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Art 110 ch 2.1 and ch 2.2
 

Art 110 ch 2.1 and ch 2.2

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    Art 110 ch 2.1 and ch 2.2 Art 110 ch 2.1 and ch 2.2 Presentation Transcript

    • ART 110 CHAPTERS 2.1 & 2.2
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Introduction  Drawing—defined as the depiction of shapes and forms on a surface, primarily by means of lines—is a fundamental artistic skill  Even before we learn to write, we learn to draw  Drawing provides a primal outlet for artistic energy and ideas  Artists draw for many reasons  To define their ideas  To plan for larger projects  To resolve design issues in preparatory sketches  To record their visual observations
    • 2.1 Leonardo da Vinci, Drawing for a wing of a flying machine, from the Codice Atlantico, fol. 858r. Pen and ink. Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy
    • Leonardo da Vinci, Drawing for a wing of a flying machine • Leonardo considered whether humans might also be able to fly if the mechanics of a bird’s wing were re-created on a human scale • His drawing of a flying machine illustrates a concept that had never been considered in this way before • Drawing provided Leonardo with a way to express his ideas beyond what could be said in words
    • 2.2 Leonardo da Vinci, Studies of the foetus in the womb, c. 1510–13. Pen and ink and wash over red chalk and traces of black chalk, 12 x 8¾”. Royal Collection, England
    • Leonardo da Vinci, Studies of the foetus in the womb • Drawings like this are rare because the Church banned all acts that desecrated the body, including dissection • Leonardo may have been allowed to record his observations because he practiced his drawing methodically and with great care • Some speculate that the Church was interested in Leonardo’s observations as possible evidence of how the human soul resides in the body
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Functions of Drawing  All artists draw for the same reasons as Leonardo: as an end in itself, to think, and to prepare and plan other works  Drawing played an essential role in Raphael’s planning of his fresco The School of Athens
    • 2.3a Raphael, Cartoon for The School of Athens, c. 1509. Charcoal and chalk, 9’4¼” × 26’4⅝”. Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy
    • 2.3b Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’8” × 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
    • Gateway to Art: Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Raphael, The School of Athens Drawing in the Design Process  Raphael’s preliminary drawings allowed him to refine his ideas and perfect the image at a smaller scale • The artist began the painting process by creating a large drawing of the work • This design, called the cartoon, was perforated with small pinholes all along where the lines were drawn • It was then positioned on the wall where Raphael intended to paint the work, and powdered charcoal dust was forced through the small holes in the cartoon’s surface • The impression left behind would aid Raphael in drawing the image onto the wall
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields The Materials of Drawing: Dry Media  Dry media offer the artist some unique and versatile properties
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Dry Media: Pencil  A deposit of solid graphite was discovered in the mid-1500s and gave rise to the manufacture of the basic pencil we know today  Pencils have different degrees of hardness  The B or black graphite pencils are softer and darker  The H or hard graphite pencils create a relatively light mark 2.4 Pencil hardness scale from 9H to 9B
    • 2.5 Ilka Gedö, Self-portrait, 1944. Graphite on paper, 11⅝ x 8⅜”. British Museum, London, England
    • Ilka Gedö, Self-portrait • Used thick dark lines to imply darkness and thin light lines to suggest lightness – The dark value of the eye and wavy hair, where the pencil has been pressed hard, concentrates our attention on the artist’s face – Notice how softly the artist handles the graphite in the areas representing the skin compared with the hair or clothing • Gedö was a survivor of the Holocaust – This drawing records her gaunt features shortly after her internment
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Dry Media: Color Pencil  Color pencil is manufactured much like the traditional graphite pencil, but the mixture that makes up the lead has higher amounts of wax and pigment  Color pencils are used just like graphite pencils, although their marks may be harder to erase or alter
    • 2.6 Birgit Megerle, Untitled, 2003. Pencil and colored pencil on paper, 16¾ x 11¾”. MOMA, New York
    • Birgit Megerle, Untitled • Megerle applies the colored pencil lightly, allowing the whiteness of the paper to dominate • These pale tones of color give the drawing a light overall appearance • Megerle’s highly regarded style communicates a sense of stillness
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Dry Media: Silverpoint  Silverpoint is a piece of silver wire set in a holder to make the wire easier to hold and control  The artist hones the end of the wire to a sharp point  Because of the hardness of the silver, artists can create finely detailed drawings  Because silver tarnishes, the drawing becomes darker and the image more pronounced over time  Historically, artists have drawn with silverpoint on wood primed with a thin coating of bone ash
    • 2.7 Raphael, Heads of the Virgin and Child, c. 1509–11. Silverpoint on pink prepared paper, 5⅝ x 4⅜”. British Museum, London, England
    • Raphael, Heads of the Virgin and Child • Because silverpoint has such a light value and is usually drawn with very thin lines, much of the white paper is exposed • Closely overlapping many parallel lines across each other creates the illusion of a darker value. This is called hatching • Artists use this technique to darken values and create the effect of shading
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Dry Media: Charcoal  Charcoal smudges easily, creates lines that can be easily shaped and altered, usually has strong dark value, and is soft compared to metal-based drawing materials  Artists choose charcoal as a drawing material when they want to express strong dark tones, add interest to a surface, and make something look solid rather than linear  Vine charcoal is made from thin vine branches and is very soft and easily erased  Compressed charcoal, to which a binding agent such as wax is sometimes added, is much denser  To draw with charcoal, an artist drags the stick across a fibrous surface, usually paper, leaving a soft-edged line
    • 2.8 Käthe Kollwitz, Self-portrait in Profile to Left, 1933. Charcoal on paper, 18¾ × 25”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
    • Käthe Kollwitz, Self-portrait in Profile to Left • In her self-portrait we feel a sense of energy from the way Kollwitz applies the charcoal • Although she renders her own face and hand realistically, in the space between we see the nervous energy connecting the eye to the hand • Kollwitz draws with a spontaneous burst of charcoal marks along the arm, in expressive contrast to the more considered areas of the head and hand
    • 2.9 Léon Augustin Lhermitte, An Elderly Peasant Woman, c. 1878. Charcoal on wove paper, 18¾ x 15⅝”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
    • Léon Augustin Lhermitte, An Elderly Peasant Woman • Each line and blemish on this woman’s face has been carefully rendered • The charcoal’s dark value accentuates the contrast between the highlights in the face and the overall darkened tone of the work • Lhermitte has controlled charcoal’s inherent smudginess to offer an intimate view of the effects of aging
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Dry Media: Chalk, Pastel, and Crayon  Sticks of chalk, pastel, and crayon are made by combining pigment and binder  Binders include oil, wax, gum arabic, and glues  Chalk is powdered calcium carbonate mixed with a gum arabic (a type of tree sap) binder  Pastel is pigment combined with gum arabic, wax, or oil, while crayon is pigment combined with wax  Conté crayon is a heavily pigmented crayon sometimes manufactured with graphite
    • 2.10 Michelangelo, Studies for the Libyan Sibyl, 1510–11. Red chalk, 11⅜ x 8⅜”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    • Michelangelo, Studies for the Libyan Sibyl • Drawn using red chalk known as sanguine • Made in preparation for painting the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome • The artist’s study concentrates on the muscular definition of the back and on the face, shoulder, and hand, and gives repeated attention to the detail of the big toe • These details are essential to making this twisting pose convincing
    • 2.11 Edgar Degas, The Tub, 1886. Pastel, 23⅝ x 32⅝”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France
    • Edgar Degas, The Tub • Degas is noted for pastel studies that stand as finished works of art • Degas lays down intermittent strokes of different color pastels • The charcoal-like softness of the material is used to blend the colors together, giving them a rich complexity and creating a variety of contrasting textures
    • 2.12 Georges Seurat, Trees on the Bank of the Seine (study for La Grande Jatte), 1884. Black Conté crayon on white laid paper, 24½ x 18½”. Art Institute of Chicago
    • Georges Seurat, Trees on the Bank of the Seine (study for La Grande Jatte) • Conté crayon drawing • Seurat designates the foreground by using darker values • He allows the color of the paper to be more dominant in areas he wants to recede into the distance
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Erasers and Fixatives  Erasers are used not only for correction but also to create light marks in areas already drawn  In this way the artist can embellish highlights by working from the dark to light
    • 2.13 Robert Rauschenberg, Erased de Kooning Drawing, 1953. Traces of ink and crayon on paper, in gold leaf frame, 25¼ x 21¾ x ½”. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
    • Robert Rauschenberg, Erased de Kooning Drawing • Rauschenberg created a new work of art by erasing a drawing by Willem de Kooning • De Kooning agreed to give Rauschenberg a drawing, understanding what the younger artist had in mind • But, in order to make it more difficult, de Kooning gave Rauschenberg a drawing made with charcoal, oil paint, pencil, and crayon • It took Rauschenberg nearly a month to erase it • Rauschenberg’s idea was to create a performed work of conceptual art and display the result
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields The Materials of Drawing: Wet Media  The wet media used in drawings are applied with brushes or pens  Wet media dry or harden as the liquid evaporates
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Wet Media: Ink  Ink is a favorite of artists because of its permanence, precision, and strong dark color  Carbon ink, made by mixing soot with water and gum, has been in use in China and India since around 2500 BCE • A contemporary version of carbon ink, called India (or Indian) ink, is a favorite of comic book artists  Most European ink drawings from the Renaissance to the present day are made with iron gall ink • Gall ink is not entirely lightfast, however, and tends to lighten to brown after many years  Other types of fluid media include bistre, which is derived from wood soot and usually a yellow-brown color, and sepia, a brown medium that is derived from the secretions of cuttlefish
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Wet Media: Quill and Pen  Traditionally a quill—the shaft of a bird’s feather, or a similarly hollow reed—is carved to a point to apply the ink  A slit, running parallel to the shaft, helps control its rate of flow  The artist can control the flow of the ink by pressing harder or more softly  The artist can further increase or decrease the width of the drawn line by holding the pen at different angles
    • 2.14 Vincent van Gogh, Sower with Setting Sun, 1888. Pen and brown ink, 9⅝ × 12⅝”. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    • Vincent van Gogh, Sower with Setting Sun • Van Gogh uses a reed pen and brown ink • By changing the way he applies his pen strokes and by controlling their width, he creates an undulating, restless design • Van Gogh’s emphatic direction of line expresses the characteristic energy of his work
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Wet Media: Brush Drawing  The ancient Chinese used brush and ink for both writing and drawing  These brushes are made with a bamboo shaft and either ox, goat, horse, or wolf hair  Traditionally, Asian artists use a stick of solid ink that they hold upright and grind on a special ink stone with a small amount of water  Artists wet the brush by dipping it into this reservoir, and then adjust the shape and charge of the brush by stroking it on the flat of the grinding stone
    • 2.15 Wu Zhen, Leaf from an album of bamboo drawings, 1350. Ink on paper, 16 x 21”. National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Wu Zhen, Leaf from an album of bamboo drawings• This finely planned design contains carefully controlled brushstrokes as well as loose, freer ink applications • Because the artist uses only a few shapes, the arrangement of the bamboo leaves becomes like a series of letters in a word or sentence • Wu achieves the changing dark and light values by adding water to create a wash and lighten the ink • This work was intended as a model for Wu’s son to follow as he learned the art of brushwork from his father
    • 2.16 Claude Lorrain, The Tiber from Monte Mario Looking South, 1640. Dark brown wash on white paper, 7⅜ x 10⅝”. British Museum, London, England
    • Claude Lorrain, The Tiber from Monte Mario Looking South • Thoughtful brushstrokes give us a feeling of the great expanse of the Italian countryside • The wash that Lorrain uses gives a sense of depth by making the values of the foreground areas both the darkest and lightest of the whole drawing
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Paper  Paper was invented in China by Cai Lun, who manufactured it from pounded or macerated plant fibers
    • 2.17 Hishikawa Moronobu, Papermaking in Japan, showing the vatman and the paper-drier, from the Wakoku Shoshoku Edzukushi, 1681. Woodblock print
    • Hishikawa Moronobu, Papermaking in Japan • This work depicts how the fibers are suspended in water and then scooped up into a flat mold with a screen at the bottom, so that the water can escape • The fibers are now bonded to each other enough to keep their shape when they are taken out • The sheet is then pressed and dried • Handmade papers are still manufactured this way in many countries, mostly from cotton fiber, although papers are also made of hemp, abaca, flax, and other plant fibers
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 2.18 Surface texture of wove and laid paper
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields The Drawing Process  Life drawing is the practice of drawing from a live model  We associate this process with nude models, but life drawing can also involve animals, plants, and architecture  Life drawing is one of the core skills that art students learn  Two types of introductory drawing methods are popular in the teaching of life drawing: gesture and contour
    • 2.19 Henri Matisse, Themes and Variations, series P, Woman Seated in an Armchair, pl. 2, 1942. Pen and ink, 19¾ x 15¾”. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons, France
    • 2.20 Henri Matisse, Icarus, from Jazz, 1943–7. Page size 16⅞ x 12⅞”. MOMA, New York
    • Gateway to Art: Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Matisse, Woman Seated in an Armchair and Icarus, Line and Shape  Contour lines provide linear clues about the surface of an object  The outer profile and undulating surfaces of the figure in Woman Seated in an Armchair are depicted in a long continuous line  Matisse’s interest in economically defining a shape can be seen not only in his contour drawings but also in his “cutouts,” such as Icarus  Matisse described his cutouts as “drawing with scissors,” implying that to him there was no great difference between working with contour lines and paper cutouts
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Gesture Drawing  Gesture drawing aims to identify and react to the main visual and expressive characteristics of a form  Since artists often confront changing subjects and situations, capturing the energy of the moment is the essential goal of gesture drawing
    • 2.21 Umberto Boccioni, Muscular Dynamism, 1913. Pastel and charcoal on paper, 34 x 23¼”. MOMA, New York
    • Umberto Boccioni, Muscular Dynamism • In this drawing the movement of the body is implied by the undulating strokes of the chalk and charcoal • The rhythms of the composition lead our eye through a series of changing curves and values that give us a feeling of the energy of the figure
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Contour Drawing  Contour drawing aims to register the essential qualities of three-dimensional form by rendering the outline, or contour, of an object  An artist uses contour drawing to sharpen hand–eye coordination and gain an intimate understanding of form, increasing his or her sensitivity to essential detail
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Conclusion  As an innate part of our humanity, we may have the urge to draw in order to record, visualize, and express ourselves  Artists use a variety of dry media, including pencil, silverpoint, and charcoal; and chalks, pastels, and crayon  Artists achieve the rich blackness or softly subtle washes in their wet media drawings by applying a variety of inks with either quills, pens, or brushes  Gesture and contour drawing are two techniques that aim to capture the essence of the subject
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.1 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2.1 Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan 2.2 The Royal Collection © Her Majesty The Queen 2.3a Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan 2.3b Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Museums, Rome 2.4 Ralph Larmann 2.5 © DACS 2011 2.6 Museum of Modern Art, New York, The Judith Rothschild Foundation Contemporary Drawings Collection Gift. Courtesy Daniel Reich Gallery, New York 2.7 British Museum, London 2.8 © DACS 2011 2.9 Photo Peter Nahum at The Leicester Galleries, London/Bridgeman Art Library 2.10 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1924, Acc. no. 24.197.2. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 2.11 Musée d’Orsay, Paris 2.12 The Art Institute of Chicago, Helen Regenstein Collection, 1966.184 2.13 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Purchased through a gift of Phyllis Wattis. © Estate of Robert Rauschenberg. DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2011 2.14 Van Gogh Museum (Vincent Van Gogh Foundation), Amsterdam 2.15 National Palace Museum, Taipei 2.16 British Museum, London 2.17 From Wakoku Shoshoku Edzukushi, 1681 2.18 Ralph Larmann 2.19 Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon. © Succession H. Matisse/DACS 2011 2.20 Teriade Editeur, Paris, 1947. Printer Edmond Vairel, Paris. Edition 250. Museum of Modern Art, New York, The Louis E. Stern Collection, 930.1964.8. Photo 2011, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. © Succession H. Matisse/DACS 2011 2.21 Museum of Modern Art, New York, Purchase, 330.1949. Photo 2011, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence Picture Credits for Chapter 2.1
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES STUDY QUESTIONS CH 2.1
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Which English artist and poet suggested that drawing is a fundamental artistic skill? a. William Blake b. Geoffrey Chaucer c. William Shakespeare d. e. e. cummings e. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Feedback/Reference: Page 166
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Which English artist and poet suggested that drawing is a fundamental artistic skill? a. William Blake b. Geoffrey Chaucer c. William Shakespeare d. e. e. cummings e. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Feedback/Reference: Page 166
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. Leonardo da Vinci engaged in which illegal activity in order to get detailed drawings of the human anatomy? a. cremation b. embalming c. dissection d. cannibalism e. nudity Feedback/Reference: Pages 166–67
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. Leonardo da Vinci engaged in which illegal activity in order to get detailed drawings of the human anatomy? a. cremation b. embalming c. dissection d. cannibalism e. nudity Feedback/Reference: Pages 166–67
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. When Raphael transferred his drawing of The School of Athens to the wall for painting he forced which substance through perforations in the paper? a. clay b. paint c. ink d. charcoal dust e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 168
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. When Raphael transferred his drawing of The School of Athens to the wall for painting he forced which substance through perforations in the paper? a. clay b. paint c. ink d. charcoal dust e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 168
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. Which material that looks and writes like lead, was discovered in the mid-1500s, and became the medium for use in pencils? a. charcoal b. graphite c. silver d. pewter e. petroleum Feedback/Reference: Page 169
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. Which material that looks and writes like lead, was discovered in the mid-1500s, and became the medium for use in pencils? a. charcoal b. graphite c. silver d. pewter e. petroleum Feedback/Reference: Page 169
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. Historically, when artists used silverpoint for a drawing they did so on wood that was covered with a thin coating of ______. a. gesso b. ink c. bone ash d. chalk e. paint Feedback/Reference: Page 170
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. Historically, when artists used silverpoint for a drawing they did so on wood that was covered with a thin coating of ______. a. gesso b. ink c. bone ash d. chalk e. paint Feedback/Reference: Page 170
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. The German artist Käthe Kollwitz used charcoal to express ______ in her self-portrait of 1933, even though she rendered her face and hand in a static, realistic way. a. a sense of humor b. a sense of energy c. a sense of balance d. common sense e. sense of proportion Feedback/Reference: Page 171
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. The German artist Käthe Kollwitz used charcoal to express ______ in her self-portrait of 1933, even though she rendered her face and hand in a static, realistic way. a. a sense of humor b. a sense of energy c. a sense of balance d. common sense e. sense of proportion Feedback/Reference: Page 171
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. Chalk, pastel, and crayon are created using pigment with a binder. Which of the following is a binder? a. gum arabic b. wax c. oil d. glue e. all of these Feedback/Reference: Page 172
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. Chalk, pastel, and crayon are created using pigment with a binder. Which of the following is a binder? a. gum arabic b. wax c. oil d. glue e. all of these Feedback/Reference: Page 172
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. Robert Rauschenberg created a work titled Erased de Kooning Drawing by erasing a work by the Abstract Expressionist artist Willem de Kooning. How long did it take Rauschenberg to erase the whole drawing? a. nearly a month b. about an hour c. nearly a week d. almost six months e. ten minutes Feedback/Reference: Page 174
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. Robert Rauschenberg created a work titled Erased de Kooning Drawing by erasing a work by the Abstract Expressionist artist Willem de Kooning. How long did it take Rauschenberg to erase the whole drawing? a. nearly a month b. about an hour c. nearly a week d. almost six months e. ten minutes Feedback/Reference: Page 174
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. Which of these is not used to make the bristles for a brush with a bamboo shaft, like those used by Asian artists? a. wolf hair b. horse hair c. goat hair d. ox hair e. all of these are used Feedback/Reference: Page 175
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. Which of these is not used to make the bristles for a brush with a bamboo shaft, like those used by Asian artists? a. wolf hair b. horse hair c. goat hair d. ox hair e. all of these are used Feedback/Reference: Page 175
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. Paper was invented by Cai Lun in China around the end of the ______ century ce. He used macerated vegetable fibers suspended in water. a. first b. tenth c. sixteenth d. nineteenth e. twentieth
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. Paper was invented by Cai Lun in China around the end of the ______ century ce. He used macerated vegetable fibers suspended in water. a. first b. tenth c. sixteenth d. nineteenth e. twentieth
    • CH 2.2 PAINTING
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Introduction  Artists have painted surfaces of many kinds for tens of thousands of years  Paint in its most basic form is composed of pigment suspended in a liquid binder that dries after it has been applied  Pigments have been extracted from minerals, soils, vegetable matter, and animal by-products  Binders are traditionally beeswax, egg yolk, vegetable oils and gums, and water; in modern times, art-supply manufacturers have developed such complex chemical substances as polymers
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Encaustic  To use encaustic, an artist must mix pigments with hot wax and then apply the mixture quickly  Artists can apply the paint with brushes, palette knives, or rags, or can simply pour it  A stiff-backed support is necessary because encaustic, when cool, is not very flexible and may crack 2.22 Palette knife, a tool that can be used by the painter for mixing and applying paint
    • 2.23 Portrait of a boy, c. 100–150 CE. Encaustic on wood, 15⅜ x 7½”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Portrait of a boy  This type of portrait would have been used as a funerary adornment that was placed over the face of the mummified deceased or on the outside of the sarcophagus in the face position  Was made by an anonymous artist during the second century CE in Roman Egypt  Encaustic portraits from this era are referred to as Fayum portraits after the Fayum Oasis in Egypt where many of them were found
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Tempera  Painters who use egg tempera have different ideas about what parts of the egg work best for tempera painting, but artists during the Renaissance preferred the yolk  Tempera is best mixed fresh for each painting session  Tempera is usually applied with a brush and dries almost immediately
    • 2.24 The Virgin and Child with Angels, Ferrarese School, c. 1470–80. Tempera, oil, and gold on panel, 23 x 17⅜”. National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields The Virgin and Child with Angels, Ferrarese School  Tempera paint consists of pigment and egg yolk  Also incorporates oil and gold leaf, a common combination at this time  Artist has chosen to paint an illusionistic frame that makes us think we are looking at the back of a damaged canvas  Tempera is normally painted with short thin strokes and lends itself to such careful detail
    • 2.25 Riza Abbasi, Two Lovers, Safavid period, 1629–30. Tempera and gilt paint on paper, 7⅛ x 4¾”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Riza Abbasi, Two Lovers  Islamic artists enjoyed the sensitive detail that can be achieved with tempera, and some used tempera with gold leaf to create rich images for the ruling class  This work, Two Lovers, combines a rich gold-leaf finish with the high detail of tempera  The artist used the transparency of the medium to make the plant life look delicate and wispy  The intertwined lovers stand out proudly from the softness of the plants in the background
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Fresco  This technique involves pigment mixed with water painted onto a freshly applied lime-plaster surface  The pigment is not mixed into a binder, as it is in other painting techniques  Once this chemical reaction is complete the color is extremely durable, making fresco a very permanent painting medium  The earliest examples of the fresco method come from Crete in the Mediterranean (the palace at Knossos and other sites) and date to c. 1600–1500 BCE
    • 2.27 Michelangelo, The Libyan Sibyl, 1511–12. Fresco. Detail of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Vatican City
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Michelangelo, The Libyan Sibyl  Michelangelo used the buon fresco method to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling  It took four years to complete  The artist used a strategic approach in order to disguise the seams between separate days’ work
    • Chapter 2.2 Painting PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
    • 2.28 Diego Rivera, Sugar Cane, 1931. Fresco on plaster, 4’10” x 7’11”. Philadelphia Museum of Art
    • 2.29 Melchor Peredo, Remembrance Fresco, 1999. Fresco, each panel 4 x 8’. Harton Theater, Southern Arkansas University, Magnolia
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Perspectives on Art: Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Melchor Peredo Fresco Painting Inspired by the Mexican Revolution  In the 1920s a group of artists decided to champion the struggles of ordinary Mexicans and express the ideals of the Mexican Revolution by reviving the art of fresco painting  The muralists were political radicals who were influenced by the ideas of socialist and communist leaders  Diego Rivera’s fresco Sugar Cane portrays the exploitation of workers on the large sugar farms in Morelos, south of Mexico City  Peredo studied with the great mural painters  His Remembrance Fresco focuses on important historical figures and local folklore, based on ideas given to him by students and members of an Arkansas community
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Oil  Artists used oil paint during the Middle Ages, but have only done so regularly since the fifteenth century  The oil most used as a binder was linseed oil, a by- product of the flax plant from which linen cloth is made  Giorgio Vasari, an Italian Renaissance writer and artist, credits the fifteenth-century Flemish painter Jan van Eyck with the invention of oil paint
    • 2.30 Jan van Eyck, The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, 1430–34. Oil on wood, 26 x 24⅜”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Jan van Eyck, The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin  Although Van Eyck did not invent oil paint, he was an exceptional practitioner of oil painting  This painting exhibits his masterful use of thin layers of color called glazes  Glazes attain a rich luminosity, as though lit from within
    • 2.31 Joan Brown, Girl in Chair, 1962. Oil on canvas, 5 x 4’. LACMA
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Joan Brown, Girl in Chair  Used oil in an impasto (thickly painted) fashion  The paint can pile up, giving Brown’s work a three- dimensional presence
    • 2.32 Hung Liu, Interregnum, 2002. Oil on canvas, 8’ x 9’6”. Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, Missouri
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Hung Liu, Interregnum  Hung grew up in Communist China before emigrating to the United States  Hung’s images express her Chinese roots  The traditional Chinese style is reflected in the idyllic figures in the upper part of Interregnum  Hung’s work shows the discontinuity between reality and the ideal
    • 2.33 Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c. 1620. Oil on canvas, 6’6⅜” × 5’3¾”. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy
    • 2.34 Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting (La Pittura), 1638–9. Oil on canvas, 38 x 29”. Royal Collection, London, England
    • Gateway to Art: Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes and Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting, Paintings as Personal Statements  Gentileschi was the daughter of an artist, and her talent was recognized and fostered by her father  Gentileschi often depicted strong female figures with emotion, intensity, and power  Artists have always made self-portraits to show off their skill and define themselves as they wish others to see them  “Allegory” means an image of a person that represents an idea or abstract quality  Gentileschi’s self-portrait shows her succeeding in the male- dominated world of the professional artist
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Acrylic  Acrylic paints are composed of pigments suspended in an acrylic polymer resin  These paints have only been in use since about 1950  They dry quickly and can be cleaned up with relative ease, using water  When dry acrylics have similar characteristics to those of oil paint
    • 2.35 Roger Shimomura, Untitled, 1984. Acrylic on canvas, 5’½” × 6’¼”. Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, Missouri
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Roger Shimomura, Untitled  Shimomura uses acrylic paint to create works that investigate the relationships between cultures  He merges traditional Japanese imagery with popular culture and typically American subjects  This combination of styles reflects the mixing of cultures resulting from communication and contact between nations  The painting explores the effects of conflict between two cultures
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Watercolor and Gouache  Watercolor and gouache suspend pigment in water with a sticky binder, usually gum arabic  Watercolor is transparent  An additive (often chalk) in gouache makes the paint opaque  Usually watercolor and gouache are painted on paper because the fibers of the paper help to hold the suspended pigments in place  Any white area in a watercolor is simply unpainted paper  White gouache can be used to cover areas of a watercolor that become too dark
    • 2.36 Albrecht Dürer, A Young Hare, 1502. Watercolor and gouache on paper, 9⅞ x 8⅞”. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Albrecht Dürer, A Young Hare  Reflects direct observation of a natural subject  Combination of watercolor with opaque white heightening  Conveys a sense of the creature’s soft, striped fur
    • 2.37 Sonia Delaunay, Prose of the Trans-Siberian Railway and of Little Jehanne of France, 1913. Watercolor and relief print on paper, support 77 x 14”
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Sonia Delaunay, Prose of the Trans- Siberian Railway and of Little Jehanne of France  Delaunay was the first woman to have her work shown at the Louvre Museum during her lifetime  Prose… is an artist’s book  Collaboration with the poet Blaise Cendrars  If all 150 copies of the first edition were placed end to end, it was intended they would stretch the height of the Eiffel Tower  Meant to be folded like a roadmap  Illustration progressively changes as the reader advances down the page
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Ink Painting  If you are drawing on a surface that is not fibrous enough, you need to modify the ink  Painting inks are slightly different from drawing inks because they have a binder  Ink can be painted in much the same way as watercolor  Artists sometimes incorporate ink into their watercolor paintings to give extra richness and darker values
    • 2.38 Suzuki Shonen, Fireflies at Uji River, Meiji period, 1868–1912. Ink, color, and gold on silk; hanging scroll, 13¾ x 50”. Clark Family Collection
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Suzuki Shonen, Fireflies at Uji River  The luscious darkness of the ink on silk-scroll supports the retelling of a night scene from an eleventh-century Japanese novel  The story, from The Tale of Genji, describes a young man trying to overhear the conversation of two young women  The rushing waters of the Uji obscure their words from the eager ears of the would-be suitor  The artist emphasizes the power of the rushing water with strong brushstrokes and powerful diagonals
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Spray Paint and Wall Art  Spray paint is one of the oldest painting techniques  Some images on the cave walls of Lascaux, France, were applied by blowing a saliva-and-pigment solution through a small tube  Although today’s spray paint comes in a can, the technique is essentially the same as it was 16,000 years ago  Because the spray spreads out in a fine mist, the ancient spray-paint artist, like today’s spray painters, would mask out areas to create hard edges
    • 2.39 John Matos, a.k.a. “Crash,” Aeroplane 1, 1983. Spray paint on canvas, 5’11¼” × 8’7”. Brooklyn Museum, New York
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields John Matos, a.k.a. “Crash” Aeroplane 1  Practitioners of spray-painted graffiti art are considered vandals and criminals by local governments when they paint places without the permission of the property owners  Because of this, many artists keep their identity secret and sign their work with an alias, called a tag  John Matos (b. 1961), whose tag is “Crash,” is considered a founder of the graffiti art movement  He began spray painting New York City subway cars at the age of thirteen
    • 2.40 Blek le Rat, David with the Machine Gun, 2006. New York
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Blek le Rat, David with the Machine Gun  Uses stencils as a quick way of transferring his designs to surfaces  Ironically juxtaposes an image of Michelangelo’s famous statue David with a superimposed machine gun  Blek le Rat is considered an artivist: an artist/activist  Part of a larger movement, called culture jamming, that draws attention to social or political issues  This unauthorized rendering was spray painted on a building in support of Israel
    • Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Conclusion  The wax of encaustic, the egg of tempera, and the wet plaster of fresco have all offered artists technically demanding ways of combining pigment with a binder to depict subjects in durable and vivid color  The invention of oil paint helped artists achieve astonishing naturalism and luminosity of light effects  Acrylic is a water-based medium with results similar to oil  Watercolor, gouache, and inks are other kinds of water-based paint
    • Chapter 2.2 Painting PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
    • Chapter 2.2 Painting PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.2 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2.22 Ralph Larmann 2.23 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Edward S. Harkness, 1918, 18.9.2. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 2.24 National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh 2.25 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Francis M. Weld Gift, 1950, Inv. 50.164. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 2.26 Please note that this image is not available for digital use but can be found on page 182 of the textbook 2.27 Vatican Museums, Rome 2.28 Philadelphia Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Cameron Morris, 1943. © 2011 Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F./DACS 2.29 Photo Steven Ochs 2.30 Musée du Louvre, Paris 2.31 Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Ginter, M.64.49. Digital Image Museum Associates/LACMA/Art Resource NY/Scala, Florence. Courtesy Gallery Paule Anglim 2.32 Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City. Bebe and Crosby Kemper Collection, Gift of the William T. Kemper Charitable Trust, UMB Bank, n.a., Trustee 2006.7. Photo Ben Blackwell © the artist 2.33 Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence 2.34 The Royal Collection © Her Majesty The Queen 2.35 Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City. Bebe and Crosby Kemper Collection, Kansas City, Missouri. Museum Purchase, Enid and Crosby Kemper and William T. Kemper Acquisition Fund 2000.13. © the artist 2.36 Photo Austrian Archives/Scala Florence 2.37 Photo Tate, London 2011. © L&M Services B.V. The Hague 20110512. © Miriam Cendrars 2.38 Clark Family Collection. Image courtesy The Clark Center for Japanese Art & Culture 2.39 Courtesy Art Link International, Florida. © the artist 2.40 Photo Sybille Prou Picture Credits for Chapter 2.2
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES CHAPTER 2.2 STUDY QUESTIONS
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Pigment names are often derived from their source. For example the pigment that we call umber is named after ______. a. a zinc extraction process b. the stone lapis lazuli c. Umbria, Italy d. Afghanistan e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 180
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 1. Pigment names are often derived from their source. For example the pigment that we call umber is named after ______. a. a zinc extraction process b. the stone lapis lazuli c. Umbria, Italy d. Afghanistan e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 180
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. The Roman-era encaustic portraits from Fayum are excellent examples of Roman painting in wax. What was Fayum? a. an oasis b. a mountain retreat c. a river d. a volcano e. a Roman road Feedback/Reference: Page 181
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 2. The Roman-era encaustic portraits from Fayum are excellent examples of Roman painting in wax. What was Fayum? a. an oasis b. a mountain retreat c. a river d. a volcano e. a Roman road Feedback/Reference: Page 181
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. In The Virgin and Child with Angels, an egg tempera painting from the Ferrarese School, the artist has chosen to paint ______ frame that looks like the back of a canvas. a. a golden b. a Byzantine c. a flower covered d. an illusionistic e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 182
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 3. In The Virgin and Child with Angels, an egg tempera painting from the Ferrarese School, the artist has chosen to paint ______ frame that looks like the back of a canvas. a. a golden b. a Byzantine c. a flower covered d. an illusionistic e. none of these Feedback/Reference: Page 182
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. Fresco painting was practiced in which of these locations? a. Egyptian tombs b. Roman houses c. Sistine Chapel ceiling d. Palace at Knossos e. all of these Feedback/Reference: Page 183
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 4. Fresco painting was practiced in which of these locations? a. Egyptian tombs b. Roman houses c. Sistine Chapel ceiling d. Palace at Knossos e. all of these Feedback/Reference: Page 183
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. Diego Rivera, a Mexican muralist, practiced what kind of painting when he created large-scale works to celebrate the Socialist movement in Mexico? a. fresco b. encaustic c. tempera d. oil e. watercolor Feedback/Reference: Page 184
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 5. Diego Rivera, a Mexican muralist, practiced what kind of painting when he created large-scale works to celebrate the Socialist movement in Mexico? a. fresco b. encaustic c. tempera d. oil e. watercolor Feedback/Reference: Page 184
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. Linseed oil came into general use as a painting binder in the fifteenth century, particularly in this country. a. Italy b. Flanders c. China d. India e. Greece Feedback/Reference: Page 185
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 6. Linseed oil came into general use as a painting binder in the fifteenth century, particularly in this country. a. Italy b. Flanders c. China d. India e. Greece Feedback/Reference: Page 185
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. Such artists as Jan van Eyck took advantage of the transparency of oil paint glazes to attain a rich ______ , as though lit from within. a. impasto b. texture c. luminosity d. smell e. sound Feedback/Reference: Page 186
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 7. Such artists as Jan van Eyck took advantage of the transparency of oil paint glazes to attain a rich ______ , as though lit from within. a. impasto b. texture c. luminosity d. smell e. sound Feedback/Reference: Page 186
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. Artemisia Gentileschi lived at a time when women were not easily accepted into the art profession but she was supported by ______, who was also an artist. a. her husband b. her father c. her brother d. her uncle e. a female relative Feedback/Reference: Page 187
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 8. Artemisia Gentileschi lived at a time when women were not easily accepted into the art profession but she was supported by ______, who was also an artist. a. her husband b. her father c. her brother d. her uncle e. a female relative Feedback/Reference: Page 187
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. The binder used to suspend pigment in acrylic paint is ______. a. gum arabic b. honey c. beeswax d. casein e. polymer resin Feedback/Reference: Page 188
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 9. The binder used to suspend pigment in acrylic paint is ______. a. gum arabic b. honey c. beeswax d. casein e. polymer resin Feedback/Reference: Page 188
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. Which painter and watercolorist was the first woman to have her work shown at the Louvre during her lifetime? a. Artemisia Gentileschi b. Rosa Bonheur c. Georgia O’Keeffe d. Sonia Delaunay e. Joan Brown
    • PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 2.1 Drawing PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES 10. Which painter and watercolorist was the first woman to have her work shown at the Louvre during her lifetime? a. Artemisia Gentileschi b. Rosa Bonheur c. Georgia O’Keeffe d. Sonia Delaunay e. Joan Brown