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Wine Knowledge


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  • 1. Wine knowledge and service
    • What is wine ?
    • “ Wine is the product obtained from the total or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not crushed, or of grape must (juice).”
  • 2.  
  • 3. What is wine ?
    • Most grapes suitable for making wine belong to the species Vitis vinifera.
    • The essential part of the conversion of grape juice into wine is FERMENTATION
    • Fermentation occurs when the yeast feeds on sugars converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide gas
    • Yeast+ Sugar = Alcohol+ Carbon Dioxide
  • 4. The diagram below shows the ingredients of a ripe grape
  • 5.
    • On the skin of the grape is a dull, whitish-colored film of waxy substance . This is known as the bloom.Yeast and bacteria present in the air attach themselves to the bloom. When the skin of the grape is broken, the yeasts come into contact with the sugar in the pulp and fermentation can begin.
    • Fermentation may be NATURAL or CONTROLLED.
    • In natural fermentation the wild yeasts feed on the sugar and produce up to 4% of alcohol, but often also gives a slightly unpleasant taste.
    • At this level of alcohol, the wild yeasts die and wine yeasts continue to work until there is no more sugar left to feed them
    • They are killed once the wine has reached a strength of about 15% alcohol. After some time, the wine is spoilt by the action of bacteria, usually turning the wine into vinegar.
  • 6.
    • Types of wines
    • Light wines – The simplest type of wine made all over the world (8% - 15% alc. content)
    • Fortified wines – The level of alcohol is increased by adding brandy or other types of grape spirit bringing the alcohol content to between 15% and 20%,eg Port and Sherry
    • Sparkling wines – Carbon dioxide gas is trapped in the wine before the bottle is sealed. When the bottle is opened and the wine poured, bubbles of gas are released, e.g. Champagne
    • Aromatized wines – The wine is flavored with herbs or spices, and is usually also a liqueur wine, e.g. Martini rosso, Vermouth
  • 7.
    • Wine Styles
    • Each type of wine may be made in a variety of styles, according to:
    • Color – red, white or pink (rosé). Red wine is made from black grapes, white wine is made from either black or white grapes. Rose wines are made from black grapes which are crushed and fermented with skins until there is a little color
    • Sweetness – dry ,medium or sweet
  • 8. Tasting and evaluating wine
    • Educated tasting is a combination of knowledge, experience and learning the disciplined use of the four senses involved:
    Sight Smell Taste Touch
  • 9. Tasting and evaluating wine
    • Clarity of the wine – Cloudy or Hazy
    • Intensity – Color is Deep or Pale
    • Color – Red wines begin with purple, changing with age to ruby, mahogany
    • and eventually brown
  • 10.
    • The smell of the wine is known as its “nose”.
    • Condition – Does the wine smell pleasant and clean or is there any mustiness, earthiness or smell of bad eggs?
    • Intensity – Is the nose weak or pronounced?
    • Character – Highlighting various fruit or other characteristics eg. grape, blackcurrant, raspberry, flowery, violets, nuts, oak, spice, bread yeast and many others.
  • 11.
    • The taste of the wine, which is called the “palate”, reveals the true nature of the wine. Take a small mouthful and swirl it around the mouth, so that it contacts all parts of the mouth. This is necessary because different parts of the mouth are sensitive to different tastes.
    • Sweetness – sweetness is noticeable on the tip of the tongue, a wine with no sugar is called “dry”.
    • Acidity – Acidity is very important in wine, as it gives the wine “balance”. Too much and the wine is tart, too little and the wine is flabby.
  • 12.
    • Tannin – As red wines mature, the tannin comes out of the wine, forming part of the deposit. The wine then tastes more balanced.
    • Body – This is the general “feel” of the wine in the mouth. German wines feel light, whereas an Australian Shiraz feels big and heavy.
    • Fruit Character – The overall taste of fruit in the mouth. In general, the better the wine, the greater the level of fruit .
    • Length – How long the flavour lingers after spitting (or swallowing!). Usually the longer the better.
    Touch / Feel
  • 13. Evaluate the wine.
    • The main points to decide are:
    • Quality – Quality is a judgment of whether the wine is a good example of its kind, or merely an ordinary one.
    • Maturity – This is a measure of the state of readiness for drinking.
  • 14. Service of wine
    • Sommelier / wine waiter - should have good knowledge of the wine sold (tip : read the label properly for origin, type of wine etc. )
    • Wine should be at the right temperature
    • Have the right tools – good opener, cleanly folded napkin, wine basket/bucket
    • Confidence in you & the wine
  • 15. Presenting the wine Present the bottle to the host showing the label and announcing the name of the wine and the year,
  • 16. Removing the foil
  • 17. Uncorking the wine (nosing the cork)
  • 18. Wipe the mouth of the bottle
  • 19. Pour some wine to taste
  • 20. Tasting the wine
  • 21. Service of wine Do it right !
    • After tasting & approval –
    • Pour only 2/3 of the glass for white wine, not more than ½ for reds & again not more than 100 ml in big glass (Maxim wine goblet)
    • Grip the bottle properly
    • Ensure there is not much distance between the mouth of the bottle & rim of the glass also don’t let the bottle rest on the glass
  • 22. Service of wine Do it right !
    • Pour sparkling wine in two stages, let the mousse rise & settle then pour to fill
    • Remember to serve ladies ( old to young ) & host last
    • Make sure there is enough to go around
    • Refill promptly
    • SO
    • WITH
    • THANK YOU !