Stallman, Richard. New Unix Implementation. (1983)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Stallman, Richard. New Unix Implementation. (1983)

on

  • 1,302 views

Stallman graduated from Harvard in 1974 with a BA in physics. During his college years, he also worked as a staff hacker at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, learning operating system development ...

Stallman graduated from Harvard in 1974 with a BA in physics. During his college years, he also worked as a staff hacker at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, learning operating system development by doing it. He wrote the first extensible Emacs text editor there in 1975. In January 1984 he resigned from MIT to start the GNU Project. Richard Stallman is the founder of the GNU Project, the principal author of the GNU C Compiler, the GNU symbolic debugger (GDB), GNU Emacs, and various other GNU programs.

Stallman received the Grace Hopper Award for 1991 from the Association for Computing Machinery, for his development of the first Emacs editor. In 1990 he was awarded a MacArthur Foundation fellowship, and in 1996 an honorary doctorate from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. In 1998 he received the Electronic Frontier Foundation's Pioneer award along with Linus Torvalds. In 1999 he received the Yuri Rubinski Award. In 2001 he received a second honorary doctorate, from the University of Glasgow.

In this early E-Mail from 1983 Stallman for the first time announces his Idea of creating a free UNIX based operating System called GNU.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,302
Views on SlideShare
1,302
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Stallman, Richard. New Unix Implementation. (1983) Stallman, Richard. New Unix Implementation. (1983) Document Transcript

  • STEVE STEIN, M.SC. MASTER OF SCIENCE IN DIGITAL MEDIA * DIPLOMA COMPUTER SCIENTIST * RESEARCH SCIENTIST * FREELANCER * HTTP://WWW.STEVE-STEIN.DE/SCIENCE/ RICHARD M. STALLMAN “I was built at a laboratory in Manhattan around 1953, and moved to the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab in 1971. My hobbies include affection, international folk dance, flying, cooking, physics, recorder, puns, science fiction fandom, and programming; I magically get paid for doing the last one. About a year ago I split up with the PDP-10 computer to which I was married for ten years. We still love each other, but the world is taking us in different directions. For the moment I still live in Cambridge, Massachusetts, among our old memories. "Richard Stallman" is just my mundane name; you can call me "RMS". (Richard Stallman's 1983 biography that was published in the first edition of "The Hacker's Dictionary".) Stallman graduated from Harvard in 1974 with a BA in physics. During his college years, he also worked as a staff hacker at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, learning operating system development by doing it. He wrote the first extensible Emacs text editor there in 1975. In January 1984 he resigned from MIT to start the GNU Project. Richard Stallman is the founder of the GNU Project, the principal author of the GNU C Compiler, the GNU symbolic debugger (GDB), GNU Emacs, and various other GNU programs. Stallman received the Grace Hopper Award for 1991 from the Association for Computing Machinery, for his development of the first Emacs editor. In 1990 he was awarded a MacArthur Foundation fellowship, and in 1996 an honorary doctorate from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. In 1998 he received the Electronic Frontier Foundation's Pioneer award along with Linus Torvalds. In 1999 he received the Yuri Rubinski Award. In 2001 he received a second honorary doctorate, from the University of Glasgow. NEW UNIX IMPLEMENTATION This is the original announcement of the GNU Project, written by Richard Stallman on September 27th 1983. The history of the GNU Project is in many ways different from this initial plan. For example, the beginning was delayed until January, 1984 and several of the details about free software had not yet been clarified. Free Unix! Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix), and give it away free(1) to everyone who can use it. Contributions of time, money, programs and equipment are greatly needed. To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed to write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker, assembler, and a few other things. After this we will add a text formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of other things. We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including on-line and hardcopy documentation. GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical to Unix. We will make all improvements that are convenient, based on our experience with other operating systems. In particular, we plan to have longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof file system, filename completion perhaps, terminal-independent display support, and eventually a Lisp-based window system through which several Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen. Both C and Lisp will be available as system programming languages. We will have network software based on MIT's chaosnet protocol, far superior to UUCP. We may also have something compatible with UUCP. Who Am I? I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original much-imitated EMACS editor, now at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT. I have worked extensively on compilers, editors, debuggers, command interpreters, the Incompatible Timesharing System and the Lisp Machine operating system. I pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS. In addition I have implemented one crashproof file system and two window systems for Lisp machines. Why I Must Write GNU I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I must share it with other people who like it. I cannot in good conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license agreement. So that I can continue to use computers without violating my principles, I have decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that I will be able to get along without any software that is not free. How You Can Contribute I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money. I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work. One computer manufacturer has already offered to provide a machine. But we could use more. One consequence you can expect if you donate machines is that GNU will run on them at an early date. The machine had better be able to operate in a residential area, and not require sophisticated cooling or power. Individual programmers can contribute by writing a compatible duplicate of some Unix utility and giving it to me. For most projects, such part-time distributed work would be very hard to coordinate; the independently-written parts WEB 3.0 DESIGN * INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE * USER-EXPERIENCE CREATION * USABILITY OPTIMIZATION * SCIENCE@STEVE-STEIN.DE
  • would not work together. But for the particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent. Most interface specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility. If each contribution works with the rest of Unix, it will probably work with the rest of GNU. If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or part time. The salary won't be high, but I'm looking for people for whom knowing they are helping humanity is as important as money. I view this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their full energies to working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in another way. Poor choice of wording around “free” The wording here was careless. The intention was that nobody would have to pay for permission to use the GNU system. But the words don't make this clear, and people often interpret them as saying that copies of GNU should always be distributed at little or no charge. That was never the intent. SOURCE Stallman, Richard. New Unix Implementation. 1983, Available: http://www.gnu.org/gnu/initial-announcement.html [Accessed at September 27th 2009] NOTES .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. REMARK Copyright © 2009 ree Software Foundation, Inc. Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium without royalty provided this notice is preserved. Mirrored for fair use only and research. All rights reserved by owner of copyright. stallmanrichard-newuniximplementation-1983-090927154835-phpapp02.doc Created on 27/09/2009 20:14:00/ Last printed