reference: Page 152
  • 158. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 2. If we can recognize the objects or people in a work of art, it is __________. a. representational b. objective c. ephemeral d. non-objective e. abstract Feedback/Reference: Page 153
  • 159. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 2. If we can recognize the objects or people in a work of art, it is __________. a. representational b. objective c. ephemeral d. non-objective e. abstract Feedback/Reference: Page 153
  • 160. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 3. Allan Houser’s work Reverie is representational because __________. a. it is made of bronze b. it is abstracted c. it is lifesize d. it includes two shapes that we recognize as faces e. it is a sculpted form Feedback/Reference: Page 154
  • 161. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 3. Allan Houser’s work Reverie is representational because __________. a. it is made of bronze b. it is abstracted c. it is lifesize d. it includes two shapes that we recognize as faces e. it is a sculpted form Feedback/Reference: Page 154
  • 162. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 4. Iconographic analysis interprets objects and figures in an artwork as __________. a. dreams and thoughts b. signs or symbols c. things that really exist d. geometric shapes e. proven facts Feedback/Reference: Page 154
  • 163. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 4. Iconographic analysis interprets objects and figures in an artwork as __________. a. dreams and thoughts b. signs or symbols c. things that really exist d. geometric shapes e. proven facts Feedback/Reference: Page 154
  • 164. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 5. Eva Hesse’s minimalist sculpture Hang-Up can be interpreted biographically as __________. a. showing that the artist was obsessed with form b. a window that leads to nothingness c. a window that tells you nothing d. a ridiculous way to make art e. a humorous party trick Feedback/Reference: Pages 154–55
  • 165. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 5. Eva Hesse’s minimalist sculpture Hang-Up can be interpreted biographically as __________. a. showing that the artist was obsessed with form b. a window that leads to nothingness c. a window that tells you nothing d. a ridiculous way to make art e. a humorous party trick Feedback/Reference: Pages 154–55
  • 166. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 6. Psychological analysis of Nighthawks by the artist Edward Hopper tells us that the painter was __________. a. happy-go-lucky b. interested in flat colors c. a fashion model in his spare time d. expressing loneliness e. developing a new style of brushwork Feedback/Reference: Pages 159
  • 167. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 6. Psychological analysis of Nighthawks by the artist Edward Hopper tells us that the painter was __________. a. happy-go-lucky b. interested in flat colors c. a fashion model in his spare time d. expressing loneliness e. developing a new style of brushwork Feedback/Reference: Pages 159
  • 168. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 7. A formal analysis of Las Meninas by Diego de Silva y Velázquez would concentrate on this aspect of the work: a. its mood. b. the artist’s painting technique. c. the characters of the people shown in the painting. d. when it was created. e. what was in the foreground and background. Feedback/Reference: Page 161
  • 169. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 7. A formal analysis of Las Meninas by Diego de Silva y Velázquez would concentrate on this aspect of the work: a. its mood. b. the artist’s painting technique. c. the characters of the people shown in the painting. d. when it was created. e. what was in the foreground and background. Feedback/Reference: Page 161
  • 170. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 8. Picasso studied and copied Las Meninas because __________. a. it was by an Italian artist b. he was not interested in making original works of his own c. he was obsessed with the Spanish royal family d. he wanted to develop his own individual style e. his art college insisted he should Feedback/Reference: Pages 162
  • 171. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 8. Picasso studied and copied Las Meninas because __________. a. it was by an Italian artist b. he was not interested in making original works of his own c. he was obsessed with the Spanish royal family d. he wanted to develop his own individual style e. his art college insisted he should Feedback/Reference: Pages 162
  • 172. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 9. Thomas Struth’s photograph Museo del Prado 7 is a. a perfect copy of Las Meninas by Velázquez. b. a portrait of art appreciation. c. deliberately old-fashioned in style. d. based on the later works of Pablo Picasso. e. an attempt to distract us from looking at Las Meninas. Feedback/Reference: Pages 162
  • 173. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 9. Thomas Struth’s photograph Museo del Prado 7 is a. a perfect copy of Las Meninas by Velázquez. b. a portrait of art appreciation. c. deliberately old-fashioned in style. d. based on the later works of Pablo Picasso. e. an attempt to distract us from looking at Las Meninas. Feedback/Reference: Pages 162
  • 174. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 10. The tools of formal analysis help us to __________. a. dismiss the use of balance and focal point in a work b. understand how an artwork was made c. concentrate on the modern aspects of an artwork d. dig deeper into the history of an artwork e. understand what was happening to women at the time the work was made
  • 175. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis 10. The tools of formal analysis help us to __________. a. dismiss the use of balance and focal point in a work b. understand how an artwork was made c. concentrate on the modern aspects of an artwork d. dig deeper into the history of an artwork e. understand what was happening to women at the time the work was made
  • 176. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.10 Content and Analysis