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Surface finishing version 1
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Surface finishing version 1


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This presentation looks at types of surface finishes and applications, and surface preparation methods that are common in Cabinet Making, Shopfitting and Joinery areas.

This presentation looks at types of surface finishes and applications, and surface preparation methods that are common in Cabinet Making, Shopfitting and Joinery areas.

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  • This PowerPoint is designed to be used in conjunction with corresponding student handouts and quiz. Discuss the teacher notes as the slides are displayed. Students will need to answer a quiz at the conclusion of the presentation, and will need to be encouraged to take notes from the discussion.
  • Discuss why planning is so important.Questions: What can go wrong if you don’t plan and prepare? Who’s responsibility is it to plan and prepare? What are some ways we can plan and prepare for surface finishing? (next slide)
  • Why do you cover all work areas? [less damage/cleaning at completion]Where would you place the tools that you clean up to provide a clear work area? [back in trailer or area you are not using]Why do you position the tools that you do need, close to your work area? [no time waste chasing tools or paint drying while you find tool]Why clean dust and debris from areas that will be used for finish application [ to prevent damage to finished product, wind could blow dust and debris onto wet application]
  • Where would you normally find MSDS information for the product you are using? [on the can/bottle – folder in office]How would you determine the most suitable finishing method? [read the infromation supplied by the manufacturer – ask an experienced person]What is meant by time constraints when using finishing products? [how long to dry – how much time between coats]
  • *What can happen if we do not ask ourselves these 3 questions? [job could go pear shaped]*damage the material surface [incorrect grade of paper will scratch]*get an undesirable and inappropriate finish [over grain – too dark- look flat]*using the incorrect application will/could result in a sub-standard finish [brush marks- patches – bubbles]
  • Answering these questions depends on a number of considerations including:The type of material to be finished (timber, aluminium, MDF etc.)The intended use of the product (e.g. high traffic areas such as stair treads and service counters as opposed to low impact surfaces such as picture frames and drawer fronts)The expected climate the product will be located in (e.g. external or internal; dry or humid conditions)Customer requirements (including plans and specifications)
  • *Where might we use these surface types? Solid timber = window sills-floors-counters-bars-free standing furniture Timber Veneer = kitchens-boardroom furniture-reception counters Particle Board = low cost storage shelves – panels MDF = Walls – counters – free standing furniture – storage cupboards – bulkheads Plaster Board = ceilings and wall sheeting – bulkheads – “can be used to gain fire rating”Aluminium = window frames – shopfronts – partitions – display counters Steel = structural components in a building [piers, lintels, beams] - brackets
  • FINISHESAs with surfaces, there is also a wide range of finishes available including:Paint (acrylic, enamel, oil-based, water-based, acid-catalysed or ‘two-pack’ etc.)Stain (water-based, oil-based)French PolishPowder CoatingLacquer (nitrocellulose; pre-catalysed; two-pack; polyurethane etc.)Wax (beeswax, carnauba, synthetic, mineral, petroleum etc.)Oil (olive, vegetable, linseed)Epoxy enamel Powder Coating
  • SURFACE PREPARATION Prior to any finishing, surfaces must be prepared to suit the intended application. The type of preparation will differ for each type of material and finish, so it is advisable to check the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of the finish and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. If these recommendations are not followed correctly, desired results may not be achieved, and you may in fact damage the material you are finishing. STEPS IN SURFACE PREPARATION There are generally four steps in surface preparation for most surfaces and finishes. Remove all traces of moisture, dirt, grease, marks and dustFill all cracks, holes, joints and defectsSand all areas of the surface to a smooth finishRemove all traces of dust from sanding
  •  Timber presents a number of challenges when preparing to receive a finish. Grain direction, watermarks, defects and glue marks, along with other issues, make preparing timber surfaces a time consuming and sometimes tricky process.  GRAINWhen sanding timber, grain direction is crucial. Sanding against the grain can lift fibres and remove material quicker, but will generally leave a rougher finish than sanding with the grain. Generally, it is best to sand with the grain.  To determine the direction of the grain on a piece of timber, gently run your fingers along the surface in both directions. One way will feel smoother than the other, and this is the direction that the grain will be running. Timber should never be sanded across the grain, as this will leave scratch marks and visible lines on the surface. DEFECTSSome common faults and blemishes that may be encountered when preparing timber surfaces include:Machine marksMachine marks normally show as a corrugated mark across the grain of the timber. These are marks from the planer or thicknesser machines used to dress the timber.Using a planer or thicknesser that has a chip out of the blade may cause another common machine mark. These show as a raised marks running along the timber, with the grain. Removal - machine marks can be easily removed by using a belt sander or block with coarse to medium sandpaper.  BruisingA bruise is a dent in the surface, caused by something being dropped on the surface or the surface being knocked accidentally. If the surface of the timber is broken as well as crushed, it should be classed as a hole and treated as such.Removal - Bruises and dents can be sanded out, but his will mean the whole surface will need to be sanded down to the lowest level in the bruise. It is best practice to try and ‘lift’ the bruise, by applying a small amount of water, and the pressure of heat to draw the fibres of the timber up. A wet rag and a hot iron are the best tools for this job, but a rag with warm water can work too. The moisture and heat can work quite well to lift the bruise and then normal sanding is all that is required to finish off. Pencil marksPencil marks occur during the setting-out and manufacture of products. Removal - Pencil marks can easily be removed with an eraser or through fine sanding. It is a lot easier to remove pencil marks prior to gluing and assembling components, especially in internal corners and on intricate mouldings.GreaseGrease or oil marks can either occur in when there is an excess of grease or oil on tools and machinery. They show up as a darkish, dull spot on the surface. Grease marks or oil marks on the surface of a job prevent the entry of stain or lacquer and this results in a variation in colour when the job is finished.Removal - usually all it takes to remove these marks is sanding, however some times the use of thinners or mineral turpentine can remove grease that has been absorbed deeper into the timber.Cross sanding marksCross sanding marks are caused by abrasive paper being used across the grain. They show up as a number of fine scratches across the grain of the timber. These areas also show up darker when stained, causing an uneven overall colour.Removal - quite obvious really, sand with the grain!ScratchesScratches are caused by something sharp being dragged across the surface, normally cutting and breaking the timber surface. They should not, therefore, be classified as bruises.Removal - Successful removal of a scratch is dependant on how deep and excessive the scratch is. Sanding will remove scratches, and as with all sanding, the whole of the surface will need to be sanded down to the bottom of the scratch to enable the surface to remain flat and level.Glue marksGlue marks occur during assembly of joints and components. They are mainly found around joints, but can also be found on other parts of the job where it has been carelessly splashed. They show up as smooth glossy spots on the surface. If timber is stained or lacquered, these glue marks are highlighted and will appear more substantial.Removal - Glue marks can be avoided by proper cleaning off straight after gluing. Sometimes this is difficult though due to location of clamps etc., so there will be times when glue marks need to be removed through sanding, scraping and sometimes cutting with a sharp chisel.Dirt marksDirt marks are caused by handling with dirty- hands; timber being dragged on the floor; or dirty equipment.Removal - cleaning with a rag or light sanding is usually all that s required. Insect and termite holesScattered small holes (borer holes) only affect the appearance, but when they are tightly clustered, the strength of the timber is affected. Termites make holes and tunnels in the timber, which seriously affect its strength and appearance.Removal - there is no way to remove borer holes. The best thing to do is to avoid these areas when machining, or to fill the holes with wood filler, putty or resin.HolesThere are several types of holes that can be found in a timber surface. The main ones are nail holes, knot holes, tear cuts, broken edges and corners or marks to the surface, which break, as well as crush, the timber fibres. Removal - same as for borer holes - avoid these areas or fill with putty etc.KnotsKnots are visible sections of branch growth in timber. There are several types of knot (such as ‘edge knot’, ‘tight knot’ and ‘loose knot’) and all affect the strength and appearance of timber in different ways. The influence that a knot will have on the strength of the piece is based on an assessment of the knot area.Removal - Knots are generally unable to be removed removed, so it is best practice to avoid these areas if you do not like the appearance of them. A loose knot may be able to be glued back into place or filled with resin or putty.
  • Sanding the surface of any material should always start with a coarser grade (or grit) first, gradually moving through the grades until you reach the desired finish. E.g. start with a grit of around 120, sand the entire surface, then move to a grit of 180, then 220, 360, etc. right up to a grit of 1000 if a highly polished finish is desired. Surfaces which are being polished or stained need to be sanded until all scratches, machine marks and imperfections are removed. It is good practice to start sanding with the ‘least coarse’ grit that will do the job, and continue sanding through the grits until you reach the desired smoothness.  Grade (Grit)Step100=Sanding after removing deep scratches120-180=Sanding - preparation for staining180=Fine sanding240=Cutting back after first coat400=Cutting back between additional coats1000=Final cut for fine finishing
  • Enhances the grain – brings out a strong colour and grain figureCheck the information on the can to see which method is recommended for application. Different applications for each type of stain.Why brush or spray into tight corners first? Better coverageFor what reason do we apply generously and then wipe off? Even finishWhy do we apply a sealing coat over stain? Protect the colour and prevent scratches from standing out. Stained surface is very soft.How do we find the recommended drying time for a particular stain. Manufacturer’s instructions on canRemember 3 types of stain = water based – spirit based – oil based
  • *Brush with the grain to get an even finish. Won’t see the brush marks.*When spraying, set the spray coverage area on the gun and slightly overlap with each parallel run. Work away from your body to eliminate overspraySpry/brush difficult areas first so all surfaces receive coverage. Sometimes difficult areas get missed when spraying/brushing parallel runs.Use long even strokes so stop/start uneven/patches do not appear.Use a spray booth to filter the fumes away and wear a respirator to prevent inhaling fumes which could cause your stomach muscles to cramp up.Polyurethane lacquer is the most commonly used [ready to go from can].
  • *Wax penetrates the timber and enhances the grain. Must be applied several times over a long period. Once a yearNot durable = fairly soft surface – does not harden the surface.* Soft cloth could be flanelete or cotton.*Steel wool would be very fine 000
  • *Enhances natural colour of the grain by penetrating the timber.*Can be re-oiled any time [clean surface first]Use a very fine seel wool when rubbing over a dry lacquer coat. Always rub with the grain, never across the grain.Wiping across the grain with steel wool will show very slight scratches in good light [daylight]Always rub the entire surface with steel wool to prevent patching [ one part of the surface flatter finish than the rest]
  • *Always clean tools between coats*Cut in [paint] hard to reach areas first then use long even strokes to draw the paint into itself. This will create an even finish [ no patches ].It is easy to roll up a drop sheet than clean paint off the carpet or timber floor.
  • *Pre-treating with chemicals or sandblasting creates a clean even surface so the powder can take evenly.*Powder Coating is mainly used for products that are used externally [ house windows – shopfronts – balustrades – pool fences*Powder Coating gives a hard durable surface.
  • *Clean the floor with a vacuum cleaner. Do not blow down with air. Wear PPE.*Make sure you use the correct solvent when cleaning equipment.*Check your equipment before storing.*Ensure lids are firmly fitted to surplus materials to prevent drying out. Store correctly, away from heat.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CCPCCSH3004A: Apply FinishesCPCCSH2001A: Prepare Surfaces
    • 2. The main reasons for Surface finishingare: Protection - Protects the surface from dirt, sun (UV rays), water, fungus, rot, mould, chemicals etc. Durability - Strengthens the surface and makes it more durable. Appearance (aesthetics) - Highlights or improves the appearance of the surface to make it more attractive and appealing
    • 3. There is a large range of products andtechniques used for surfacepreparation, along with an even largerrange of finishing products and methods.Correct selection of the right techniqueand finish for the job is critical, and canmean the difference between highquality joinery, and damaged andunusable materials.
    • 4. Why is preparation soimportant? Generally, the more preparation you do, the better the finishing process and the better the overall finish of the job.
    • 5.  Cover all work areas with a suitable, non-marking material such as carpet, rugs or felt. Clean up all tools and materials that are no longer needed to provide a clear work area Select appropriate P.P.E. for each task (e.g. dust mask for sanding, respirator for spraying lacquer) Determine tools and equipment needed and position close to work area Clean away dust and debris from areas that will be used for finish application
    • 6.  Set up drying racks, trolleys and benches close by, as required for each task Check Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) prior to using any finishing materials and applications to ensure correct use and safety Determine the most suitable finishing methods for the material you are using Plan each step with consideration to time restraints Use work method statements to identify the correct sequence and minimise any safety hazards
    • 7. Before surface finishing can commence, three questions should be asked:  What is the most suitable method of surface preparation?  What is the most suitable finish for the material?  What is the most suitable application method for applying the finish?Answering these questions depends on a number of considerations including:
    • 8.  The type of material to be finished The intended use of the product The expected climate the product will be located in Customer requirements / plans / spec’s
    • 9.  Solid Timber Timber veneer board and panelling Particle board Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) Plasterboard / Gyprock Aluminium Steel
    • 10.  Paint Stain French Polish Powder Coating Lacquer Wax Oil Epoxy enamel
    • 11. There are generally four steps in surface preparation for most surfaces and finishes.1. Remove all traces of moisture, dirt, grease, marks and dust2. Fill all cracks, holes, joints and defects3. Sand all areas of the surface to a smooth finish4. Remove all traces of dust from sanding
    • 12.  Grain Defects - holes - knots - cracks - scratches - insect damage Marks
    • 13.  Fill all holes / cracks prior to sanding Start with the least-coarse grit possible Move up through the grits Cover benches Sand till all marks are removed
    • 14.  Enhances the grain Applied with brush, cloth or spray Brush or spray into corners and tight areas Apply generously, then wipe off Needs to be coated / sealed after Allow to dry before coating Do not dry on porous surface
    • 15.  Different types for different applications Apply with brush or spray gun Brush with the grain Spray parallel and 150mm – 200mm away from surface Spray / brush difficult areas first Use long, even strokes when spraying Use spray booth / P.P.E.
    • 16.  Oldest form of finish Good moisture resistance Not very durable Rub into surface Use Steel wool Rub with soft cloth to ‘burnish’
    • 17.  Enhances natural colour Quickly absorbed (apply many coats) Natural (eco friendly) Linseed, olive, tung, vegetab le oils, coloured Brush or wipe onto surface Can be used with steel wool over lacquer to smooth off
    • 18.  Applied with brush, roller or spray gun More coats improves protection, colour Matt, satin, semi and full gloss finishes Fumes – ventilation / wear P.P.E. Use long, even strokes in one direction Paint hard to reach areas first Use drop sheets etc.
    • 19.  Uniform, durable finish for metals Remove defects first Pre-treat with chemicals or sandblasting Ground the surface Spray powder onto surface Bake surface in a kiln or oven Powder melts into even film Overspray can be recycled
    • 20.  Corona – electrostatic charge Tribo – friction charge Fluidized bed – dipped
    • 21.  Clean up is crucial before and after finishing Avoid overspray and dust Clean brushes, rollers and spray equipment. Dispose of waste safely – Environment Protection Act (EPA) Take care with thinners and solvents Unused materials sealed and stored safely