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Earthquakes

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    Earthquakes Earthquakes Presentation Transcript

    • Earthquakes
    • What is an earthquake?
      • The shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock between the Earth’s surface.
    • Fault
      • A break in Earth’s crust where slabs of crust slip past each other.
    • Where do faults occur?
      • Faults usually occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion compress, pull, or shear the crust so much that the crust breaks.
    • 3 types of faults
      • Strike slip fault
      • Normal fault
      • Reverse fault
    • Strike-Slip Fault
      • Rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion.
    • Normal Fault
      • The fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault while the other block lies below the fault.
    • Reverse Fault
      • Has the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in the opposite direction.
    • Faults in Action
    • Tsunamis
      • A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
    • Measuring Earthquakes
    • Seismic Waves
      • Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
        • Primary Waves
        • Secondary Waves
        • Surface Waves
    • Primary Waves (p waves)
      • The very first waves to arrive.
      • They compress and expand the ground like an accordion.
    • Secondary Waves (s waves)
      • Come after the primary waves.
      • Vibrate from side to side as well as up and down.
    • Surface Waves
      • Form when S and P waves reach the Earth’s surface.
      • Produce the most severe ground movements.
    • Richter Scale
      • Developed by Charles Richter in 1935.
      • Rating of the size of seismic waves as measured by a particular type of seismograph.