Art 110 ch 2.3 & 2.4 (no quiz)
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Art 110 ch 2.3 & 2.4 (no quiz) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ART 110 CH 2.3 & 2.4
  • 2. Chapter 2.3 Printmaking PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Copyright © 2011 Thames& Hudson
  • 3. Introduction • Printing with inks was first used in China to print patterns on fabrics in the third century CE • There are many different techniques, and each one gives a unique character to every work it creates • Artists may not always do the production work themselves. If they create the master image, supervise the process, and sign the artwork, it is considered an original print • The production of two or more identical images, signed and numbered by the artist, is called an edition • There are three main printing processes: relief, intaglio, and planography
  • 4. Context of Printmaking • The earliest existing printed artworks on paper were created in China and date back to the eighth century CE • By the ninth century, printed scrolls containing Buddhist sutras (scriptures or prayers) were being made across east Asia • While the woodblock print remained the primary vehicle for the development of the print in Asia, in the West a number of additional techniques developed over time
  • 5. Relief Printmaking • Relief prints are made by carving away from a block of a suitably workable material, such as wood or linoleum, a certain amount of it, to create a raised image • The artist then applies ink to the raised surface and transfers the image to paper or similar material by applying pressure in a printing press • The areas of the block that remain print the image because the carved areas are recessed and are not inked
  • 6. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 2.41 A brief overview of the relief printing process
  • 7. Woodblock • Traditionally, wood has been used for relief prints because it is readily available, familiar to work with, and holds up under the pressure exerted by the printing process; these prints are known as woodcuts
  • 8. Albrecht Dürer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse • Four Horsemen… is the most famous image in this series of fifteen illustrations and was made from a specially prepared woodblock • Dürer commissioned professional block cutters to perform the layering, and they also cut the highly detailed lines of his original drawing into the block • The Book of Revelation is a symbolic piece of writing that prophesies the Apocalypse, or end of the world • The horsemen represent Death, Plague, War, and Famine
  • 9. 2.42 Albrecht Dürer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 1497–8. Woodcut, 15⅜ x 11‖
  • 10. Kitagawa Utamaro, Lovers in an Upstairs Room • Uses multiple colors and shows great graphic skill in controlling the crisp character of the print and the interplay of multiple blocks in different colors • Care must be taken to align each print color perfectly; this registration is done by carving perfectly matching notches along two sides of each block to guide the placement of the paper • Utamaro made images for the Japanese middle and upper classes of figures, theaters, and brothels, in a style known as ukiyo-e printmaking • Ukiyo-e means “pictures of the floating world”
  • 11. 2.43 Kitagawa Utamaro, Lovers in an Upstairs Room, from Uta makura (Poem of the Pillow), 1788. Color woodblock print, 10 x 14½‖. British Museum, London, England
  • 12. Kitagawa Utamaro - Beauty at her toilet
  • 13. Emil Nolde, Prophet • Uses the natural character of the wood to suggest the hardships and austerity of the life of his subject • The crude carving of the block has produced splintering, and the printing has revealed the grain of the wood • The print’s lack of refinement reflects the raw hardness of the life of a prophet
  • 14. 2.44 Emil Nolde, Prophet, 1912. Woodcut, printed in black, composition 12⅝ × 8¾‖. MOMA, New York
  • 15. Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa‖ Using the Woodblock Printing Method • Hokusai was not solely responsible for the production of this print: he relied on skilled craftsmen • He made a drawing of his subject, which a print craftsman then transferred face down onto a block of cherry wood • The craftsman then carved the image into the wood • To create a color woodblock print a printer must produce a new relief block for each separate color • Nine blocks were used to print “The Great Wave” • The printmaker had to carry out the sequence of printing skillfully because each new color was printed directly on top of the same sheet of paper
  • 16. 2.45 Katsushika Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,‖ from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • 17. Intaglio Printmaking • Intaglio is derived from an Italian word that means “cut into” a surface • Intaglio printing differs from relief printmaking because little of the base material is removed • The ink on the raised surface is also wiped away before printing, leaving ink in the scarred surface of the plate • The pressure of the printing press squeezes the plate against the paper, transferring the ink
  • 18. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  • 19. Engraving • The intaglio engraving method is based on the careful scoring of a metal plate so that clean gouges are created in the surface • An engraving can achieve fine detail, making the resulting print more like the artist’s original drawing
  • 20. Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve • Dürer had a financial reason for choosing to engrave his work: • He had to pay engravers to make his printing plate, and because the metal plate is much more durable than the woodblock, he could make and sell many more copies
  • 21. 2.47 Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504. Engraving on paper. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England
  • 22. Drypoint • In drypoint the cutting tool is pulled, leaving a rough edge, or burr • The result is a less precise line that has more irregularities
  • 23. Max Beckmann, Adam and Eve • The artist probably chose drypoint because of its slightly uneven, irregular quality of line • More expressive line is created by the burr
  • 24. 2.48 Max Beckmann, Adam and Eve, 1917, published 1918. Drypoint, 9⅜ x 7‖. Private collection, New York
  • 25. Etching • Etching is a process in which a metal plate is covered with an acid-resistant coating, into which the artist scratches the design • The plate is then immersed in a bath of acid • The acid “bites” into the metal where the covering has been removed, making grooves that hold the ink
  • 26. Rembrandt, Adam and Eve • Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a master of intaglio printmaking, especially etching • Rembrandt brings out details by marring the plate surface more in the areas that will appear darker in the print
  • 27. Aquatint • Requires the use of an acid bath to etch the surface of the plate • Water does not play a role in aquatint printmaking • The image is created in a coating of powdered rosin, or spray paint, on the surface of the plate • When heated, the rosin melts onto the surface of the plate, creating a mottled, acid-resistant barrier into which the design is etched • Since the rosin leaves irregular areas of the plate exposed, a soft organic texture (similar to that created when one uses brush and ink) dominates the image
  • 28. Francisco Goya, Giant • This print shows the wash-like appearance of the aquatint process • The print has a soft, rich implied texture • The contours of the giant’s body are not sharply distinguished
  • 29. 2.50 Francisco Goya, Giant, c. 1818. Burnished aquatint, first state, sheet size 11¼ x 8¼‖. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 30. 2.51b Francisco Goya, ―And There Is No Remedy,‖ from Disasters of War, c. 1810
  • 31. Goya, The Third of May, 1808 Prints as Art and as Creative Tools • Goya sketched scenes of the occupation by Napoleon’s troops, calling them Disasters of War • Compositionally, there are similarities between the print “And There Is No Remedy” and the later painting The Third of May, 1808 – The firing squad about to shoot its helpless targets is arranged in a strikingly similar way – The horizontal rifles on the right side of the print create a directional line drawing attention toward the victim • Goya’s masterpiece The Third of May, 1808 evolved after years of trial and practice in his prints
  • 32. 2.51a Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 8’4⅜‖ x 11’3⅞‖. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
  • 33. Mezzotint • Mezzotints often produce dark, rich values because the ink has many places to settle • To make a mezzotint the entire surface is roughened with a heavy spiked rocking tool, which is a metal object with a spiked, curved bottom • The roughened surface is then smoothed in the areas where the printmaker wants the light tones • Ink is removed from the smoothed areas when the plate is wiped: the inked areas create dark tones and the smoothed areas hold less ink to create light tones
  • 34. 2.52 Dox Thrash, Defense Worker, c. 1941, Carborundum mezzotint over etched guidelines, 9¾ x 8‖. Print and Picture Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia
  • 35. Dox Thrash, Defense Worker • Uses mezzotint over etched guidelines • Thrash wanted to use the dark mood created by mezzotint to reflect the drama and seriousness of the war effort at home • This work was sponsored by the Works Projects Administration, a government program originally created during the Great Depression to employ Americans at a time when jobs were hard to find • Thrash, like other artists of the time, uses the dark values afforded by the medium to express the spirit and strength of the American worker
  • 36. Planographic Printmaking • Planographic prints are made from an entirely flat surface • The printmaker treats parts of the surface so the ink adheres only to selected areas
  • 37. Lithography • Lithography is traditionally done on stone • German author Alois Senefelder devised the lithographic printing process in 1796 • Some artists like lithography because it allows them to draw a design in the same way they do a drawing • An artist first draws a design, using a grease pencil or other oil-based drawing material, directly onto a piece of specially selected, cleaned, and prepared limestone • The combination of the water-absorbent stone and the oily drawing material work together so that a design in oil-based ink is suspended on the surface to print
  • 38. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 2.53 A brief overview of the lithography process: 1 The artist designs the image to be printed 2 Using a grease pencil, the design is drawn onto the limestone, blocking the pores 3 The stone is treated with acid and other chemicals that are brushed onto its surface 4 The surface is wiped clean with a solvent, such as kerosene 5 The stone is sponged so that water can be absorbed into the pores of the stone 6 Oil-based ink is repelled by the water and sits only on areas where the oil crayon image was drawn 7 Paper is laid on the surface of the stone and it is drawn through a press 8 The paper is removed from the press
  • 39. 2.54 Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834. Lithograph, 11½ x 17⅝‖. Private collection
  • 40. Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834 • Daumier used his skills combined with the lithographic process to tell the citizens of Paris about an incident of police brutality • Depicted the aftermath of an incident that took place at Rue Transnonain on April 15, 1834 • Thinking that an attack had come from a residence at 12 Rue Transnonain, the authorities entered the house and ruthlessly killed everyone inside • A father and child lie in the center, flanked by the mother and an elderly family member
  • 41. Silkscreen Printing • Silkscreen printing is one of the most versatile printing processes, capable of placing a heavy coverage of ink on a wide variety of surfaces • Silkscreen printing was first developed in China during the Sung Dynasty and uses a stencil process • The image area of the screen is open and allows ink to pass through, while the rest of the screen is masked off
  • 42. 2.55 Andy Warhol, Double Elvis, 1963. Silkscreen ink and silver paint on canvas, 17’¾‖ × 6’9⅞‖. Stiftung Sammlung Marx, Hamburger Bahnhof- Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin, Germany
  • 43. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Andy Warhol, Double Elvis • Andy Warhol utilized photographic silkscreen techniques over aluminum paint to create a distinctive style • The artist deliberately repeats the image of Elvis to comment on the nature of mass-produced images in advertising • He emphasizes the flatness and lack of depth in the character played by Elvis • The doubling “clones” of Elvis accentuate the degeneration that occurs when an original is copied
  • 44. Editions • Prints are produced in limited numbers of identical impressions, called editions • The printmaker has the ethical responsibility of making sure each print is similar enough to the others that each person who buys a print has a high-quality image • When a print is deemed identical to others in the edition it is assigned a number in the production sequence • Even though they could create more prints than they do, most artists decide to print a set number of prints: a limited edition
  • 45. Monotypes and Monoprints • Monotypes and monoprints are print techniques where the artist means to produce a unique image – A monotype image prints from a polished plate, perhaps glass or metal – Monoprints can be made using any print process
  • 46. 2.56 Hedda Sterne, Untitled (Machine Series), 1949. Trace monotype, design 12 x 16⅜‖. Harvard Art Museums, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • 47. Hedda Sterne, Untitled (Machine Series) • Sole woman in a group of abstract painters called the Irascibles • Although abstract, Sterne’s Untitled monotype makes associations with architectural and mechanical images • Sterne probably employed a straightedge to maintain the regularity of line in the print
  • 48. 2.57 Kathy Strauss, Kepler Underneath 1, 2007. Monotype over India-inked calculations, Somerset velvet paper, each panel 30 x 23‖. Collection of the artist
  • 49. Kathy Strauss, Kepler Underneath 1 • Painstakingly depicts the Milky Way Galaxy • The artist has first incised a series of calculus problems into the metal plate • The plate was then completely covered with ink and wiped • Strauss then painted the image of the Milky Way in ink directly onto the same plate • Centered the paper over the image and ran it through the press • Because Strauss painted the ink on by hand, she cannot re- create the result exactly in a second print, so it is not part of an edition
  • 50. Conclusion • For relief prints artists carve into a flat, comparatively soft surface (often wood or linoleum) to leave an image on the surface of the block • For intaglio processes, such as engraving, drypoint, and etching, artists cut or gouge into a hard surface • Planographic printing by lithography allows artists to use their familiar drawing skills with an oily crayon on a specially prepared stone • Using stencils to block out non-image areas, silkscreen printing is particularly suited to laying down flat areas of heavy color
  • 51. Chapter 2.3Printmaking PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
  • 52. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.3 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 53. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2.41 Ralph Larmann 2.43 British Museum, London 2.44 Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously (by exchange), Acc. no. 119.1956. Photo 2011, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. © Nolde Stiftung Seebüll 2.45 Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Prints & Photographs Division, H. Irving Olds collection, LC-DIG-jpd- 02018 2.46 Ralph Larmann 2.47 Victoria & Albert Museum, London 2.48 © DACS 2011 2.49 Kupferstichkabinett, Museen Preussiches Kulturbesitz, Berlin 2.50 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1935, Acc. no. 35.42. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 2.51a Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid 2.51b Private Collection 2.52 Print and Picture Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia. Courtesy Fine Arts Program, Public Buildings Service, U.S. General Services Administration. Commissioned through the New Deal art projects 2.53 Ralph Larmann 2.54 Private Collection 2.55 © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/DACS London 2011 2.56 Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Art Museums, Margaret Fisher Fund, M25276. Photo Imaging Department © President & Fellows of Harvard College. © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2011 2.57 © Kathy Strauss 2007 Picture Credits for Chapter 2.3
  • 54. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Printing with inks was first used in which country in the third century ce? a. Afghanistan b. China c. Italy d. Germany e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 192
  • 55. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Printing with inks was first used in which country in the third century ce? a. Afghanistan b. China c. Italy d. Germany e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 192
  • 56. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. The German artist Albrecht Dürer created the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse using which relief printmaking method? a. woodcut b. linocut c. etching d. engraving e. lithography
  • 57. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. The German artist Albrecht Dürer created the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse using which relief printmaking method? a. woodcut b. linocut c. etching d. engraving e. lithography
  • 58. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. When creating a multi-color print, the alignment of blocks or plates to ensure that the colors will appear in the correct location is called ______. a. orientation b. directing c. piloting d. registration e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 194
  • 59. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. When creating a multi-color print, the alignment of blocks or plates to ensure that the colors will appear in the correct location is called ______. a. orientation b. directing c. piloting d. registration e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 194
  • 60. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. Hokusai and Albrecht Dürer were printmakers who lived at different times and in different countries, but they had this in common: a. they both produced images about the decadent upper classes. b. they were both right-handed. c. they were both Protestant Christians. d. they both had unhappy marriages to multiple wives. e. they both relied on skilled craftsmen to execute their print editions. Feedback/Reference: Pages 194–95
  • 61. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. Hokusai and Albrecht Dürer were printmakers who lived at different times and in different countries, but they had this in common: a. they both produced images about the decadent upper classes. b. they were both right-handed. c. they were both Protestant Christians. d. they both had unhappy marriages to multiple wives. e. they both relied on skilled craftsmen to execute their print editions. Feedback/Reference: Pages 194–95
  • 62. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. Max Beckmann exploited the irregular character of drypoint for his version of Adam and Eve because it fit the style of which group with whom he was affiliated? a. Futurist b. Expressionist c. Surrealist d. Impressionist e. Fauves Feedback/Reference: Page 196
  • 63. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. Max Beckmann exploited the irregular character of drypoint for his version of Adam and Eve because it fit the style of which group with whom he was affiliated? a. Futurist b. Expressionist c. Surrealist d. Impressionist e. Fauves Feedback/Reference: Page 196
  • 64. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. This material, derived from tree sap, is important in aquatint, a printmaking process that emulates the appearance of water-based media. a. oil crayon b. burin c. rosin d. edition e. linocut Feedback/Reference: Page 197
  • 65. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. This material, derived from tree sap, is important in aquatint, a printmaking process that emulates the appearance of water-based media. a. oil crayon b. burin c. rosin d. edition e. linocut Feedback/Reference: Page 197
  • 66. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. Francisco Goya created a series of works with horrific subjects, titled ______. a. Adam and Eve b. Murder at the Rue Morgue c. The Disasters of War d. Acts of Man and Nature e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 198
  • 67. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. Francisco Goya created a series of works with horrific subjects, titled ______. a. Adam and Eve b. Murder at the Rue Morgue c. The Disasters of War d. Acts of Man and Nature e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 198
  • 68. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. Which German author devised the lithographic printing process because he wanted to use a cheaper printing method? a. Goethe b. Nietzsche c. Hesse d. Mann e. Senefelder Feedback/Reference: Page 199
  • 69. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. Which German author devised the lithographic printing process because he wanted to use a cheaper printing method? a. Goethe b. Nietzsche c. Hesse d. Mann e. Senefelder Feedback/Reference: Page 199
  • 70. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. At one point in the lithography process, the artist must wipe the stone clean with which solvent to prepare for the inking? a. water b. soda water c. lye d. kerosene e. nitric acid Feedback/Reference: Page 200
  • 71. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. At one point in the lithography process, the artist must wipe the stone clean with which solvent to prepare for the inking? a. water b. soda water c. lye d. kerosene e. nitric acid Feedback/Reference: Page 200
  • 72. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. Andy Warhol produced silkscreen prints depicting many celebrities, including which singer/actor who was shown in a double portrait? a. Elvis Presley b. Will Smith c. Bing Crosby d. Madonna e. Rodney Dangerfield
  • 73. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. Andy Warhol produced silkscreen prints depicting many celebrities, including which singer/actor who was shown in a double portrait? a. Elvis Presley b. Will Smith c. Bing Crosby d. Madonna e. Rodney Dangerfield
  • 74. Chapter 2.4 Visual Communication Design PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Copyright © 2011 Thames& Hudson
  • 75. Introduction • The essence of visual communication design is the use of symbols to communicate information and ideas • Traditional communication design was known as graphic design: the design of books, magazines, posters, advertising, and other printed matter by arranging drawings, photographs, and type • Advances in printing processes, television, the computer, and the growth of the Web have expanded graphic design to include many more design possibilities • While based on simple ideas, visual communication design enables us to express our ideas with increasing clarity, style, and sophistication—valuable qualities in a rapidly changing world
  • 76. The Early History of Graphic Arts • The ancient Mesopotamians were the first people to employ picture symbols in a consistent language system • The ancient Egyptians created their own version of picture symbols, known as hieroglyphics, as a written form of communication • Western alphabets have now lost any of their earliest connections with representations of things • Calligraphy expresses layers of meaning and feelings by means of the shape of written letterforms • During the Middle Ages, European artists combined calligraphy and illustration to craft illuminated manuscripts
  • 77. 2.58 Section of papyrus from Book of the Dead of Ani, c. 1250 BCE, British Museum, London, England
  • 78. Section of papyrus from Book of the Dead of Ani • The Egyptians wrote hieroglyphics on scrolls made of a paper-like substance created from the pith of the papyrus plant
  • 79. 2.59 Rubbing of stele inscription, Preface of the Lanting Gathering, Ding Wu version (Inukai version), original by Wang Xizhi, Eastern Jin Dynasty, dated 353. Album, ink on paper, 9⅝ x 8⅞‖. Tokyo National Museum, Japan
  • 80. Rubbing of stele inscription, Preface of the Lanting Gathering • The Chinese calligrapher Wang Xizhi defined the art of calligraphy in China during the Jin Dynasty • Although none of Wang’s originals still exists, other calligraphers copied his work through the ages, perpetuating his ideal of perfect form • In ancient China, fine specimens of writing were carved on large standing stone tablets, from which visitors could take copies by making rubbings—a rudimentary printing technique
  • 81. 2.60 Dutch History Bible, copied by Gherard Wessels van Deventer in Utrecht, 1443, fol. 8r. National Library of the Netherlands, The Hague
  • 82. Dutch History Bible • Illuminated manuscripts were executed in monasteries on prepared animal skins, called parchment • After being painted and lettered by hand, they were bound as books • This kind of design was very time consuming and produced only one copy of the book
  • 83. Graphic Design • Graphic design is the art of improving visual communication design • In text design headings, page numbers, illustrations, and the definitions of terms in the margin have all been carefully considered • In graphic design, the communication is intended to be instantaneous, clear, and direct
  • 84. Typography • The visual form of printed letters, words, and text is called typography • Type, a word derived from a Greek word meaning to strike, first came into existence with Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press in Germany around 1450 • Gutenberg also created a technique for producing small cast metal letter shapes, known as letterforms, that could be set next to each other in a row, inked, and then printed in relief on paper using his press
  • 85. 2.61 Albrecht Dürer, pages from Course in the Art of Measurement with Compass and Ruler, 1538. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England
  • 86. Albrecht Dürer, pages from Course in the Art of Measurement with Compass and Ruler • Dürer sought to create a set of rules for the design of letter shapes • His was the first text to standardize how to create each letter using such geometric elements as squares, circles, and lines • Through these careful instructions a typographer could create letterforms similar to those used by the ancient Romans
  • 87. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 2.62 Some font styles
  • 88. Logos • A logo is often simply a carefully designed piece of type, called a logotype, that is unique and easily identified
  • 89. 2.63 Ford Motor Company logo, c. 1906
  • 90. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Ford Motor Company logo • In 1903 an engineer and Ford executive named Harold Wills created the original logo, which read “Ford Motor Company Detroit, Mich.”, from the lettering style used on his business cards • His original design was later simplified into a plainer writing style that was common at the time • This particular font, known as Spencerian script, was derived from the style of handwriting that was practiced in America in the nineteenth century
  • 91. 2.64 Chevrolet logo, first used in 1913
  • 92. Chevrolet logo • The Chevrolet logo was first used in 1913 and has been an identifying mark for the company ever since • Originally, the name “Chevrolet” was written across the simple stylized cross (called the “bowtie”) • Over time, the symbol became associated in people’s minds with the name, which was then removed from the design • It now communicates the company name without using one letter of the alphabet
  • 93. Illustration • Illustrations are images created to inform as well as to embellish the printed page • Good illustration is critical in such fields as medicine and science, where it may communicate essential information more effectively than text or a photograph
  • 94. William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, page from Works of Geoffrey Chaucer • The nineteenth-century English artists and designers William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones believed society should reject rampant industrialization and restore hand craftsmanship • Their illustrated book of the works of the medieval poet Geoffrey Chaucer was handcrafted so that each page contained illustrations, illuminated characters, and patterns • The illustrations allow readers to experience and understand the works of Chaucer more richly • They support and enhance the written words
  • 95. 2.65 William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, page from Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, Kelmscott Press, 1896. British Museum, London, England
  • 96. 2.66 Norman Rockwell, Rosie the Riveter, 1943. Oil on canvas, 52 x 40‖. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas
  • 97. Norman Rockwell, Rosie the Riveter • Norman Rockwell drew covers for the Saturday Evening Post magazine for forty-seven years • One of Rockwell’s most effective and memorable images is a character he created to support the war effort on the home front during World War II • Rosie the Riveter, a female construction worker, symbolizes the contribution American women were making, working in jobs traditionally held by men • Rockwell’s Rosie sits defiantly and confidently as she looks down from her lunchtime perch
  • 98. 2.67 Kok Cheow Yeoh, Kiddo, c. 1994. Computer-generated vector drawing
  • 99. Kok Cheow Yeoh, Kiddo • Digitally created • Yeoh’s images, such as Kiddo, can easily be distributed via many different mass-media channels • He controls color so that his work is relatively inexpensive to print and uses less disk space on a computer
  • 100. Layout Design • Layout design is the art of organizing type, logos, and illustrations in traditional print media • Good layout design is essential if information is to be easily understood • One of the main considerations in layout design is spacing • Designers are very aware of white space— the voids that lie between text areas and images—and are careful in its organization and distribution in their layouts
  • 101. 2.68 Henri de Toulouse- Lautrec, La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge, 1891. Lithograph in black, yellow, red, and blue on three sheets of tan wove paper, 6’2½‖ x 3’9⅝‖. Art Institute of Chicago
  • 102. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge • Toulouse-Lautrec created posters for his favorite Parisian nightspot, the Moulin Rouge • Uses a free, rounded writing style that is as casual as the spectators in the nightclub scene, as they watch La Goulue (the nickname, meaning “The Glutton,” of the dancer Louise Weber) dance the can-can • Toulouse-Lautrec’s great skill as an illustrator and typographer is apparent in the excellent hand-rendered text and images
  • 103. 2.69 Hill, Holliday, Connors, Cosmopulos advertising agency, Boston, Massachusetts, Tyco—A Vital Part of Your World, 2005
  • 104. Hill, Holliday, Connors, Cosmopulos advertising agency, Tyco—A Vital Part of Your World • The designer carefully controls the color and size of the fonts so that the list of Tyco products and services reveals the face of a young child • The designer effectively communicates the suggestion that Tyco’s products and services are vital to her and others’ survival
  • 105. Web Design • The use of text and image in mass communication has evolved from the motionless design of print publications to the interactive designs used on the World Wide Web • The Web allows designers more freedom to add interactivity so that text and image can change as the reader progresses through the information presented
  • 106. 2.70 Carolina Photojournalism Workshop, Seth Moser-Katz (design) and Emily Merwyn (programming). Photo Eileen Mignoni. School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008. http://www.carolinaphotojournalism.org/cpjw/2008/
  • 107. Carolina Photojournalism Workshop • The artist, Seth Moser-Katz, has placed a large photographic background image, illustrating the important issue of beach erosion, into the page design • The central location of the gray text-box combined with the open space around it draws attention to the written message • Moser-Katz has also cleverly created a series of rectangular images as hyperlinks at the bottom of the design • By employing good visual communication design Moser- Katz makes the message more direct, clear, and engaging
  • 108. Conclusion • Calligraphy is the sophisticated art of expressive handwriting and influenced the first Black Letter machine-made typeforms • With the advent of the printing press, the new art of typography focused on refining the attributes of movable type, leading to new Roman-inspired letterforms • Typographers further enhanced the communicative possibilities of their medium by developing the use of bold, italics, varying sizes, and color • Logos and logotypes identify millions of organizations quickly, powerfully, and memorably
  • 109. Chapter 2.3Printmaking PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
  • 110. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.3Printmaking This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.4 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 111. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2.58 British Museum, London 2.59 Tokyo National Museum 2.60 Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, Folio 8r., shelf no. 69B 10 2.61 V&A Images/Victoria & Albert Museum 2.62 Ralph Larmann 2.63 Courtesy Ford Motor Company 2.64 General Motors Corp. Used with permission, GM Media Archives 2.65 from Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, Kelmscott Press, 1896 2.66 Printed by permission of the Norman Rockwell Family Agency. Book Rights Copyright © 1943 The Norman Rockwell Family Entities 2.67 Courtesy Kok Cheow Yeoh 2.68 The Art Institute of Chicago, Mr. and Mrs. Carter H. Harrison Collection, 1954.1193 2.69 Taesam Do/FoodPix/Getty. Image courtesy Hill Holiday 2.70 School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Photo Eileen Mignoni Picture Credits for Chapter 2.4
  • 112. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2.4 STUDY QUESTIONS
  • 113. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Artists who engage in visual communication design must be well versed in the use of ______ because they must use many avenues to distribute their work. a. painting b. sculpture c. printmaking d. media e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 204
  • 114. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Artists who engage in visual communication design must be well versed in the use of ______ because they must use many avenues to distribute their work. a. painting b. sculpture c. printmaking d. media e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 204
  • 115. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. Even though Wang Xizhi had died long before, many students were able to retrieve specimens of his writing style by ______. a. making rubbings from a stone tablet b. finding copies in ancient libraries c. paying skilled craftsmen to make them d. falling into deep dreamlike trances e. having séances with a medium Feedback/Reference: Page 205
  • 116. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. Even though Wang Xizhi had died long before, many students were able to retrieve specimens of his writing style by ______. a. making rubbings from a stone tablet b. finding copies in ancient libraries c. paying skilled craftsmen to make them d. falling into deep dreamlike trances e. having séances with a medium Feedback/Reference: Page 205
  • 117. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. Type is a word meaning "to strike," derived from which language? a. Arabic b. German c. Greek d. Swahili e. Mandarin Feedback/Reference: Page 206
  • 118. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. Type is a word meaning "to strike," derived from which language? a. Arabic b. German c. Greek d. Swahili e. Mandarin Feedback/Reference: Page 206
  • 119. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. When a typeface does not have any extra embellishments on the top and bottom of the letterforms, it is called a ______ font. a. sans serif b. serif c. logotype d. graphic e. simple Feedback/Reference: Page 207
  • 120. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. When a typeface does not have any extra embellishments on the top and bottom of the letterforms, it is called a ______ font. a. sans serif b. serif c. logotype d. graphic e. simple Feedback/Reference: Page 207
  • 121. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. The logo that identifies the Ford Motor Company was created using Spencerian script by ______ named Harold Wills. a. a designer b. an autoworker with art experience c. a calligrapher d. a part-time stand-up comic and autoworker e. an engineer and executive Feedback/Reference: Page 207
  • 122. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. The logo that identifies the Ford Motor Company was created using Spencerian script by ______ named Harold Wills. a. a designer b. an autoworker with art experience c. a calligrapher d. a part-time stand-up comic and autoworker e. an engineer and executive Feedback/Reference: Page 207
  • 123. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. The artists Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris believed that society should reject rampant industrialization and restore ______. a. clay tablets b. hand craftsmanship c. incised stone tablets d. rule by the Church e. human sacrifice Feedback/Reference: Page 208
  • 124. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. The artists Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris believed that society should reject rampant industrialization and restore ______. a. clay tablets b. hand craftsmanship c. incised stone tablets d. rule by the Church e. human sacrifice Feedback/Reference: Page 208
  • 125. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. The illustrator Norman Rockwell introduced Rosie the Riveter on the cover of which weekly magazine during World War II? a. The New Yorker b. Reader’s Digest c. Field and Stream d. Stars and Stripes e. Saturday Evening Post Feedback/Reference: Page 209
  • 126. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. The illustrator Norman Rockwell introduced Rosie the Riveter on the cover of which weekly magazine during World War II? a. The New Yorker b. Reader’s Digest c. Field and Stream d. Stars and Stripes e. Saturday Evening Post Feedback/Reference: Page 209
  • 127. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. The designer and artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec created poster designs for which Parisian night club? a. Maxim’s b. Moulin Rouge c. Les FoliesBergère d. Traitor Vic’s e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 210
  • 128. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. The designer and artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec created poster designs for which Parisian night club? a. Maxim’s b. Moulin Rouge c. Les FoliesBergère d. Traitor Vic’s e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 210
  • 129. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. An advertisement for Tyco products integrated image and text by ______. a. placing captions under a picture b. using diagrams to explain the text c. changing color and size to create a picture d. incorporating icons that have specific meanings e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 210
  • 130. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. An advertisement for Tyco products integrated image and text by ______. a. placing captions under a picture b. using diagrams to explain the text c. changing color and size to create a picture d. incorporating icons that have specific meanings e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 210
  • 131. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. In web page design, text that will immediately link to another web page is called ______. a. the URL b. an inverse text c. a domain d. a hyperlink
  • 132. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. In web page design, text that will immediately link to another web page is called ______. a. the URL b. an inverse text c. a domain d. a hyperlink