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  • 1. O644005 Stephen Lowney 1 Research Report Research Stephen Lowney Report 0644005 Design research for an interactive constructive product for the work environment
  • 2. O644005 Stephen Lowney 2 Research Report Introduction Today with modern technology, we spend a large percentage of our both our working lives and our leisure time in front of screens or interacting with technologies like Mp3 players, mobiles, games consoles, TV and internet/computers. The biggest problem of all is in mobility of people today. In the US people on average walk 1000-3000 steps per day. The recommended healthy amount is 10,000 steps. This not only affects long-term health with obesity, but also affects everyday health. Even if you exercise, long periods of sitting can still give you aches and pains It is very easy to say people should get up and get active and get outside and boost their health, but realistically people are not doing this, people are lazy and especially in our climate people are less likely to get outside and get active. -On average, Americans spend about 90 percent or more of their time indoors.
  • 3. O644005 Stephen Lowney 3 Research Report Due to this realisation I looked at indoor activities and saw a gap in the market. They’re a lot of indoor activities for children to do on a wet day. But there is a serious lack of creative, innovative constructive toys designed with an adult user in mind. They would give the users a well deserved break from staring at screens and give their hands and brains a workout. The office workspace is one area that is need of improvement Learning from Kids : Lego Lego is Danish company that is primarily known for their brick based construction sets, they also have "People" (minifigures) and a whole range of vehicles and tools that can be used to create custom Lego worlds. One of my favourite things about Lego is the interchange ability of every piece and sheer number of possibilities; I think that is the key to Lego’s magic. How much is Lego considering the Adult fans vs. the children when designing sets? When we design sets, we take both children and adults into consideration. Children are our primary audience, especially as it relates to the core play theme sets; however, much of what appeals to children in today’s Lego sets have strong appeal among adult fans as well. With Lego Star Wars, adults are equally considered. In designing any set, it’s about the balance between the building experience and the play experience.
  • 4. O644005 Stephen Lowney 4 Research Report - lego This seems strange when there are 50 AFOL's (Adult fans of Lego) groups with 40,000 registered members. - Lego Company Profile 2009 Overall Lego is a great and successful product and has a massive following, but really doesn’t seem to ever have really catered to an older audience where there is still allot of interest in construction sets and the creativity, innovation and construction involved. The Ultimate Puzzle : Rubik's Cube The Rubik's Cube is a 3-D mechanical puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes have sold worldwide making it the world's top-selling puzzle game. It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy. A pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be a solid colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of stickers, not all of them by Rubik. The original 3×3×3 version celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2005.
  • 5. O644005 Stephen Lowney 5 Research Report Studies have shown that engaging in mental activity through games and puzzles can help keep the mind sharp in old age. Just as regular physical exercise helps the body, regular mental exercise has benefits for the mind. Completing puzzles, soduku, crosswords, and board games have been shown to be beneficial to the maintenance of short-term memory, eye-hand co- ordination and general concentration. In a five-year study involving more than 400 participants over 75 years of age, it was found that activities that involve thought, such as reading, writing and board games, were more likely to ward off dementia. Of the physical activities trialed, only dancing was of any use in keeping our minds fit. - The NeoCube The NeoCube is a very cool product, see the video below! Composed of 216 individual high-energy rare-earth magnets, the NeoCube allows you to create and recreate a near infinitive number of shapes and patterns and has billions of solutions.
  • 6. O644005 Stephen Lowney 6 Research Report A highly distinguishing feature of the NeoCube is your nearly absolute control over it. Other puzzles and building sets force you to use preformed two or three- dimensional shapes, restricting and limiting the outcome. -Each individual sphere is essentially a point. -Several spheres arranged in a string essentially form a line. -Lines can be manipulated to form two-dimensional shapes or polygons. -Points, lines, or polygons can form three-dimensional shapes or polyhedrons The makers also claim that it is a stress relief tool and a creativity and construction puzzle which gives you a mental workout. Focus Groups preparation Conducting a focus group will be a big benefit to the research project, the results to steer the project in the correct direction. A “playtime session” will be recorded and the subjects asked questions before during and after the focus group. The reasons for doing a focus group is to find out how the physiology of play develops as we age, for children it is an encouraged activity but for adults it is almost frowned upon as society tells us that playtime is over.
  • 7. O644005 Stephen Lowney 7 Research Report There are many social and psychological aspects to play which at a young age species of all types play and it is through this play that we learn life skills and meet our first friends. It is true to say that most friends have met through play activities – they could be sports, socialising, hobbies or any leisure activity that you form an instant common bond over. Psychologists have divided play into 7 categories • Object play (kicking a ball) • Bonding play (common interest between two players e.g. cycling) • Social play (group play – cops and robbers) • Body play (Physical activities – swimming) • Imaginative play (Whatever you want it to be!) • Narrative play (Story telling) • Creative play (construction set, puzzle, painting etc) The truth is most species leave this characteristic behind with adult hood but humans do not this means that we still require play to ensure a balanced lifestyle. “In our species the evolutionary development of neoteny, which involves the retention of juvenile physical characteristics in mature individuals, has also prolonged the play impulse well into adulthood. -Desmond Morris, Surrealist painter
  • 8. O644005 Stephen Lowney 8 Research Report This quote shows that there really is a kid in all of us we just have to bring it out more often and hopefully it will bring out desirable qualities of children in adults – Inquisitiveness, imagination and creativity. Not only this but playing is about having fun and enjoying oneself, forgetting about the troubles and stress of everyday life. The health benefits are clearly obvious. A 2008 Swedish study of more than 300,000 male and female golfers suggested that simply playing golf could add about five years to a person's life. -Farahmand B et al. Golf: A game of life and death. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2008. Focus Group Results I conducted a focus group with a group in two parts, indoor and outdoor. The group consisted of ten 22-25 year olds, male and female. The main point of this Focus group is to see how comfortable or uncomfortable these young adults feel playing and acting as a younger child would. I also included the indoor and outdoor for the hope that in the publics eye people are less likely to want to be playful The indoor activities were the xylophone, the Rubik’s cube and Lego.
  • 9. O644005 Stephen Lowney 9 Research Report The xylophone proved to be too childish for most the subjects and the noise it produced was more an irritant than a pleasure. One subject did play a current song tune with the xylophone and proved to be quite enjoyable to the participants. The Rubik’s cube also failed to really get a good review, with everyone having used one before and found the fact that they could not understand and complete the puzzle a deterrent to playing with it. Making a game difficult excludes people, keeping it simple will make it more approachable for everyone. But if a person solves the Rubik’s cube then they get more pleasure from doing as it is seen as a difficult puzzle. The Lego was quite popular among the participants, with all them having played with it in their youth, they picked a theme, (space because its cool) and worked towards a common goal and built individual parts and put them together to form s “space station” The participants all agreed that nostalgia played a large part in their enjoyment of the Lego.
  • 10. O644005 Stephen Lowney 10 Research Report The females of the group spent less time playing with the Lego and were less excited as they played, the males were more willing to use their imagination and develop a story about what they were making. The outdoor activities were guns, yo yo, skipping rope, football. The guns were surprisingly popular with one female participant, they were initially popular with the males but they quite quickly went back to what they know, the football and jus kicked the ball around for most part. The preferred the skipping rope and the yo yo outside but again, did not play for as long as the males. The girls think they are more mature and they are therefore more susceptible to feeling immature or childish for playing. They males also generally were more immature and were more used to playing especially when it came to football. It was also noted that some male participants didn’t involve themselves and stood to the side of the main action. They were obviously not that interested in soccer and were left out when it the football was introduced.
  • 11. O644005 Stephen Lowney 11 Research Report This group of young adults proved to be quite playful but they also showed some of the games are less enjoyed because of lack of freedom within the game and/or skill/difficulty level. Observation Research To see how adults interact with children’s toys I set up an observation in the SU common room. I picked the common room, as it is a place where students go to relax in between classes and also for lunch. I scattered some Lego on 2 tables and waited for people to sit at the seats. There was a wide mix of people who sat down and mixed results. Group 1 consisted of 3 females 20-23 years old; they failed to even notice the Lego really and sat chatting and laughing. They did however pick up a magazine that was left on the table, even pushing the Lego off. From their very “trendy” appearance, I think the Lego jus wasn’t their style and would have clashed with their peroxide hair. Group 2 consisted of 1 male joined after a few minutes by another male and female.
  • 12. O644005 Stephen Lowney 12 Research Report While there on his own the first male starts to interact with the Lego, stacking the bricks in a wall The other two arrive and he seems to lose interest and starts chatting, but continues with less involvement that before, the other two pick up a few bricks and also start to fiddle with the pieces. This was a more successful group with a four-walled structure being made (no roof) Group 3 consisted of 4 males, initially no interaction, talking after 2-3 minutes interaction with all four interacting, and discussing what they are going to make - car? Boat? Plane? Bridge? Making and breaking and collaboration between the four Possibly engineers Group 4 consisted of two females and one male eating rolls chatting No interaction with Lego Group 5 consisted of five males and three females 2 m and one female interact initially, seating arrangement the cause. Stuff already made, more destructive.
  • 13. O644005 Stephen Lowney 13 Research Report Passed around to others as they got interested and had fun, laughed and were generally silly. Acting more youthful as they played Results The interaction depends on Sex Males more interested in general, but this is not to say that females are any less interested in playing, it’s just a male dominated activity in childhood so females are less likely to interact with it. Social awareness/standing Some people see a children’s toy and know they are not a child so totally block it out, where as some people see it and remember the fun and love for such a toy and try to recapture that same fun. Number of people – more casual with more people When more than one play they tend to work together or at least parallel with one another. Adults play with one or more specific goals in mind: social bonding, emotional expression, cognitive development, and constructive competition.
  • 14. O644005 Stephen Lowney 14 Research Report - Bateson, G. Steps Into an Ecology of Mind. New York, NY: Ballantine, 1972. Forecasting and trend analysis With advancing technologies and new material being discovered every year, there are more options that ever and finding the right solution is all about picking out what is important to the user. Trends come in many forms, one trend which has a particular interest to me is the maker movement in North America, this is a trend among twenty something’s as they relearn the skills and craftsmanship to make home made products. This is in contrast with the Global trend of consumerism and convince. That has swept west in the recent past. Why are people going back to the knitting, sewing, carpentry and DIY in general. It can be traced back to the open software where people built upon others work to produce a better product; it has also been aided by how to websites and videos that are in abundance across the web. Another trend that has caught on in recent years is the green trend, where ecological issues are an important image for a products success, a perfect example of this is GM, by failing to produce smaller more efficient cars they lead themselves into financial ruin, luckily for them both the U.S and Canadian governments bought them out of bankruptcy, but if they do not stray from the American ideology “Bigger is better” then they will not be able to compete with the European or Asian automakers.
  • 15. O644005 Stephen Lowney 15 Research Report Market Analysis Casual games" like puzzles and card games are the big draws for adults, who play for the social interaction and to relieve stress. But video games are gaining more and more popularity among the old generations. The average video game player is 30, and 19 percent are 50 or older, up from 9 percent in 1999. And online, women over 40 rule, spending more hours playing games than even geeky teenage boys do, according to research firm Digital Marketing Services Companies are even designing equipment for older joints. KY Enterprises offers joystick devices that can be used by a player's arm, foot, or mouth. This allows players with reduced mobility to interact with games. This is a sign of what pastimes people are choosing, preferring the virtual to the real world. This shows that adults are willing to disregard their social standing and play. But why does it have to be confined to video games? Bringing fun to the office environment is not an easy task, it has to be subtle and not childish, it should also have a positive effect on not only the worker health but their performance also. There are two theories oh how an employer sees their workers, theory Y are the employers that will invest in this type of product Theory X The average worked dislikes work and avoids work whenever possible.
  • 16. O644005 Stephen Lowney 16 Research Report To induce adequate effort, the supervisor must threaten punishment and exercise careful supervision. The average worker avoids increased responsibility and seeks to be directed. Theory Y The average worker wants to be active and finds the physical and mental effort on the job satisfying. Greatest results come from willing participation, which will tend to produce self- direction towards goals without coercion and control. The average worker seeks opportunity for personal improvement and self- respect. -Douglas McGregor “the assumption of the mediocrity of the masses.” Style Analysis Current trends are running inline with the environmental trends which have resulted in a whole new industry with green orientated products, the recent recession has also attributed to this new culture with swap shops and second hand items now seen as an economical and environmental alternative to the consumer trends which have caused both the recession and the high levels of pollutants in our atmosphere. A style has been evolved out of these trends in which consumers are looking for something that shows the positive (or less negative) effect they are having on the world around them, but some eco products may not be more friendly to the
  • 17. O644005 Stephen Lowney 17 Research Report environment because say a product made from recyclable material ends up in a land fill then it may as well up to the consumer on how they act at the end of life stage. Also an energy efficient product may use less energy during its use but if the energy used in manufacture of the product is a lot more, the energy saving may be cancelled out. But of course there is an ever growing network of serious green movements across the world in everything form energy production to manufacturing to people’s lifestyle. But saying this consumer’s will not just buy a product because it is “green” it still has to be as good if not better than the competitors if it wants to compete. It sill has to be desirable and aesthetically pleasing. A lot has to be said about the emotional engagement that can be formed between the user and the product. To engage the user the product needs to play on one or more of there sense, and should give them an positive emotional response on sight, touch or use of the product. Feedback is a good way to make the user more involved and feel in control of the process. A style that is attractive to adult consumers is also a mixture of forms, materials and finishes. • Organic and geometric • Warm and cold materials (wood vs. metal)
  • 18. O644005 Stephen Lowney 18 Research Report The Office Environment The average office worker in the EU spends 37 hours at work every week. Over 32% of the time they are awake is spent at the workplace. php?template=3&radioindic=175&idDomain=2 To find our more about how this environment is managed I contacted Sws in Clonakilty to see how they dealt with breaks and their staff. Stephen Hegarty is chief operations officer for the South Western Group; they employ over 600 people in the south of Ireland and more recently in Poland. They specialise in out sourcing with contracts with companies like 02 and The Irish Times. They are a typical large office based company with most employees spending their 8 hours at their cubical in front of their computers. We discussed many issues associated with the office environment and high Computer/VDU usage, he agreed that a large percentage of the employees spent their eight hours a day behind one or even several screens. Breaks were a big area of concern and he pointed out that smokers got more breaks than non-smokers and this caused problems for non-smokers in the office who felt it was unfair. This shows that even these small breaks make a difference to the people in the office
  • 19. O644005 Stephen Lowney 19 Research Report Stephen also raised the question of employee turnover, which is especially high in the customer service sector; this causes a problem for employers as they are constantly having to replace their staff. Big brother There is a software system to track and record every aspect of every employees day from how long they were away from their comp to how many customers they dealt with, and every employee has set goals and tasks and also minimum requirements that they have to reach. This could be useful with implementing the product as it could be monitored and also could be used as an incentive to surpass the targets i.e. positive reinforcement. This would hopefully encourage greater productivity, which according to Mr. Hegarty should be a good selling point when approaching companies to invest in this system. Stress in the workplace According to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) carried out in 2000, 28% of workers in the EU15 suffered from stress at work. A similar survey carried out a year later in candidate countries revealed similar trends: 28% of workers from the 12 candidate countries suffered from stress
  • 20. O644005 Stephen Lowney 20 Research Report A study carried out in 2003 aimed to identify occupational stress factors and explore the link between stress and sick leave. 20 occupational practitioners working in 14 different districts in France carried out 839 observations and survey studies among workers. The results confirmed that the most powerful factors which contribute to stress were not those related to personality characteristics, but were factors associated with occupational environment this also explained the association between stress and sickness absence Surprisingly Ireland has one of the lowest rates of work related stress with 16% of workers reporting stress, but stress, depression and anxiety had the second highest cause of workers illness and resulting absence Stress by age Stress is most reported for the 25-39 and 40 -54 age groups. As you can see below in figure 1
  • 21. O644005 Stephen Lowney 21 Research Report Figure 1 This shows that my target market is also a target for workplace stress With some EU countries with over 40% of workers between the ages 35-44 consulting a doctor with relation to workplace stress. Stress by gender 37% of men and 31% of women believe that work affects their health Men surpass women in all symptoms except for anxiety. Stress by job
  • 22. O644005 Stephen Lowney 22 Research Report Workers in education and health report high levels of stress, anxiety, and irritability Figure 2 One stat that surprised me was the stress levels in agriculture that rivals health and education for the most stressful sector. Figure 2 The cost of stress
  • 23. O644005 Stephen Lowney 23 Research Report Studies suggest that between 50% and 60% of all lost working days are linked to work- related stress, but the health of the workers is not all that is at stake. In the United Kingdom, 70 million days are lost every year through poor mental health, and 10 million of these are the result of anxiety, depression, and stress which, according to employees, is directly caused by their work or working conditions In 2005/6 work-related stresses, depression and anxiety cost Great Britain in excess of £530 million Ergonomics The below are the notes for figure 3 which is an ergonomic guideline to working at a VDU. 1. Use a good chair with a dynamic chair back that is angled slightly to the rear. 2. Top of monitor screen should be 2-3" above eye level 3. No glare on screen; use an optical glass anti-glare filter where needed 4. Sit at arms length from monitor; further if distance is comfortable and screen's readable. 5. Rest feet on floor or on a stable foot rest (move feet frequently for circulation) 6. Use a document holder, preferably in-line with the computer screen
  • 24. O644005 Stephen Lowney 24 Research Report Figure 3 7. Wrists flat and straight in relation to forearms to use keyboard/mouse/input device 8. Keeps arms and elbows relaxed close to body 9. Centre monitor and keyboard in front of you 10. Use a negative tilt keyboard tray with an upper mouse platform or downward tilt-able platform adjacent to keyboard 11. Use a stable work surface and stable (no bounce) keyboard tray 12. Take frequent short breaks (micro breaks) and stretch. Along with these ergonomic recommendations there are many ways to prevent health issues when in the working environment. Regular light stretching improves the blood circulation and rests you Offices of the future
  • 25. O644005 Stephen Lowney 25 Research Report Some large corporations have been looking at the workplace environment and have been trying to make it a more relaxed and enjoyable part of the day. Google is particularly well known for its unconventional office spaces. Another interesting method used by Google is giving 20% of work time to any project the individual wants. Apparently it’s where the most innovative stuff is created. Nobody can argue Google’s success and are on the top of the Internet market. I believe their work structure has a great deal to do with their success. This is not to say Google’s way is for everybody but it shows a morality and consideration form the company to the employees. A lot of the larger companies are now taking notice to these extreme tactics to keep employees happy and productive. But by doing this they also reduce burnouts, sick days and work related injuries. Of course for general use the playfulness has to be toned down. Offices are about business; therefore there is a clash. But this informal and variance in the office workplace has lead to greater productivity and better job satisfaction for the employee. Like most problems it is jus a matter of compromise. Giving the employees a break or boost without interfering with their or others work. At the same time the break has to detach them from the work physically and mentally even for a short period.
  • 26. O644005 Stephen Lowney 26 Research Report Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Pain caused by repetitive movements has been investigated since the 18 th century (Tomatis et al 2009). Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714), a professor in medicine, was one of the first people to focus on workers’ health problems in a systematic way. He visited workplaces, observed the activities of workers and discussed their disorders with them. In his writings (reprinted 2001) he talks about, “the bent posture in sitting” and “the incessant movement of the hand and always in the same direction”, and how this leads to “the outermost vertebral ligaments being constantly pulled apart” and “fatigue of the hand and whole arm because of the continuous and almost tonic strain on the muscles and tendons” (Ramazzini 2001).. In the late 20th century, with more occupations involving the use of an office, computer and desk, musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements and postures have become an even more increasing problem in the working environment (Padma and Balasubramanie 2009) Examples of physical risk factors include: 1. Repetitive movements 2. Prolonged poor postures 3. Inadequate strength` 4. Frequent or heavy lifting 5. Awkward postures 6. Sustained force Current treatment options : • Exercise therapy (Physiotherapist) • Manual therapy (Physiotherapist) • Ergonomic intervention (Ergonomist) • GP visit (Doctor) • Surgery (Surgeon) 1. Carpal tunnel release 2. Medial epicondylectomy
  • 27. O644005 Stephen Lowney 27 Research Report Problem Areas There are certain areas where I will focus the attention of this product. Certain parts of the body become more stressed during normal everyday activities which in the short term reduces productivity and increases sick days and over time can become a great expense for both the employee and employer. Neck The neck is one area where pain and stiffness are found among office workers. One example of where this has been combated is with head sets, which avoid bending of the neck when holding the phone on the shoulder. Shoulders Hunching over a computer, bad seating or posture can cause pain in the shoulders. It is neck and shoulder pain are also commonly associated with stress. Wrists The angles at which your wrists are at while typing can be strenuous, unless strict ergonomic adherence by both the employee and employer. The same can be said for mouse use. The elbows should be inline with the wrists in a neutral position, prolonged tension of the tendons that bend the wrist causes inflammation and pain. Tendons need to be relaxed more regularly to reduce build up of stress in the tendons
  • 28. O644005 Stephen Lowney 28 Research Report Fingers Fingers work similarly as the wrist with tendons pulling or straightening the fingers, over extension or retraction results of build up of stress especially at the joints. Conclusion/Discussion It is undeniable that VDU workers need to take short frequent breaks from displays and also the input devices to reduce the risks of RSI, eyestrain, stress and burnouts. Also the thought of playing at work seems to be obscure to some but more and more businesses across the world are now making the office environment a more playful place as the office culture and community prosper and as a result the business reaps the rewards. A perfect example of this is the Google offices across the world, which are ground breaking and push the boundaries to the office of the future. The product needs a focus of one defined area. I learned that in order to tackle this project I would need to direct my attention in order to really tackle the problem. After reviewing my research the biggest problem area with the most benefit and room for improvement was a mobility issue. This can be divided into two areas that are applicable to anybody Walking Walking is a simple thing but it is something that was our most reliable mode of transport for millions of years. Since we started to travel grater distances more
  • 29. O644005 Stephen Lowney 29 Research Report regularly, sitting has become a lot more prolonged. This lack of movement and focused hand and eye movement (using a computer) causes stress build up. Getting up and walking just for a short distance, wakes up all you muscles filling them with oxygenated blood and if done regularly would reduce stress build up in the body which cause the aches and pains associated with un-ergonomic work environments. Stretching Light stretching is a good way to prevent RSI and stiffness of the joints. It also can be done in the confines of a cubicle. Allowing easy integration into office space. Getting the user not to think about stretching or walking By introducing a task or functional aspect, eg work for it. Work as in the term; exerts physical effort for a return. This is what we have until recently done – farmed, hunted, gathered. You could also integrate different body gestures or movements that would be an untraditional type of stretch (I have been looking at Tai Chi) I also would like to incorporate gestures for answering the phone, or email or any task that is repeated through the day at intervals.
  • 30. O644005 Stephen Lowney 30 Research Report References Verghese J et al. Leisure activities and the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in the elderly. Neurology. 2006. 66(6): 821-827. Essa, E., Young, R. & Lehne, L., Introduction to early childhood education, 2nd Ed. (1998) SuperBreak: Using Interactivity to Enhance Ergonomic Typing Breaks Dan Morris, A.J. Bernheim Brush, and Brian R. Meyers 2008 Stress at work — facts and figures; European Agency for Safety and health at work Ankrum, D.R. (2001). Questioning Office Ergonomic Guidelines. In D. C. Alexander & R. A. Rabourn (Eds.) Applied Ergonomics. London: Taylor & Francis Reilly, P.A. (1995) ‘Repetitive strain injury: from Australia to the UK’, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39(6), 783-788. Margaritis, S. and Marmaras, N. (2007) ‘Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements’, Applied Ergonomics, 38, 781-790. STRETCHING TO REDUCE WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Bruno R da Costa, PT, MSc and Edgar Ramos Vieira, PT, PhD, 2008 Company Profile An introduction to the LEGO Group 2009 The Science of LEGO SERIOUS PLAY – Introduction Pdf Integral Play: Social Interaction in the Workplace Christian Thönia and Simon Gächterb An Exploration of Adult Transformation
  • 31. O644005 Stephen Lowney 31 Research Report Gwen Gordon & Sean Esbjörn-Hargens Insights into the Social and Psychological Effects Of SMS Text Messaging Donna Reid & Fraser Reid University of Plymouth The effects of exercise and rest breaks on musculoskeletal discomfort during computer tasks : an evidence based perspective Ronald De Vera Barredo, Kelly Mahon Psychology Today, July/August 1999 tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16467493 Performex THE HUMAN MOMENT AT WORK