Properties of minerals
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Properties of minerals

on

  • 659 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
659
Views on SlideShare
659
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Properties of minerals Properties of minerals Presentation Transcript

  • Properties of Minerals
  • What is a mineral? • A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. • More than 3,000 identified minerals. • About 20 minerals make up most of the Earth’s crust.
  • Characteristics of a mineral 1. Naturally occurring 2. Inorganic 3. Solid 4. Crystal structure 5. Definite Chemical composition.
  • Naturally Occurring • Mineral must occur naturally on Earth – Gold, copper, silver, graphite
  • Inorganic • The mineral cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing • Coal occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust, but it comes from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.
  • Solid • A mineral is always solid, with a definite volume and shape.
  • Crystal Structure • The particles of a mineral line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again. • A crystal has flat sides, called faces, that meet at sharp edges.
  • Definite Chemical Composition • A mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions – For example, the mineral of quartz has one atom of silicon for every to atoms of oxygen.
  • How do we identify a mineral? • Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it. 1. Hardness 2. Color 3. Streak 4. Luster 5. Density
  • Hardness • In 1812, Friedrich Mohs, a mineral expert, invented a test to describe and compare the hardness of minerals. • The scale ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest. • A mineral can scratch any mineral softer than itself.
  • Mohs Hardness Scale
  • Color • Color can be used to identify only those few minerals that always have their own characteristic color. – Malachite is always green – Azurite is always blue • Many minerals, however, like quartz, can occur in a variety of colors.
  • Streak • A streak test can provide a clue to a minerals identity. • The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder. • You can observe a streak by rubbing a mineral against a streak plate.
  • Luster • Luster is the way a mineral reflects light from its surface. • Minerals containing metals are often shiny. • Other minerals, such as quartz, have a glassy luster.
  • Density • No matter what the size of a mineral, the density of that mineral always remains the same. • You must determine the mass of the mineral (on a balance) • You then place the mineral in water, to see how much it displaces. • The volume of the displaced water, equals the volume of the mineral.
  • Testing Density Rocks mass = 300 ounces Displaces water by 100 cm3 So volume of rock must be 100 cm3 D = MU 300 V 100 D = 100 g/cm3