THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
ANATOMICAL REFERENCES                                              AXIAL                     Caudal/     Rostral/Lateral  ...
THE MENINGES                                                space                                                membrane ...
Whole Brain   GM   WM   CSF
THE CNSCerebrum           Brainstem                            Cerebellum
MAJOR SULCI              Longitudinal sulcus
MAJOR SULCI                                          Central sulcusLateral (sylvian) fissure
CEREBRAL LOBES                                ParietalFrontal                                           Occipital    Tempo...
CEREBRAL LOBES             Insula
CEREBELLUMLeft Cerebellar Hemisphere                     Right Cerebellar Hemisphere                                      ...
WHITE MATTER TRACTSLeft Cerebellar Hemisphere                        Right Cerebellar Hemisphere                          ...
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
BROADMANN’S CLASSIFICATION                   Insula
THE CNS                                   Thalamus    Telencephalon                                                       ...
THE VENTRICULAR SYSTEMLateralventricles                                            Third ventricle                        ...
THALAMIC NUCLEI              Insula
CEREBRAL CIRCULATION    Anterior Cerebral Artery    Anterior Communicating    Artery   Middle Cerebral Artery Internal Car...
CEREBRAL CIRCULATION Terminal branches of Anterior Cerebral ArteryMiddle Cerebral Artery                      Terminal bra...
CEREBRAL CIRCULATIONAnterior CerebralArtery                                          Posterior Cerebral Artery            ...
CEREBRAL CIRCULATION         Anterior Cerebral Artery         Surface branches supply cortex and white matter of :        ...
CEREBRAL CIRCULATIONMiddle Cerebral Artery StrokeMost common stroke syndrome. Symptoms:-contralateral weakness (face, arm,...
CEREBRAL CIRCULATION                                                       Anterior Cerebral Artery                       ...
CRANIAL NERVES                        Insula        Posterior Communicating Artery
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Ch07

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Ch07

  1. 1. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  2. 2. ANATOMICAL REFERENCES AXIAL Caudal/ Rostral/Lateral Medial Posterior Anterior Dorsal CORONAL Ventral Rostral/ Anterior SAGITTAL Caudal/ Medial PosteriorLateral
  3. 3. THE MENINGES space membrane space Artery BrainThe meninges are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Insula
  4. 4. Whole Brain GM WM CSF
  5. 5. THE CNSCerebrum Brainstem Cerebellum
  6. 6. MAJOR SULCI Longitudinal sulcus
  7. 7. MAJOR SULCI Central sulcusLateral (sylvian) fissure
  8. 8. CEREBRAL LOBES ParietalFrontal Occipital Temporal
  9. 9. CEREBRAL LOBES Insula
  10. 10. CEREBELLUMLeft Cerebellar Hemisphere Right Cerebellar Hemisphere Insula Vermis
  11. 11. WHITE MATTER TRACTSLeft Cerebellar Hemisphere Right Cerebellar Hemisphere Insula Vermis
  12. 12. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
  13. 13. BROADMANN’S CLASSIFICATION Insula
  14. 14. THE CNS Thalamus Telencephalon Pineal bodyDiencephalon Hypothalamus Tegment Tectum Cerebellum Midbrain Pons Medulla Insula
  15. 15. THE VENTRICULAR SYSTEMLateralventricles Third ventricle Fourth ventriclethird Fourth ventricleventricle Fourth ventricle fourth ventricle Lateral ventricles Fourth ventricle Insula
  16. 16. THALAMIC NUCLEI Insula
  17. 17. CEREBRAL CIRCULATION Anterior Cerebral Artery Anterior Communicating Artery Middle Cerebral Artery Internal Carotid ArteryPosteriorCommunicating Artery Posterior Cerebral Artery Superior Cerebellar Artery Basilar Artery Insula Vertebral Arteries
  18. 18. CEREBRAL CIRCULATION Terminal branches of Anterior Cerebral ArteryMiddle Cerebral Artery Terminal branches of Posterior Cerebral Artery Insula
  19. 19. CEREBRAL CIRCULATIONAnterior CerebralArtery Posterior Cerebral Artery Insula Posterior Communicating Artery
  20. 20. CEREBRAL CIRCULATION Anterior Cerebral Artery Surface branches supply cortex and white matter of : 1)inferior frontal lobe 2)medial surface of the frontal and parietal lobes 3)anterior corpus callosum Posterior Cerebral Artery Surface branches supply cortex and white matter of: 1)medial occipital lobes 2)inferior temporal lobes 3)posterior corpus callosum Middle Cerebral Artery Surface branches supply cortex and white matter of: hemispheric convexity (all four lobes and insula). Insula
  21. 21. CEREBRAL CIRCULATIONMiddle Cerebral Artery StrokeMost common stroke syndrome. Symptoms:-contralateral weakness (face, arm, and hand more than legs)-contralateral sensory loss (face, arm, and hand more than legs)-visual field cut (damage to optic radiations)-aphasia: language disturbances (more likely with L. Hemi. Damage)-impaired spatial perception (more likely after R. Hemi. Damage) Insula
  22. 22. CEREBRAL CIRCULATION Anterior Cerebral Artery - Motor disturbance contralateral distal leg - urinary incontinence - speech disturbance (may be more of a motor problem) - apraxia of left arm (sympathetic apraxia) if anterior corpus callosum is affected - if bilateral may cause apathy, motor inertia, and mutenessPosterior Cerebral ArteryVisual disturbances:-contralateral homonymous hemianopsia (central vision is often spared)-L. Hemi: lesions alexia (with or without agraphia)-Bilateral lesions: cortical blindness : patients unaware they cannot see-Memory impairment if temporal lobe is affected Insula
  23. 23. CRANIAL NERVES Insula Posterior Communicating Artery

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