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Properties of Minerals
What is a mineral?
• A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that
has a crystal structure and a definite
chemical compositi...
Characteristics of a mineral
1. Naturally occurring
2. Inorganic
3. Solid
4. Crystal structure
5. Definite Chemical compos...
Naturally Occurring
• Mineral must occur naturally on Earth
– Gold, copper, silver, graphite
Inorganic
• The mineral cannot arise from materials
that were once part of a living thing
• Coal occurs naturally in the E...
Solid
• A mineral is always solid, with a definite
volume and shape.
Crystal Structure
• The particles of a
mineral line up in
a pattern that
repeats over and
over again.
• A crystal has flat...
Definite Chemical Composition
• A mineral always contains certain
elements in definite proportions
– For example, the mine...
How do we identify a mineral?
• Each mineral has its own specific
properties that can be used to identify it.
1. Hardness
...
Hardness
• In 1812, Friedrich Mohs, a mineral expert,
invented a test to describe and compare
the hardness of minerals.
• ...
Mohs Hardness Scale
Color
• Color can be used to identify only those few
minerals that always have their own
characteristic color.
– Malachite...
Streak
• A streak test can provide a clue to a
minerals identity.
• The streak of a mineral is the color of its
powder.
• ...
Luster
• Luster is the way a mineral reflects light
from its surface.
• Minerals containing metals are often shiny.
• Othe...
Density
• No matter what the size of a mineral, the
density of that mineral always remains the
same.
• You must determine ...
Testing Density
Rocks mass = 300 ounces
Displaces water by 100 cm3
So volume of rock must be 100
cm3
D = MU 300
V 100
D = ...
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Properties of minerals

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Transcript of "Properties of minerals"

  1. 1. Properties of Minerals
  2. 2. What is a mineral? • A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. • More than 3,000 identified minerals. • About 20 minerals make up most of the Earth’s crust.
  3. 3. Characteristics of a mineral 1. Naturally occurring 2. Inorganic 3. Solid 4. Crystal structure 5. Definite Chemical composition.
  4. 4. Naturally Occurring • Mineral must occur naturally on Earth – Gold, copper, silver, graphite
  5. 5. Inorganic • The mineral cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing • Coal occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust, but it comes from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.
  6. 6. Solid • A mineral is always solid, with a definite volume and shape.
  7. 7. Crystal Structure • The particles of a mineral line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again. • A crystal has flat sides, called faces, that meet at sharp edges.
  8. 8. Definite Chemical Composition • A mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions – For example, the mineral of quartz has one atom of silicon for every to atoms of oxygen.
  9. 9. How do we identify a mineral? • Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it. 1. Hardness 2. Color 3. Streak 4. Luster 5. Density
  10. 10. Hardness • In 1812, Friedrich Mohs, a mineral expert, invented a test to describe and compare the hardness of minerals. • The scale ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest. • A mineral can scratch any mineral softer than itself.
  11. 11. Mohs Hardness Scale
  12. 12. Color • Color can be used to identify only those few minerals that always have their own characteristic color. – Malachite is always green – Azurite is always blue • Many minerals, however, like quartz, can occur in a variety of colors.
  13. 13. Streak • A streak test can provide a clue to a minerals identity. • The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder. • You can observe a streak by rubbing a mineral against a streak plate.
  14. 14. Luster • Luster is the way a mineral reflects light from its surface. • Minerals containing metals are often shiny. • Other minerals, such as quartz, have a glassy luster.
  15. 15. Density • No matter what the size of a mineral, the density of that mineral always remains the same. • You must determine the mass of the mineral (on a balance) • You then place the mineral in water, to see how much it displaces. • The volume of the displaced water, equals the volume of the mineral.
  16. 16. Testing Density Rocks mass = 300 ounces Displaces water by 100 cm3 So volume of rock must be 100 cm3 D = MU 300 V 100 D = 100 g/cm3
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