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Chapter 1.6
Unity, Variety, and Balance
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Copyright © 2011 Thames& Hudson
Introduction
• Unity refers to the imposition of order and
harmony on a design
• Variety is a kind of visual diversity tha...
Unity
• Provides an artwork with its cohesiveness
and helps communicate its visual idea
• Artists are concerned with three...
Compositional Unity
• An artist creates compositional unity by
organizing all the visual aspects of a work
• Too much simi...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
Compositional Unity
• A is unified but lacks
the visual interest of B.
• C is unified but more
chaotic than A or B
1.110 T...
Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa‖
A Masterpiece of Unity and Harmony
• Created a unified composition by
orga...
1.111 slide 2: Graphics with Katsushika Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,‖ from Thirty-Six Views of Mount
Fu...
1.111 slide 1: Katsushika Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,‖ from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (p...
Interior design,
I. Michael Interior Design
• The interior has a
balance of curved and
straight lines that
complement each...
1.113 Linear evaluation
of elements in interior
design, I. Michael
Interior Design,
Bethesda, Maryland
1.112 Interior
design, I. Michael
Interior
Design, Bethesda, Ma
ryland
Marie Marevna (Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska),
Nature morte à la bouteille
• The unifying features are the
angular lines and f...
1.114 Marie Marevna (Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska), Nature morte à la bouteille, 1917. Oil on canvas with plaster, 19¾ x 24‖
Piero della Francesca,
The Flagellation
• The artist concentrates on
two major areas: foreground
and background
– The orga...
1.115 Piero della Francesca, The Flagellation, c. 1469. Oil and tempera on panel, 23 x 32‖. Galleria Nazionale delle
March...
Romare Bearden,
The Dove
• Some artists create compositional
unity while gathering together bits
and pieces of visual info...
1.116 Romare Bearden, The Dove, 1964. Cut-and-pasted printed papers, gouache, pencil, and colored pencil on board,
13⅜ x 1...
Conceptual Unity
• Conceptual unity refers to the cohesive expression
of ideas within a work of art
• The expression of id...
Joseph Cornell,
Untitled (The Hotel Eden)
• The disparate
shapes, colors, and other
characteristics of everyday
things com...
1.117 Joseph
Cornell, Untitled (The Hotel
Eden), 1945. Assemblage
with music box, 15⅛ x 15⅛
x 4¾‖. National Gallery of
Can...
Gestalt Unity
• Gestalt is a German word for form or
shape
– Refers to something in which the whole
seems greater than the...
Vishnu Dreaming the Universe
• The repetition of the human
shapes that attend Vishnu
creates compositional unity
• The dua...
1.118 Vishnu Dreaming the
Universe, c. 450–500 CE.
Relief panel. Temple of
Vishnu, Deogarh, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Variety
• Variety is a collection of
ideas, elements, or
materials that are fused
together into one design
• Variety is ab...
Robert Rauschenberg,
Monogram
• Used variety to energize his
artwork and challenge his
viewers
• The work features a stuff...
1.120 Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1955–9. Mixed media with taxidermy goat, rubber tire, and tennis ball, 42 x 63¼ x 64½...
Using Variety to Unify
• Even while using a variety of different
shapes, colors, values, or other
elements, an artist can ...
Album quilt
• These carefully sewn quilts
are named after the
scrapbooks kept by
Baltimore girls
• Like a scrapbook, these...
1.121 Album
quilt, probably by Mary
Evans, Baltimore, Marylan
d, 1848. Appliquéd cottons
with inkwork, 9 x 9’.
Private col...
Balance
• Just as real objects have physical weight, parts of
a work of art can have visual weight, or impact
• If the amo...
Symmetrical Balance
• If a work can be cut in half and each side
looks exactly (or nearly exactly) the
same, then it is sy...
Ritual container from Gui, China
• Artists of ancient China
designed a creature born of
symmetry called the t’ao t’ieh
• T...
1.122 Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty, 1600–1100 BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾‖. University of Hong Kong Museum
Muqi, Six Persimmons
• Chinese artists have used
asymmetrical balance to reflect on
life and spirituality
• Dark, light, a...
Radial Balance
• Radial balance (or
symmetry) is achieved
when all elements in a work
are equidistant from a
central point...
• Andrea Palladio.
(Venice,1565/6- 1601), book
II, p. 19
Copyright: RIBA
Library Photographs Collection
• Palladio built t...
• An artist creates compositional unity by
__________.
a) organizing all the visual elements of the work
b) creating more ...
• An artist creates compositional unity by
__________.
a) organizing all the visual elements of the work
b) creating more ...
• In his work The Flagellation Pierodella Francesca
communicates a mood of detachment and
contemplation by using this prin...
• In his work The Flagellation Pierodella Francesca
communicates a mood of detachment and
contemplation by using this prin...
• An interior designer can balance curved and
straight lines to __________ each other.
a) complement
b) negate
c) contradi...
• An interior designer can balance curved and
straight lines to __________ each other.
a) complement
b) negate
c) contradi...
• Artists face a communication challenge: to find a
__________ within the chaos of nature and to
select and organize mater...
• Artists face a communication challenge: to find a
__________ within the chaos of nature and to
select and organize mater...
• A work can still display unity, even if none of
the visual elements has anything in
common, if __________.
a) there is a...
• A work can still display unity, even if none of
the visual elements has anything in
common, if __________.
a) there is a...
• Gestalt unity is a term that is derived from this
language:
a) Turkish.
b) German.
c) French.
d) Greek.
• Gestalt unity is a term that is derived from this
language:
a) Turkish.
b) German.
c) French.
d) Greek.
• A good example of variety in a work would be
__________.
a) the use of pattern
b) repetition
c) one color used in a work...
• A good example of variety in a work would be
__________.
a) the use of pattern
b) repetition
c) one color used in a work...
• Hokusai’s print of The Great Wave off Shore at
Kanagawa uses compositional unity in which of
these ways?
a) It makes the...
• Hokusai’s print of The Great Wave off Shore at
Kanagawa uses compositional unity in which of
these ways?
a) It makes the...
• 9.When Tibetan Buddhist monks create a sand
mandala, they are creating a composition that
has this kind of balance:
a) r...
• 9.When Tibetan Buddhist
monks create a sand
mandala, they are
creating a composition
that has this kind of
balance:
a) r...
• The focal point of Rauschenberg’s sculpture
Monogram is __________.
a) a stuffed parrot
b) Vishnu
c) a t’aot’ieh
d) a st...
• The focal point of
Rauschenberg’s
sculpture Monogram is
__________.
a) a stuffed parrot
b) Vishnu
c) a t’aot’ieh
d) a st...
Chapter 1.7
Scale and Proportion
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen,
Mistos (Match Cover)
• Uses monumental scale to
poke fun while expressing
admirati...
1.126 Claes Oldenburg and
Coosje van Bruggen, Mistos
(Match Cover),1992. Steel,
aluminum, fiber-reinforced
plastic, painte...
Robert Lostutter,
The Hummingbirds
• Lostutter uses small scale
to enhance the character
of his work
• He likes to create ...
1.127 Robert Lostutter, The Hummingbirds, 1981. Watercolor on paper, 1¾ x 5⅝‖. Collection of Anne and Warren Weisberg
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
Hierarchical scale: Relief from the northern wall of
the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun
• In the art of ancien...
1.128 slide 1: Relief from the northern wall of the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun, 19th Dynasty, c. 1295–1186...
1.128 slide 2: Hierarchical
scale: Relief from the northern
wall of the hypostyle hall at the
great temple of Amun, 19th
D...
Jan van Eyck,
Madonna in a Church
• Uses hierarchical scale to
communicate spiritual
importance
• In his effort to glorify...
1.129 Jan van Eyck, Madonna
in a Church,1437–8. Oil on
wood panel, 12⅝ x 5½‖.
Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche
Museen, Berlin, G...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
Dorothea Tanning,
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
• Dorothea Tanning was a Surrealist
artist
• The sunflower seems huge in
relation...
1.130 Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas, 16⅛ x 24‖. Tate, London
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralp...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralp...
Nigerian Ife artist,
Figure of Oni
• The Oni is the most powerful
and important figure in this
culture
• The head is large...
1.133 Nigerian Ife artist, Figure
of Oni, early 14th–15th century.
Brass with lead, 18⅜‖ high.
National Museum, Ife, Niger...
Raphael, The School of Athens
Scale and Proportion in a Renaissance Masterpiece
• Raphael’s sensitivity to
proportion refl...
1.134 Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’ 8‖ x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralp...
1.136 Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½‖ high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece
1.137 Diagram of proportional formulas used in the statue
Poseidon
• As a Greek
god, Poseidon had to
have perfect proportions
• The sculptor applied a
conveniently simple
ratio, us...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
Henry Peach Robinson,
Fading Away
• Henry Peach Robinson was
a great photographic
innovator
• This image shows
Robinson’s ...
1.138a Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away,1858. Combination albumen print. George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
1.138b Proportional analysis: Henry Peach Robinson’s Fading Away
Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon
• By applying the idealized
rules of proportion for the
human body to the design
of the...
1.139 Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, 447–432 BCE. Athens, Greece
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralp...
Click the image above to launch the video
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.5Time and Motion
Gateways to Art: Understanding th...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
This conclu...
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
1.126 Photo...
• When a Yoruba sculptor created a human
form, he or she made this body part
disproportionately large:
a) feet.
b) hands.
...
• When a Yoruba sculptor created a human
form, he or she made this body part
disproportionately large:
a) feet.
b) hands.
...
• Something done on a monumental scale
usually indicates __________ .
a) epic virtues
b) heroism
c) bravery
d) admiration
...
• Something done on a monumental scale
usually indicates __________ .
a) epic virtues
b) heroism
c) bravery
d) admiration
...
• This Greek sculptor wrote a treatise on how to
create a statue of a human being with perfect
proportions.
a) Plato
b) Ar...
• This Greek sculptor wrote a treatise on how to
create a statue of a human being with perfect
proportions.
a) Plato
b) Ar...
• This use of scale can create an abnormal or
supernatural effect, and was used by the
Surrealists to do just that.
a) Pro...
• This use of scale can create an abnormal or
supernatural effect, and was used by the
Surrealists to do just that.
a) Pro...
• Raphael’s School of Athens depicts this:
a) a gathering of great scholars.
b) the building where philosophy was taught.
...
• Raphael’s School of Athens depicts this:
a) a gathering of great scholars.
b) the building where philosophy was taught.
...
• In Egyptian art the Pharaoh was almost always
depicted in this way.
a) Small in relation to other objects
b) The same as...
• In Egyptian art the Pharaoh was almost always
depicted in this way.
a) Small in relation to other objects
b) The same as...
• Robert Lostutter creates his work with a
particular scale in mind. That scale relates to
these animals:
a) birds.
b) ele...
• Robert Lostutter creates his work with a
particular scale in mind. That scale relates to
these animals:
a) birds.
b) ele...
• Scale can be used to indicate importance but
not __________ .
a) size
b) bigness
c) significance
d) smallness
e) none of...
• Scale can be used to indicate importance but
not __________ .
a) size
b) bigness
c) significance
d) smallness
e) none of...
• Henry Peach Robinson created his photographic
work Fading Away by using a Golden __________
for the format dimensions.
a...
• Henry Peach Robinson created his photographic
work Fading Away by using a Golden __________
for the format dimensions.
a...
• A work that is created in small scale can
communicate __________ .
a) intimacy
b) monumentality
c) big ideas
d) epic sto...
• A work that is created in small scale can
communicate __________ .
a) intimacy
b) monumentality
c) big ideas
d) epic sto...
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Art 110 (1.6&1.7)

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Transcript of "Art 110 (1.6&1.7)"

  1. 1. Chapter 1.6 Unity, Variety, and Balance PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Copyright © 2011 Thames& Hudson
  2. 2. Introduction • Unity refers to the imposition of order and harmony on a design • Variety is a kind of visual diversity that brings many different ideas, media, and elements together in one composition • Balance refers to the distribution of elements, whether unified or varied, within a work
  3. 3. Unity • Provides an artwork with its cohesiveness and helps communicate its visual idea • Artists are concerned with three kinds of unity: compositional, conceptual, and gestalt (the complete order and indivisible unity of all aspects of an artwork’s design)
  4. 4. Compositional Unity • An artist creates compositional unity by organizing all the visual aspects of a work • Too much similarity of shape, color, line, or any single element or principle of art can be monotonous and make us lose interest • Too much variety can lead to a lack of structure and the absence of a central idea
  5. 5. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion
  6. 6. Compositional Unity • A is unified but lacks the visual interest of B. • C is unified but more chaotic than A or B 1.110 Three diagrams of compositional unity
  7. 7. Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa‖ A Masterpiece of Unity and Harmony • Created a unified composition by organizing repetitions of shapes, colors, textures, and patterns to create a visual harmony, even though the scene is chaotic – Mount Fuji (A), in the middle of the bottom third of the work, almost blends into the ocean – Whitecaps on the waves (B) mimic the snow atop Mount Fuji – Hokusai has also carefully selected the solids and voids in his composition to create opposing but balancing areas of interest. As the solid shape of the great wave curves around the deep trough below it (C), the two areas compete for attention, neither possible without the other
  8. 8. 1.111 slide 2: Graphics with Katsushika Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,‖ from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  9. 9. 1.111 slide 1: Katsushika Hokusai, ―The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,‖ from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  10. 10. Interior design, I. Michael Interior Design • The interior has a balance of curved and straight lines that complement each other – The linear patterns of curved lines repeat (red), as do the other directional lines – Shapes are distributed throughout the scene (green)
  11. 11. 1.113 Linear evaluation of elements in interior design, I. Michael Interior Design, Bethesda, Maryland
  12. 12. 1.112 Interior design, I. Michael Interior Design, Bethesda, Ma ryland
  13. 13. Marie Marevna (Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska), Nature morte à la bouteille • The unifying features are the angular lines and flat areas of color or pattern • Marevna’s Cubist style breaks apart a scene and re-creates it from a variety of different angles • The entire work becomes unified because the artist paints a variety of different viewing angles using flat areas of color and pattern throughout • Even though we view the still life from many different angles, the artist was able to unify the composition by using similar elements
  14. 14. 1.114 Marie Marevna (Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska), Nature morte à la bouteille, 1917. Oil on canvas with plaster, 19¾ x 24‖
  15. 15. Piero della Francesca, The Flagellation • The artist concentrates on two major areas: foreground and background – The organic human shapes in the foreground are balanced against the geometric lines of the background • Rather than communicating a feeling of tension and violence, the composition is quiet and logical, emphasizing the mood of detachment and contemplation
  16. 16. 1.115 Piero della Francesca, The Flagellation, c. 1469. Oil and tempera on panel, 23 x 32‖. Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino, Italy
  17. 17. Romare Bearden, The Dove • Some artists create compositional unity while gathering together bits and pieces of visual information • In this work we see snippets of faces and hands, city textures of brick walls and fire escapes, and other associated images assembled into a scene that, at first glance, seems frenetic and chaotic • Bearden reflects the order of the city with an underlying grid made up of verticals and horizontals in the street below, and the vertical street posts and buildings in the upper section of the work
  18. 18. 1.116 Romare Bearden, The Dove, 1964. Cut-and-pasted printed papers, gouache, pencil, and colored pencil on board, 13⅜ x 18¾‖. MOMA, New York
  19. 19. Conceptual Unity • Conceptual unity refers to the cohesive expression of ideas within a work of art • The expression of ideas may not look organized, but an artist can still communicate them effectively by selecting images that conjure up a single notion • Artists bring their own intentions, experiences, and reactions to their work. These ideas—conscious and unconscious—can also contribute to the conceptual unity of a work
  20. 20. Joseph Cornell, Untitled (The Hotel Eden) • The disparate shapes, colors, and other characteristics of everyday things come together to form distinctive images • Cornell has collected objects from life and sealed them in a box • Placed together, all the different objects in the box make and express an idea greater than any one of them could suggest on its own
  21. 21. 1.117 Joseph Cornell, Untitled (The Hotel Eden), 1945. Assemblage with music box, 15⅛ x 15⅛ x 4¾‖. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa
  22. 22. Gestalt Unity • Gestalt is a German word for form or shape – Refers to something in which the whole seems greater than the sum of its parts • We get a sense of gestalt when we comprehend how compositional unity and conceptual unity work together
  23. 23. Vishnu Dreaming the Universe • The repetition of the human shapes that attend Vishnu creates compositional unity • The dualities of male/female, life/death, goo d/evil are illustrated in the complex stories of the gods • A religious idea provides profound conceptual unity • The image, the religious idea that the image illustrates, and the fervent belief of the artist who created the work all interconnect
  24. 24. 1.118 Vishnu Dreaming the Universe, c. 450–500 CE. Relief panel. Temple of Vishnu, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
  25. 25. Variety • Variety is a collection of ideas, elements, or materials that are fused together into one design • Variety is about uniqueness and diversity • Artists use a multiplicity of values, textures, colors, and so on to intensify the impact of a work • Variety can invigorate a design • Variety is the artist’s way of giving a work of art a jolt 1.119 Variety of shapes and values set into a grid
  26. 26. Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram • Used variety to energize his artwork and challenge his viewers • The work features a stuffed goat with a tire around its middle standing on a painting • By combining these objects, Rauschenberg creates an outlandish symbol of himself as a rebel and outcast • By using a variety of non- traditional art materials and techniques, the work becomes a transgression against traditional art and morals
  27. 27. 1.120 Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1955–9. Mixed media with taxidermy goat, rubber tire, and tennis ball, 42 x 63¼ x 64½‖. Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden
  28. 28. Using Variety to Unify • Even while using a variety of different shapes, colors, values, or other elements, an artist can create visual harmony
  29. 29. Album quilt • These carefully sewn quilts are named after the scrapbooks kept by Baltimore girls • Like a scrapbook, these quilts use a variety of images and fuse them together into a finished work • Because a strong structure is imposed on the many different shapes through the use of a grid, the work holds together as a unified whole
  30. 30. 1.121 Album quilt, probably by Mary Evans, Baltimore, Marylan d, 1848. Appliquéd cottons with inkwork, 9 x 9’. Private collection
  31. 31. Balance • Just as real objects have physical weight, parts of a work of art can have visual weight, or impact • If the amount of visual weight does not have a reasonable counterweight on the opposite side, the work may appear to be unsuccessful or unfinished • If there are reasonable visual counterweights the work seems complete, and balance has been achieved
  32. 32. Symmetrical Balance • If a work can be cut in half and each side looks exactly (or nearly exactly) the same, then it is symmetrically balanced – Near-perfect symmetry exists in the human body – Because it is a part of our physical body, symmetry can seem very natural and we can make natural connections to it
  33. 33. Ritual container from Gui, China • Artists of ancient China designed a creature born of symmetry called the t’ao t’ieh • The image of the creature in an artwork is not immediately apparent, because its form is “hidden” amongst many separate symmetrical shapes and forms • It is as if a symmetrical collection of elements coalesces to reveal a monster mask • The meaning of this motif is mysterious, but it may symbolize communication with the gods • On each side of the central ridge are patterns that mirror each other
  34. 34. 1.122 Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty, 1600–1100 BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾‖. University of Hong Kong Museum
  35. 35. Muqi, Six Persimmons • Chinese artists have used asymmetrical balance to reflect on life and spirituality • Dark, light, and the subtle differences in shape are not distributed evenly between the left and right sides of the work • The artist creates subtle variations in the placement of the persimmons on each side of the central axis • Brilliantly counteracts the visual “heaviness” of the right side by placing one shape lower on the left • The use of brush and ink was a form of meditation, through simple, thoughtful actions, in search of higher knowledge
  36. 36. Radial Balance • Radial balance (or symmetry) is achieved when all elements in a work are equidistant from a central point and repeat in a symmetrical way from side to side and top to bottom • Can imply circular and repeating elements • Sometimes used in religious symbols and architecture where repetition plays an important role in the design
  37. 37. • Andrea Palladio. (Venice,1565/6- 1601), book II, p. 19
Copyright: RIBA Library Photographs Collection • Palladio built the Villa Rotonda close to the town of Vicenza as a place of entertainment. It is also sometimes known as the Villa Almerico Capra, after the original patron, Monsignor Paolo Almerico, and its later owners, the Capra family. • The design: The villa’s location on top of a low hill is key to its design.
  38. 38. • An artist creates compositional unity by __________. a) organizing all the visual elements of the work b) creating more variety in the piece c) intensifying parts of the composition d) scattering the elements apart in the work e) meditating on the work
  39. 39. • An artist creates compositional unity by __________. a) organizing all the visual elements of the work b) creating more variety in the piece c) intensifying parts of the composition d) scattering the elements apart in the work e) meditating on the work
  40. 40. • In his work The Flagellation Pierodella Francesca communicates a mood of detachment and contemplation by using this principle of design. a) Variety b) Balance c) Scale d) Unity e) Emphasis
  41. 41. • In his work The Flagellation Pierodella Francesca communicates a mood of detachment and contemplation by using this principle of design. a) Variety b) Balance c) Scale d) Unity e) Emphasis
  42. 42. • An interior designer can balance curved and straight lines to __________ each other. a) complement b) negate c) contradict d) invigorate e) define
  43. 43. • An interior designer can balance curved and straight lines to __________ each other. a) complement b) negate c) contradict d) invigorate e) define
  44. 44. • Artists face a communication challenge: to find a __________ within the chaos of nature and to select and organize materials into a harmonious composition. a) truth b) variety c) structure d) void e) none of these answers
  45. 45. • Artists face a communication challenge: to find a __________ within the chaos of nature and to select and organize materials into a harmonious composition. a) truth b) variety c) structure d) void e) none of these answers
  46. 46. • A work can still display unity, even if none of the visual elements has anything in common, if __________. a) there is an extreme amount of variety b) conceptual unity is used c) all the visual parts are balanced d) there is a focal point e) only two colors are present
  47. 47. • A work can still display unity, even if none of the visual elements has anything in common, if __________. a) there is an extreme amount of variety b) conceptual unity is used c) all the visual parts are balanced d) there is a focal point e) only two colors are present
  48. 48. • Gestalt unity is a term that is derived from this language: a) Turkish. b) German. c) French. d) Greek.
  49. 49. • Gestalt unity is a term that is derived from this language: a) Turkish. b) German. c) French. d) Greek.
  50. 50. • A good example of variety in a work would be __________. a) the use of pattern b) repetition c) one color used in a work d) one texture used in a work e) different shapes and colors
  51. 51. • A good example of variety in a work would be __________. a) the use of pattern b) repetition c) one color used in a work d) one texture used in a work e) different shapes and colors
  52. 52. • Hokusai’s print of The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa uses compositional unity in which of these ways? a) It makes the wave crests like the snow on Mt. Fuji b) It repeats the shape of Mt. Fuji throughout the work c) It repeats textures throughout the work d) It places the boats in proximity to one another e) All of the other answers
  53. 53. • Hokusai’s print of The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa uses compositional unity in which of these ways? a) It makes the wave crests like the snow on Mt. Fuji b) It repeats the shape of Mt. Fuji throughout the work c) It repeats textures throughout the work d) It places the boats in proximity to one another e) All of the other answers
  54. 54. • 9.When Tibetan Buddhist monks create a sand mandala, they are creating a composition that has this kind of balance: a) radial. b) symmetrical. c) asymmetrical. d) pictorial. e) actual.
  55. 55. • 9.When Tibetan Buddhist monks create a sand mandala, they are creating a composition that has this kind of balance: a) radial. b) symmetrical. c) asymmetrical. d) pictorial. e) actual.
  56. 56. • The focal point of Rauschenberg’s sculpture Monogram is __________. a) a stuffed parrot b) Vishnu c) a t’aot’ieh d) a stuffed goat e) a houseboat
  57. 57. • The focal point of Rauschenberg’s sculpture Monogram is __________. a) a stuffed parrot b) Vishnu c) a t’aot’ieh d) a stuffed goat e) a houseboat
  58. 58. Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  59. 59. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Introduction  We perceive scale in relation to our own size  Art objects created on a monumental scale appear larger than they would be in normal life  Art objects created on a human scale correspond to the size of things as they actually exist  Small-scale objects appear smaller than our usual experience of them in the real world  Usually, an artist ensures that all the parts of an object are in proportion to one another  But discordant proportions can express specific meanings
  60. 60. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Scale  Artists and designers make conscious choices about the scale of their work when they consider the message they want to put across  A small-scale work implies intimacy  Large-scale works can be experienced by groups of viewers and usually communicate big ideas directed at a large audience  Practical considerations can affect an artist’s decision about scale too  Cost, time it will take to execute the piece, and demands that a specific location may place on the work are all factors
  61. 61. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Scale and Meaning  Usually a monumental scale indicates heroism or other epic virtues  War monuments, for example, often feature figures much larger than life-size in order to convey the bravery of the warriors
  62. 62. Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Mistos (Match Cover) • Uses monumental scale to poke fun while expressing admiration for the little things of everyday life • Oldenburg transforms the essence of everyday things as he magnifies their sculptural form • Oldenburg believes that the items of mass culture, no matter how insignificant they might seem, express a truth about modern life
  63. 63. 1.126 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Mistos (Match Cover),1992. Steel, aluminum, fiber-reinforced plastic, painted with polyurethane enamel, 68' x 33' x 43’4‖. Collection La Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
  64. 64. Robert Lostutter, The Hummingbirds • Lostutter uses small scale to enhance the character of his work • He likes to create his works on the scale not of a human but of a bird • The tiny scale of the work—only one person at a time can see it properly—forces us to come closer, so viewing it becomes an intimate experience
  65. 65. 1.127 Robert Lostutter, The Hummingbirds, 1981. Watercolor on paper, 1¾ x 5⅝‖. Collection of Anne and Warren Weisberg
  66. 66. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Hierarchical Scale  Hierarchical scale refers to the deliberate use of relative size in a work of art, in order to communicate differences in importance  Almost always, larger means more important, and smaller means less important
  67. 67. Hierarchical scale: Relief from the northern wall of the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun • In the art of ancient Egypt, the king, or pharaoh, was usually the largest figure depicted because he had the highest status in the social order • This scene depicts the military campaign of Pharaoh Seti I (figure A) against the Hittites and Libyans
  68. 68. 1.128 slide 1: Relief from the northern wall of the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun, 19th Dynasty, c. 1295–1186 BCE. Karnak, Egypt
  69. 69. 1.128 slide 2: Hierarchical scale: Relief from the northern wall of the hypostyle hall at the great temple of Amun, 19th Dynasty, c. 1295–1186 BCE. Karnak, Egypt
  70. 70. Jan van Eyck, Madonna in a Church • Uses hierarchical scale to communicate spiritual importance • In his effort to glorify the spiritual importance of Mary and the Christ child, Van Eyck separates them from normal human existence – Van Eyck has scaled them to symbolize their central importance in the Christian religion
  71. 71. 1.129 Jan van Eyck, Madonna in a Church,1437–8. Oil on wood panel, 12⅝ x 5½‖. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany
  72. 72. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Distorted Scale  An artist may deliberately distort scale to create an abnormal or supernatural effect
  73. 73. Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik • Dorothea Tanning was a Surrealist artist • The sunflower seems huge in relation to the interior architecture and the two female figures standing on the left • By contradicting our ordinary experience of scale, Tanning invites us into a world unlike the one we know • Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (―A Little Night Music‖) is a title borrowed from a lighthearted piece of music by the composer Mozart, but ironically Tanning’s scene exhibits a strange sense of dread
  74. 74. 1.130 Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas, 16⅛ x 24‖. Tate, London
  75. 75. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Proportion  The relationships between the sizes of different parts of a work make up its proportions  By controlling these size relationships, an artist can enhance the expressive and descriptive characteristics of the work
  76. 76. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 1.131 Examples of how proportion changes on vertical and horizontal axes
  77. 77. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Human Proportion  Carefully chosen proportion can make an art object seem pleasing to the eye  This goes for the human body, too  The ancient Egyptians used the palm of the hand as a unit of measurement  The ancient Greeks sought an ideal of beauty in the principle of proportion  The models used by the Greeks for calculating human proportion were later adopted by artists of ancient Rome, and then by Renaissance artists
  78. 78. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 1.132 Ancient Egyptian system using the human hand as a standard unit of measurement
  79. 79. Nigerian Ife artist, Figure of Oni • The Oni is the most powerful and important figure in this culture • The head is large in proportion to the rest of the body; the Yoruba believe that the head is the seat of a divine power • Many African sculptures exaggerate the head and face as a way to communicate status, destiny, and a connection to the spiritual
  80. 80. 1.133 Nigerian Ife artist, Figure of Oni, early 14th–15th century. Brass with lead, 18⅜‖ high. National Museum, Ife, Nigeria
  81. 81. Raphael, The School of Athens Scale and Proportion in a Renaissance Masterpiece • Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his pursuit of perfection • He indicated the importance of his masterpiece by creating it on a magnificent scale • He composed the individual figures so that the parts of each figure are harmonious in relation to each other and portray an idealized form • Double emphasis on the center brings our attention to the opposing gestures of two famous Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle
  82. 82. 1.134 Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’ 8‖ x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
  83. 83. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion The Golden Section  The Golden Section is a proportional ratio of 1:1.618, which occurs in many natural objects  Real human bodies do not have exactly these proportions, but when the ratio 1:1.618 is applied to making statues, it gives naturalistic results  The proportions of Ancient Greek sculptures are often very close to the Golden Section
  84. 84. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 1.135 The Golden Section
  85. 85. 1.136 Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½‖ high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece
  86. 86. 1.137 Diagram of proportional formulas used in the statue
  87. 87. Poseidon • As a Greek god, Poseidon had to have perfect proportions • The sculptor applied a conveniently simple ratio, using the head as a standard measurement • The body is three heads wide (at the shoulders) by seven heads high
  88. 88. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Proportional Ratios  “Golden Rectangles” is a technique based on nesting inside each other a succession of rectangles based on the 1:1.618 proportions of the Golden Section  The shorter side of the outer rectangle becomes the longer side of the smaller rectangle inside it, and so on  The result is an elegant spiral shape
  89. 89. Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away • Henry Peach Robinson was a great photographic innovator • This image shows Robinson’s attention to the coordinated ratios in artistic composition • Notice how the right-hand drape divides the photograph into two Golden Rectangles, and how the spiral draws our eye to the dying young woman
  90. 90. 1.138a Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away,1858. Combination albumen print. George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
  91. 91. 1.138b Proportional analysis: Henry Peach Robinson’s Fading Away
  92. 92. Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon • By applying the idealized rules of proportion for the human body to the design of the Parthenon, a temple to the goddess Athena, the Greeks created a harmonious design – The proportions correspond quite closely to the Golden Section – The vertical and horizontal measurements work together to create proportional harmony
  93. 93. 1.139 Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, 447–432 BCE. Athens, Greece
  94. 94. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields 1.140 The use of the Golden Section in the design of the Parthenon
  95. 95. Click the image above to launch the video PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1.5Time and Motion Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
  96. 96. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts,Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion Conclusion  When proportion conforms to scale, all the parts of the work look the way we expect them to  Scale and proportion are basic to most works; size choices influence all the other elements and principles in the design
  97. 97. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 1.7 Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
  98. 98. PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios Chapter 1.7 Scale and Proportion 1.126 Photo Attilio Maranzano. Photo courtesy the Oldenburg van Bruggen Foundation. Copyright 1992 Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen 1.127 Courtesy the artist 1.128 Werner Forman Archive, line artwork Ralph Larmann 1.129 Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin 1.130 Purchased with assistance from the Art Fund and the American Fund for the Tate Gallery 1997 © Tate, London, 2011. © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2011 1.131, 1.132 Ralph Larmann 1.133 National Museum, Ife, Nigeria 1.134 Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Museums, Rome 1.135 Ralph Larmann 1.136 National Archaeological Museum, Athens 1.137 Ralph Larmann 1.138a George Eastman House, New York 1.138b Ralph Larmann 1.139 iStockphoto.com 1.140 Ralph Larmann Picture Credits for Chapter 1.7
  99. 99. • When a Yoruba sculptor created a human form, he or she made this body part disproportionately large: a) feet. b) hands. c) head. d) torso. e) none of these body parts
  100. 100. • When a Yoruba sculptor created a human form, he or she made this body part disproportionately large: a) feet. b) hands. c) head. d) torso. e) none of these body parts
  101. 101. • Something done on a monumental scale usually indicates __________ . a) epic virtues b) heroism c) bravery d) admiration e) all of the other answers
  102. 102. • Something done on a monumental scale usually indicates __________ . a) epic virtues b) heroism c) bravery d) admiration e) all of the other answers
  103. 103. • This Greek sculptor wrote a treatise on how to create a statue of a human being with perfect proportions. a) Plato b) Aristotle c) Phidias d) Michelangelo e) Polykleitos
  104. 104. • This Greek sculptor wrote a treatise on how to create a statue of a human being with perfect proportions. a) Plato b) Aristotle c) Phidias d) Michelangelo e) Polykleitos
  105. 105. • This use of scale can create an abnormal or supernatural effect, and was used by the Surrealists to do just that. a) Proportion b) Distorted scale c) Monumental scale d) Small scale e) Balance
  106. 106. • This use of scale can create an abnormal or supernatural effect, and was used by the Surrealists to do just that. a) Proportion b) Distorted scale c) Monumental scale d) Small scale e) Balance
  107. 107. • Raphael’s School of Athens depicts this: a) a gathering of great scholars. b) the building where philosophy was taught. c) a Turkish bath. d) a group of figures with large heads. e) artists at work on Greek art.
  108. 108. • Raphael’s School of Athens depicts this: a) a gathering of great scholars. b) the building where philosophy was taught. c) a Turkish bath. d) a group of figures with large heads. e) artists at work on Greek art.
  109. 109. • In Egyptian art the Pharaoh was almost always depicted in this way. a) Small in relation to other objects b) The same as other figures c) Along the edge of the work d) As the largest of all figures e) Lying down
  110. 110. • In Egyptian art the Pharaoh was almost always depicted in this way. a) Small in relation to other objects b) The same as other figures c) Along the edge of the work d) As the largest of all figures e) Lying down
  111. 111. • Robert Lostutter creates his work with a particular scale in mind. That scale relates to these animals: a) birds. b) elephants. c) whales. d) insects. e) microbes.
  112. 112. • Robert Lostutter creates his work with a particular scale in mind. That scale relates to these animals: a) birds. b) elephants. c) whales. d) insects. e) microbes.
  113. 113. • Scale can be used to indicate importance but not __________ . a) size b) bigness c) significance d) smallness e) none of these answers
  114. 114. • Scale can be used to indicate importance but not __________ . a) size b) bigness c) significance d) smallness e) none of these answers
  115. 115. • Henry Peach Robinson created his photographic work Fading Away by using a Golden __________ for the format dimensions. a) Triangle b) Spiral c) Square d) Section e) Harp
  116. 116. • Henry Peach Robinson created his photographic work Fading Away by using a Golden __________ for the format dimensions. a) Triangle b) Spiral c) Square d) Section e) Harp
  117. 117. • A work that is created in small scale can communicate __________ . a) intimacy b) monumentality c) big ideas d) epic stories e) all of the other answers
  118. 118. • A work that is created in small scale can communicate __________ . a) intimacy b) monumentality c) big ideas d) epic stories e) all of the other answers
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