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Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)
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Art 110 2.5 & 2.6 (only)

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  • 1. Chapter 2.5 Photography PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 2. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Note to Users: For the videos to play properly in a lecture you’ve saved to your computer, you must copy both the PowerPoint lecture (.ppt) and the video source folder—the folder labeled ―Videos‖ which is next to the presentations inside the ―Art Lectures‖ folder—onto your desktop or hard drive. Or visit http://books.wwnorton.com/books/Gateways-to- Art/ to download individual lectures from the ―For Instructors‖ tab. If you have any issues, please contact the Help Desk at: http://support.wwnorton.com.
  • 3. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Recording the Image • ―Photography‖ derives from two Greek works, together meaning ―drawing with light” – photos means “light” – graphein means “to draw” • Collecting the image – Film: negative and positive – Digital: pixels, computer • Camera vs. human eye – Camera is a mechanical recorder and an artistic tool
  • 4. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography The History of Photography • Camera obscura – Projection of outside scene – First drawn, then captured on light-sensitive material – Room-sized then portable (eighteenth-century) camera obscura • Negative/positive processes – Cyanotype – Calotype – Daguerreotype • Digital Processes – Pixels, digital files, display, manipulation
  • 5. 2.71 Rainer Gemma-Frisius, first published illustration of a camera obscura, 1544. Gernsheim Collection, London
  • 6. First published illustration of a camera obscura • Image projected into the camera obscura – Small hole called the “aperture” – Outside scene is flipped upside down and backward – A person could trace over the image projected on the wall to capture it
  • 7. 2.72 Abelardo Morell, Camera Obscura Image of the Panthéon in the Hotel des Grands Hommes, 1999. Gelatin silver print, 20 x 24‖
  • 8. Abelardo Morell, Camera Obscura Image of the Panthéon in the Hotel des Grands Hommes • Morell created a room-sized camera obscura – Set up his tripod inside the room – Took an extended exposure (up to two days) – Captured the scene we see here – Shows what the inside of a camera would look like – Same principles as Gemma- Frisius’s camera obscura
  • 9. 2.73 Anna Atkins, Halydrys Siliquosa, 1843–4. Plate 19 from Volume 1 of Photographs of British Algae. Cyanotype, 5 x 4‖. British Library, London, England
  • 10. Anna Atkins, Halydrys Siliquosa • Cyanotype: cameraless image – Turns blue (oxidation of iron salts) • Looks exactly like a negative made on film in a camera • Steps of the process: – Place a botanical specimen on light-sensitive paper – Expose to light – Shaded places stay white – Places “exposed” to light turn blue
  • 11. 2.74 William Henry Fox Talbot, The Oriel Window, South Gallery, Lacock Abbey, 1835 or 1839. Photogenic drawing negative, 3¼ x 4¼‖. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 12. William Henry Fox Talbot, The Oriel Window, South Gallery, Lacock Abbey • Calotypes – Negative images that resemble Atkins’s cyanotypes • Talbot figured out how to reverse the tones – Negative/positive process – Made it possible to mass reproduce images – Basis of modern black-and- white film processes
  • 13. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 2.75 Diagram of film photography darkroom
  • 14. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Photographic Genres • Nineteenth-century argument – Art is a creative endeavor – “A photograph is not a work of art…” (John Ruskin, 1850s) • Genres of photography – Same as traditional artistic media – Portraiture – Landscape – Still life
  • 15. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Portraiture • One of photography’s most popular early uses – Substitute for more costly painted portraits – People could eventually take their own pictures
  • 16. 2.76 Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865. Albumen print, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France
  • 17. Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt • Sarah Bernhardt was a famous actress • Nadar’s distinctive style – Posed scenes and elaborate props were common at the time – He avoids a busy setting – Focuses on the sitter: • Wrapped in fabric • Leaning on a column, with a plain backdrop • Highlights Bernhardt’s elegance • Emphasizes her introspective side
  • 18. 2.77 Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • 19. Gateway to Art: PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Lange, Migrant Mother How the Photograph Was Shot • Dorothea Lange was working for the FSA – Photographing the hardships of the depression • Lange later said: – “I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet” – “I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her but I do remember she asked me no questions” – “I did not approach the tents and shelters of other stranded pea-pickers. It was not necessary: I knew I had recorded the essence of my assignment” • Ethical issues of photojournalism
  • 20. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Landscape • Pictures of the land and its natural features – Scenic records – Can highlight ecological concerns • How might such images be used? – By organizations like the Sierra Club (dedicated to preserving America’s wilderness)? – Other possibilities?
  • 21. 2.78 Ansel Adams, Sand Dunes, Sunrise—Death Valley National Monument, California, c. 1948
  • 22. Ansel Adams, Sand Dunes, Sunrise—Death Valley National Monument, California • Black-and-white photography • Adams’ style (“zone system”) – Arranges black, white, and gray tones – Creates a balanced effect – Entire picture in clear focus
  • 23. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Still Life • Artistic arrangement of objects – Allows the artist to study formal relationships – Light, shadow, texture
  • 24. 2.79 Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, The Artist’s Studio, 1837. Whole-plate daguerreotype. Collection of the Société Française de Photographie
  • 25. Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, The Artist’s Studio • Daguerre arranged objects in his studio – Traditional method used by painters – Plaster casts, relief sculptures, framed artwork, bottle • Exposure times in mid- nineteenth-century photography were long – Over 8 minutes for indoor scenes – Impossible to photograph a living person
  • 26. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Photojournalism • The use of photography to tell a news story – Dates back to the Civil War – Now we accept that photographs only give a partial view • They can be manipulated, altered, cropped • Can distort, exaggerate, even lie – Photography was once believed to be inherently truthful • Credibility is crucial for news reportage
  • 27. 2.81 Lewis Wickes Hine, Ten Year Old Spinner, Whitnel Cotton Mill, 1908. Photographic print. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • 28. Lewis Wickes Hine, Ten Year Old Spinner, Whitnel Cotton Mill • Lewis Wickes Hine – Used photography as a tool to tell the story of child labor – Impersonated a salesperson, inspector, etc., to get access – Took careful notes about the working conditions – Published the photos to inform the public – Resulted in laws protecting young children
  • 29. 2.82a Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl at Nasar Bagh Refugee Camp. Peshawar, Pakistan, 1984 2.82b Steve McCurry, Sharbat Gula. Peshawar, Pakistan, 2002
  • 30. Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl / Sharbat Gula • Steve McCurry – Afghan Girl, 1984: after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan • Photographed a young girl in a refugee camp • Became famous for its intensity – Sharbat Gula, 2002: returned to Afghanistan • Used the original photo to find the woman • Named Sharbat Gula • Identity confirmed using iris- pattern identification
  • 31. 2.84 Steve McCurry, Dust Storm. Women Take Shelter from Strong Dust-Laden Winds, Rajasthan, India, 1983
  • 32. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Perspectives on Art: Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Steve McCurry How a Photographer Captures a Moment • Dust Storm, Women Take Shelter…, 1983 – “I wanted to capture something of the mood of anticipation before the monsoon rains” – “Where we stopped, the women and children who worked on the road—something they are driven to do when the crops fail—were barely able to stand in the driving winds. They clustered together to shield themselves from the sand and dust. I tried to take pictures; they didn’t even notice me” – “Some believe that to understand the Indian people one must first understand the effect the monsoon has on the Indian soul”
  • 33. 2.83 Hiroko Masiuke, Here Is New York: A Democracy of Photographs, exhibition at the New York Historical Society, September 2007
  • 34. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Hiroko Masiuke, Here is New York: A Democracy of Photographs • Attack on World Trade Center, New York, September 11, 2001 – Photographs published almost immediately after the event – “This is New York, A Democracy of Photographs” • Exhibition organized just a few days after the attacks • Almost 800 photographs • Photographers had first-hand experience • Professional photographers and complete amateurs • The exhibition traveled all over the world
  • 35. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography The Art of Photography • Historical debate – Record of “reality” or artform? • Does photography have to be one or the other? • Contemporary art – Photo-based art is very widespread – Fine-art museums began collecting photos in the 1980s
  • 36. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Making “Artistic” Photographs • How do methods used in other media relate to photography? – Painting – Sculpture – Drawing – Printmaking • What effects are distinctive to the medium of photography? • Other ways to make “artistic” photography – Clarity and realism – Snapshots – Photocollage and photomontage
  • 37. 2.85 Oscar Gustav Rejlander, The Two Ways of Life, 1857. Albumen silver print, 16 x 31‖. Royal Photographic Society, Bath, England
  • 38. Oscar Gustav Rejlander, Two Ways of Life • Steps to make the combination prints in the darkroom: – Rejlander made thirty separate negatives – Cut out each area like a puzzle piece – Exposed the negatives one at a time – Covered the rest of the picture while each part was exposed • Took six weeks to make • Looks like one seamless scene • Compare with the process of painting
  • 39. 2.86 Loretta Lux, The Waiting Girl, 2006. Ilfochrome print, 11⅞ x 15⅞‖
  • 40. Loretta Lux, The Waiting Girl • Digital process to assemble compositions – Lux takes pictures of her subjects (her friends’ children) – Subtly manipulates the color and proportions – Sometimes makes painted backgrounds – Digital retouching • It takes several months to a year to create each image
  • 41. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Recording Detail and Stopping Time • Artistic photographs do not have to relate to “traditional” media • Strengths of photography (according to Alfred Stieglitz) – Clarity – Realism – Careful composition – Select materials (processes used, paper, etc.)
  • 42. 2.87 Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage, 1907. Chloride print, 4⅜ x 3⅝‖. Alfred Stieglitz Collection, Art Institute of Chicago
  • 43. Alfred Stieglitz, The Steerage • Stieglitz’s style: – Modern-day subjects – Composition with strong geometric shapes – Visual rhythm – Similarities with Cubist paintings
  • 44. 2.88 Garry Winogrand, Central Park Zoo, New York City, 1967. Gelatin silver print, 11 x 14‖
  • 45. Garry Winogrand, Central Park Zoo, New York City • Snapshot aesthetic – Immediacy of the moment is crucial – Hand-held (35mm) camera – Spontaneous effect • Central Park Zoo – Looks casual and non- professional – Intended to be serious and artistic form of expression
  • 46. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Photocollage and Photomontage • Collage – Both the process and the product – Created by gluing together separate materials on a single support – Can be made with photo-based materials • Called photocollage – Photographs, text, pre-printed materials – Unique product – Photomontage • Made to be mass-produced • Layered beforehand, re-photographed, or scanned
  • 47. 2.89 Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, 1919–20. Photomontage, 44⅞ x 35½‖. Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany
  • 48. Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany • Hannah Höch: a co-founder of photomontage – Response to the social conditions during and after WWI – A form of commentary and protest • Höch cut out text and images from publications – Appears disordered – Both complex and nonsensical – Effectively reflects the chaos of life at the time
  • 49. 2.90 Stephen Marc, Untitled—Passage on the Underground Railroad, 2002. Digital photomontage, archival pigment inkjet print, 9 x 26‖. Arizona State University, Phoenix
  • 50. Stephen Marc, Untitled—Passage on the Underground Railroad • Digitally combines images from different sources – Background: Cedar Grove Plantation, Vicksburg, Mississip pi • Slave quarters • Slave owner’s letter – Middle ground: iron fence, antique hoe, cotton plants – Foreground: man with his hand on his chest • Phi Beta Sigma fraternity brands • How does the past inform the present?
  • 51. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Black and White versus Color • Black and white – Dominant until at least the 1930s – Now looks “artsy,” nostalgic, or old-fashioned • Color – Before color-film, some artists hand-tinted their photographs – First processes were very complicated – Color film became commercially viable in the 1930s – Now more common than black and white
  • 52. 2.91 Roger Fenton, Valley of the Shadow of Death, 1855. Gernsheim Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin
  • 53. Roger Fenton, Valley of the Shadow of Death • Roger Fenton photographed the Crimean War – Hired to counteract negative publicity about the war • Valley of the Shadow of Death – Title from Psalm 23 in the Bible • Effect of black and white: – Empty, desolate, poetic landscape
  • 54. 2.92 Sally Mann, The New Mothers, 1989. Gelatin silver print, 8 x 10‖
  • 55. Sally Mann, The New Mothers • From a series called Immediate Family – Scenes from childhood and family interactions – Children’s actions sometimes predict later adult behavior • Collaborations between Mann and her children • Effect of black and white: – Transforms ordinary moments into nostalgic and provocative statements
  • 56. 2.93 Sandy Skoglund, Radioactive Cats © 1980. Cibachrome or pigmented inkjet color photograph, 25⅝ x 35‖
  • 57. Sandy Skoglund, Radioactive Cats • Brightly colored “tableau” or arrangement – Green becomes more intense against the gray – Altered in such a way that looks Surreal – Combination of fact and fiction
  • 58. 2.94 Edward Burtynsky, Manufacturing #17, Deda Chicken Processing Plant, Dehui City, Jilin Province, China, 2005
  • 59. Edward Burtynsky, Manufacturing #17, Deda Chicken Processing Plant • Large scale color photographs (3 x 4ft) – Small details within vast urban scenes take on importance • Series called Manufacturing – Factories in China – #17 is a chicken-processing plant – Encourages viewers to contemplate civilization’s impact on the planet – Burtynsky says, “It’s not a simple right or wrong. It needs a whole new way of thinking”
  • 60. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Conclusion • Impact of the invention of the camera • Photographers make decisions about – What to include – How it will look – The subjects he or she will select – Time-consuming processes – Emphasis on spontaneity • Direct connection between the external world and the expressive choices of the artist
  • 61. Chapter 2.5 Photography PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
  • 62. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.5 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 63. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 2.71 Gernsheim Collection, London 2.72 Image appears courtesy Abelardo Morell 2.73 British Library, London 2.74 Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Rubel Collection, Purchase, Ann Tenenbaum and Thomas H. Lee and Anonymous Gifts, 1997, Acc. no. 1997.382.1. Photo The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence 2.75 Ralph Larmann 2.76 Bibliothèque nationale, Paris 2.77 Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.. Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, LC-DIG-fsa- 8b29516 2.78 © Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust/Corbis 2.79 Collection of the Société Française de Photographie, Paris 2.80 Please note that this image is not available for digital use but can be found on page 218 of the textbook 2.81 Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-nclc-01555 2.82a, 2.82b Copyright Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos 2.83 © Hiroko Masuike/New York Times/Eyevine 2.84 Copyright Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos 2.85 Royal Photographic Society, Bath 2.86 Courtesy Yossi Milo Gallery, New York. © DACS 2011 2.87 The Art Institute of Chicago, Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949.705 © Georgia O’Keeffe Museum/DACS, 2011 2.88 © Estate of Garry Winogrand, courtesy Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco 2.89 Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin. © DACS 2011 2.90 © Stephen Marc 2.91 Gernsheim Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Centre, University of Texas at Austin 2.92 Courtesy Gagosian Gallery © Sally Mann 2.93 Sandy Skoglund, Radioactive Cats © 1980 2.94 Photo © Edward Burtynsky, courtesy Flowers, London & Nicholas Metivier, Toronto Picture Credits for Chapter 2.5
  • 64. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 1. When light-sensitive film is exposed to light, ______ image is formed. a. a positive b. a negative c. an out-of-focus d. a color e. a digital Feedback/Reference: Page 212
  • 65. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 1. When light-sensitive film is exposed to light, ______ image is formed. a. a positive b. a negative c. an out-of-focus d. a color e. a digital Feedback/Reference: Page 212
  • 66. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 2. The ______ was an early form of camera. Topic: n/a a. camera obscura b. cyanotype c. positive d. lens e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 212
  • 67. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 2. The ______ was an early form of camera. Topic: n/a a. camera obscura b. cyanotype c. positive d. lens e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 212
  • 68. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 3. The most important difference between the photographic process invented by Louis-Jacques- Mandé Daguerre and the process devised by William Henry Fox Talbot was that Talbot’s images could be ______. Topic: n/a a. colored b. hand-made c. direct positives d. easily reproduced e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 214
  • 69. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 3. The most important difference between the photographic process invented by Louis-Jacques- Mandé Daguerre and the process devised by William Henry Fox Talbot was that Talbot’s images could be ______. Topic: n/a a. colored b. hand-made c. direct positives d. easily reproduced e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 214
  • 70. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 4. Three important photographic genres are portraiture, landscape, and ______: images of inanimate objects, such as fruit. Topic: n/a a. genre b. abstract c. still life d. non-objective e. realist Feedback/Reference: Page 215
  • 71. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 4. Three important photographic genres are portraiture, landscape, and ______: images of inanimate objects, such as fruit. Topic: n/a a. genre b. abstract c. still life d. non-objective e. realist Feedback/Reference: Page 215
  • 72. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 5. Because the camera appears to capture an image of an event exactly as it occurred, viewers often believe that the resulting photograph is ______ record of events. Topic: n/a a. an absolutely accurate b. a propagandistic c. an unreliable d. a distorted e. none of the above Feedback/Reference: Page 219
  • 73. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 5. Because the camera appears to capture an image of an event exactly as it occurred, viewers often believe that the resulting photograph is ______ record of events. Topic: n/a a. an absolutely accurate b. a propagandistic c. an unreliable d. a distorted e. none of the above Feedback/Reference: Page 219
  • 74. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 6. Photographs were only recently collected by fine art museums because for a long time they were considered by some not to be ______. Topic: n/a a. affordable b. truthful c. true forms of art d. mechanical reproductions e. black and white Feedback/Reference: Page 221
  • 75. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 6. Photographs were only recently collected by fine art museums because for a long time they were considered by some not to be ______. Topic: n/a a. affordable b. truthful c. true forms of art d. mechanical reproductions e. black and white Feedback/Reference: Page 221
  • 76. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 7. Garry Winogrand’s practice of taking photographs that were not posed or set up in advance was known as ______. Topic: n/a a. uninteresting b. the snapshot aesthetic c. not serious d. not artistic e. abstract Feedback/Reference: Page 224
  • 77. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 7. Garry Winogrand’s practice of taking photographs that were not posed or set up in advance was known as ______. Topic: n/a a. uninteresting b. the snapshot aesthetic c. not serious d. not artistic e. abstract Feedback/Reference: Page 224
  • 78. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 8. Unlike a photocollage, a photomontage is made to be ______. Topic: n/a a. sold b. displayed in public c. collected by museums d. reproduced e. controversial Feedback/Reference: Page 224
  • 79. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 8. Unlike a photocollage, a photomontage is made to be ______. Topic: n/a a. sold b. displayed in public c. collected by museums d. reproduced e. controversial Feedback/Reference: Page 224
  • 80. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 9. The earliest photographs were black and white because ______. Topic: n/a a. color processes were complicated b. color photography was impossible c. the chemistry used captured gray tones d. they were more expensive e. all of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 226
  • 81. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 9. The earliest photographs were black and white because ______. Topic: n/a a. color processes were complicated b. color photography was impossible c. the chemistry used captured gray tones d. they were more expensive e. all of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 226
  • 82. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 10. Color processes can be used to make photographs that are ______. Topic: n/a a. realistic b. surreal c. expressive d. socially conscious e. all of the other answers
  • 83. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 10. Color processes can be used to make photographs that are ______. Topic: n/a a. realistic b. surreal c. expressive d. socially conscious e. all of the other answers
  • 84. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography
  • 85. Chapter 2.6 Film/Video and Digital Art PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 86. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Introduction • The moving image is one of the youngest mediums used by artists – Film – Digital – Video
  • 87. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Moving Images Before Film • Illusion of movement • Zoetrope – Images showing separate scenes of an action placed inside – Viewed through slits in a rotating cylinder – Gives the impression of continuous motion – Basis of modern film and video technique • Theory of persistence of vision – Separate images presented to the human eye at regular intervals appear as a continuous sequence
  • 88. PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 2.95 Diagram of a zoetrope
  • 89. 2.96 Eadweard Muybridge, The Horse in Motion, June 18, 1878. Albumen print. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • 90. Eadweard Muybridge, The Horse in Motion • Creating the illusion of movement – First motion had to be frozen in a still image • Eadweard Muybridge – Photographed a horse running – Used a line of 12 cameras – Proved what the human eye cannot see • A galloping horse has all its legs off the ground at once
  • 91. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Silent and Black-and-White Film • Earliest films were short clips – Documenting daily life – Black and white – Silent without a soundtrack • Nickelodeons – Small storefront movie theaters – Popular in the early twentieth century • Movie palaces – Ornate, often featuring a pipe organ – Developed as movies business • By 1896 movies were shown all over Europe and the U.S.
  • 92. 2.97 Georges Méliès, scene from A Trip to the Moon (Le Voyage dans la Lune), 1902, 14 minutes, Star Film
  • 93. Georges Méliès, A Trip to the Moon • George Méliès, French magician and filmmaker – Used films as part of his magic show – Made science fiction and fantasy films • A Trip to the Moon – His most famous film – Astronomers launch themselves from a cannon • Crash into the moon’s right eye – Méliès moves time forward using • Multiple settings, repeated scenes, cuts
  • 94. 2.98 D. W. Griffith, Birth of a Nation, 1915, publicity poster
  • 95. D. W. Griffith, Birth of a Nation • Birth of a Nation – Hollywood’s first blockbuster film – One of the first films to tell an epic story – Innovative editing techniques • Transitions between scenes – Silent • No spoken dialog • Tells story with symbolism, gesture, and intertitles – Now controversial for its reinforcement of racist views
  • 96. 2.99 Orson Welles, Scene from Citizen Kane, 1941, 112 minutes, RKO Pictures
  • 97. Orson Welles, Citizen Kane • Orson Welles – Writer, director, actor • Citizen Kane – Widely considered among the most important films of all time • Revolutionary techniques – Fabricated newspaper headlines and news reels – Dramatic lighting – Innovative editing – Natural sound – Elaborate sets – Moving camera shots, deep focus, low camera angles
  • 98. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Sound and Color • Color films – Beginning in the late 1920s – Novelty to attract audiences • Sound – Before 1927: sound performed live in theaters – 1927: integrated sound • Dialog • Background noise • Music
  • 99. 2.100 Victor Fleming, scene from The Wizard of Oz, 1939, 101 minutes, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)
  • 100. Victor Fleming, The Wizard of Oz • Black and white/color used to distinguish locales – Kansas (black and white) – Dorothy Gale transported by cyclone – Land of Oz (color) • Ruby slippers • Yellow brick road • Emerald City – Characters • Dorothy, her dog Toto, Tin Man, Scarecrow, Lion, Wizard
  • 101. 2.101 Stanley Donan and Gene Kelly, still from Singin’ in the Rain, 1952, 103 minutes, produced by Loew’s Incorporated, distributed by MGM
  • 102. Stanley Donan and Gene Kelly, Singin’ in the Rain • Looks back to the time when the film industry made the transition to using synchronous sound • Musical – Tells the story with dialog, song, and dance
  • 103. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Animation and Special Effects • Animation – Creates the illusion of movement • Still images created separately (drawings, photos, etc.) • Shown in a sequence • Special effects – Models – Props – Make-up – Post-production
  • 104. 2.102 Wladyslaw Starewicz, Mest Kinematograficheskogo Operatora (The Cameraman’s Revenge), 1912, produced by Khanzhonkov Company, Moscow, Russia
  • 105. Wladyslaw Starewicz, The Cameraman’s Revenge • Stop-action animation – Figures photographed in a pose, moved very slightly, photographed again – Process repeated until all movements have been recorded • The Cameraman’s Revenge – Characters are insects – Story of infidelity – Slapstick quality – Like many animated films, more for adults than children
  • 106. 2.103 Hayao Miyazaki with Kirk Wise (English version), still from Spirited Away, 2001, 125 minutes, Studio Ghibli
  • 107. Hayao Miyazaki with Kirk Wise, Spirited Away • Cel animation – Most common technique for making animated films – Individual drawings called ‘cels’ • Spirited Away – Oscar-winning film – Hayao Miyazaki: writer and director – Story influenced by Japanese mythology – 125-minute film • Required between 90,000 and 200,000 drawings • Storyboards: drawings used to show the progression of events
  • 108. 2.104 George Lucas, still from Star Wars Episode IV—A New Hope, 1977, 121 minutes, Lucasfilm
  • 109. George Lucas, Star Wars Episode IV—A New Hope • Earned $194 million at the box office – New standard for blockbuster films – Brought science fiction into the mainstream • Special effects – Super-realist paintings – Detailed models – Computer-generated images – Digitally timed effects
  • 110. 2.105 Jean-Pierre Jeunet, still from Amélie (The Fabulous Destiny of Amélie Poulain), 2001, 122 minutes, Claudie Ossard Productions
  • 111. Jean-Pierre Jeunet, Amélie • Reveals the magical qualities of everyday life – Intense color • Exaggerated elements help tell the story – Amélie’s heart beats out of her chest – Amélie melts into a puddle • Inanimate objects, such as Renoir’s Impressionist painting Luncheon of the Boating Party, almost take on the significance of characters
  • 112. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Film Genres • Genres are categories of film – Established conventions, plot lines, character types • Musicals • Science fiction • Romantic comedies • Westerns • Horror • Documentary • Experimental film
  • 113. 2.106 Robert Weine, still from The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, 1919, 80 minutes, Steiner
  • 114. Robert Weine, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari • One of the earliest horror films • Characters: – Francis, Dr. Caligari, Cesare, Jane • Innovative plot – Framing story • Sets and mood – Inspired by German Expressionist forms
  • 115. 2.107 Davis Guggenheim, still from An Inconvenient Truth, 2006, 95 minutes, Lawrence Bender Productions
  • 116. Davis Guggenheim, An Inconvenient Truth • Documentary film – Based on actual people, events, subjects • Presents facts about global warming – Issue of concern to former Vice President Al Gore – Also includes Gore’s lectures, life, political career
  • 117. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Film as Art: Experimental Films • Non-mainstream approaches – New technology and subject matter • Inexpensive equipment • Using various methods to achieve desired effects – Visually compelling and poetic • Manipulating filmstrip itself • Layering images – Unusual content • Dream sequences • Fantasy imagery
  • 118. 2.108 Maya Deren, still from Meshes of the Afternoon, 1943, 16mm black-and-white silent film, 18 minutes
  • 119. Maya Deren, Meshes of the Afternoon • Co-directed by Maya Deren and Alexander Hammid • Repeated sequences – Cloaked woman with a mirror over her face walks down the road – Woman enters a house and walks up the stairs • Repeated objects – Flower, key, telephone, large knife, record player, billowy curtains, rumpled sheets • Time is circular, elements change • Reflects a state of mind, like visual poetry
  • 120. 2.109 Sadie Benning, still from Flat Is Beautiful, 1998, Pixelvision video with sound, 56 minutes
  • 121. Sadie Benning, Flat is Beautiful • Challenges societal perceptions • Uses innovative visual techniques • Grainy black-and-white images – Made with a toy camera (Fisher Price PixelVision) – Sections shot on Super-8 film – Animated collages • Main character: Taylor – Issues of identity and sexuality
  • 122. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Video • Often made for art-related presentation – Art galleries or art events – Television monitors or projected onto walls – Installations to transform the space • Relatively inexpensive equipment – Medium commonly used for experimentation
  • 123. Chapter 2.5 Photography PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Click the image above to launch the video
  • 124. 2.110 Nam June Paik and John J. Godfrey, still from Global Groove, 1973, single-channel videotape, color with sound. Courtesy Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI), New York
  • 125. Nam June Paik and John J. Godfrey, Global Groove • Nam June Paik – Pioneer of video art • Global Groove – 30-minute video recording – Combines recognizable and distorted pictures – Comments on role of media in daily life – Foreshadows music video
  • 126. 2.113a Bill Viola, Going Forth by Day, 2002. Installation view, video/sound installation, five-part projected image cycle
  • 127. 2.113b Bill Viola, The Raft, May 2004. Video/sound installation, color high-definition video projection on wall in darkened space, screen size 13’ x 7’3⅞‖
  • 128. 2.113c Bill Viola (on the right) in production for The Raft, Downey Studios, Downey, California, 2004
  • 129. Bill Viola: How Did Video Become Art • Bill Viola – One of the world’s leading video artists – Working in video since the 1970s • “New electronic communication technologies played a central role in re-imagining not only what a work of art could be but also how it could reach beyond the art world to engage life and society directly and transform the world” • “Video as art exists somewhere between the permanence of painting and the temporary existence of music” • “The medium of video, where images are born and die every instant, has brought a new humanism to contemporary art”
  • 130. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Interactive Digital Media • Artists involve viewers as active participants – Interact with the artwork – Choose different paths to follow – Help determine the outcome
  • 131. 2.111 Constance de Jong, Tony Oursler, Stephen Vitiello, Fantastic Prayers, 2000. Screenshot from CD-ROM. Courtesy Dia Art Foundation
  • 132. Constance de Jong, Tony Oursler, Stephen Vitiello, Fantastic Prayers • Constance DeJong (writer) • Tony Oursler (visual artist) • Stephen Vitiello (sound artist) • Started as a performance • Virtual artwork on the internet – Fragments of text, images, sound – Constantly shifting and changing elements – Not restricted by fixed boundaries • Eight environments
  • 133. 2.112 exonemo, The Road Movie, 2005. Mobile installation system (MobLab on the road in Japan, October 18–November 6, 2005) and online artwork
  • 134. exonemo, The Road Movie • Interactive Web project – Bus called “MobLab” – Japanese and German artists traveled across Japan • Trip tracked by GPS • Viewers invited to make their own road movie – Print out and fold digital origami replicas of the bus
  • 135. Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography Conclusion • Film and video – Sequencing of still images – Replicate the appearance of life moving around us – Believablity and appeal • Sound, color, animation, special effects • Establishment of genres • An artistic medium
  • 136. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.6 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  • 137. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 2.95 Ralph Larmann 2.96 Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-45683 2.97 Star Film Company 2.98 akg-images 2.99, 2.100 British Film Institute (BFI) 2.101 M.G.M/Album/akg-images 2.102 British Film Institute (BFI) 2.103 Disney Enterprises/Album/akg-images 2.104 Lucasfilm/20th Century Fox/The Kobal Collection 2.105, 2.106, 2.107, 2.108 British Film Institute (BFI) 2.109 Image copyright of the artist, courtesy Video Data Bank, www.vdb.org 2.110 Courtesy Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI), New York 2.111 Image courtesy Dia Art Foundation. Courtesy Tony Oursler, Stephen Vitiello and Constance de Jong 2.112 Courtesy exonemo 2.113a Photo Mathias Schormann © Bill Viola 2.113b, 2.113c Photo Kira Perov © Bill Viola Picture Credits for Chapter 2.6
  • 138. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography
  • 139. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 1. Among artistic media, one that was developed relatively recently is ______. Topic: n/a a. oil painting b. charcoal drawing c. marble sculpture d. movies and film e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 228
  • 140. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 1. Among artistic media, one that was developed relatively recently is ______. Topic: n/a a. oil painting b. charcoal drawing c. marble sculpture d. movies and film e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 228
  • 141. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 2. One of the first moving subjects to be captured in photographs was ______. Topic: n/a a. a camera b. a horse c. a jet d. a surfer e. imaginary Feedback/Reference: Page 229
  • 142. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 2. One of the first moving subjects to be captured in photographs was ______. Topic: n/a a. a camera b. a horse c. a jet d. a surfer e. imaginary Feedback/Reference: Page 229
  • 143. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 3. Photographs by Muybridge could be put into a ______ to create the impression that they were actually moving. Topic: n/a a. spinning zoetrope b. hand-colored frame c. light-safe darkroom d. busy race track e. all of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 230
  • 144. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 3. Photographs by Muybridge could be put into a ______ to create the impression that they were actually moving. Topic: n/a a. spinning zoetrope b. hand-colored frame c. light-safe darkroom d. busy race track e. all of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 230
  • 145. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 4. The earliest films did not have ______ such as we experience in daily life. Topic: n/a a. evolving events b. musical accompaniment c. ongoing dialog d. believable characters e. all of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 230
  • 146. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 4. The earliest films did not have ______ such as we experience in daily life. Topic: n/a a. evolving events b. musical accompaniment c. ongoing dialog d. believable characters e. all of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 230
  • 147. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 5. A musical tells a story using ______. Topic: n/a a. dialog, dance, and songs b. brilliant color contrasted with black-and-white scenes c. famous actors and popular music d. distant locations and unexpected weather e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 232
  • 148. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 5. A musical tells a story using ______. Topic: n/a a. dialog, dance, and songs b. brilliant color contrasted with black-and-white scenes c. famous actors and popular music d. distant locations and unexpected weather e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 232
  • 149. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 6. The main difference between the animation used in The Cameraman’s Revenge and Spirited Away is that The Cameraman’s Revenge was made using ______. Topic: n/a a. drawings b. computers c. live actors d. historical re-creations e. puppets Feedback/Reference: Pages 232–33
  • 150. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 6. The main difference between the animation used in The Cameraman’s Revenge and Spirited Away is that The Cameraman’s Revenge was made using ______. Topic: n/a a. drawings b. computers c. live actors d. historical re-creations e. puppets Feedback/Reference: Pages 232–33
  • 151. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 7. One important difference between The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and An Inconvenient Truth is that ______. Topic: n/a a. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is based on actual events b. An Inconvenient Truth is entirely fictional c. An Inconvenient Truth is based on actual events d. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was made much later e. there are no significant differences between the two films Feedback/Reference: Page 235
  • 152. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 7. One important difference between The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and An Inconvenient Truth is that ______. Topic: n/a a. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is based on actual events b. An Inconvenient Truth is entirely fictional c. An Inconvenient Truth is based on actual events d. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was made much later e. there are no significant differences between the two films Feedback/Reference: Page 235
  • 153. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 8. The sequences in Meshes of the Afternoon are similar to ______. Topic: n/a a. record sampling b. dream imagery c. weather maps d. X-rays e. toy video cameras Feedback/Reference: Page 236
  • 154. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 8. The sequences in Meshes of the Afternoon are similar to ______. Topic: n/a a. record sampling b. dream imagery c. weather maps d. X-rays e. toy video cameras Feedback/Reference: Page 236
  • 155. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 9. Technology is used in contemporary video artworks, like those made by Bill Viola and Nam June Paik, in ways that ______. Topic: n/a a. emphasize the way the medium is inaccessible to most people b. revive art-making practices from the past c. create a boring viewing experience d. relate to people using imagery and a medium they can readily understand e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 238
  • 156. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 9. Technology is used in contemporary video artworks, like those made by Bill Viola and Nam June Paik, in ways that ______. Topic: n/a a. emphasize the way the medium is inaccessible to most people b. revive art-making practices from the past c. create a boring viewing experience d. relate to people using imagery and a medium they can readily understand e. none of the other answers Feedback/Reference: Page 238
  • 157. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 10. Artworks made for the Internet encourage ______. Topic: n/a a. collaboration among different artists b. interactive experience for viewers c. real-time updates of art actions d. increasing diversity in the possibilities for artworks e. all of the other answers
  • 158. PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios PART 2 MEDIA AND PROCESSES Chapter 2.5 Photography 10. Artworks made for the Internet encourage ______. Topic: n/a a. collaboration among different artists b. interactive experience for viewers c. real-time updates of art actions d. increasing diversity in the possibilities for artworks e. all of the other answers

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