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Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e
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Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e


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ISGEO100 Section 01 Chapter One PowerPoint

ISGEO100 Section 01 Chapter One PowerPoint

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  • 61 yard pass Jets or just shy of the goal line. N. Hampton is about an hour away. Always seems shorter coming back from a new place than going to.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Geography Geography 100 Professor Cindy Sterling Clark Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, & Jerome D. Fellmann
    • 2. Introduction Chapter 1
    • 3. Overview
      • Organization of the Textbook
      • What is Geography?
      • Evolution of the Discipline
      • Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Geography’s Themes and Standards
    • 4. Organization of Textbook
      • Four Traditions ( W.D. Pattison and J. L. Robinson)
          • Earth science tradition (Ch. 3, 4 and 5) - Identified with physical geography in general;
          • Culture-environment tradition (Ch. 6, 7, 8 and 9) - Identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography;
          • Locational (or spatial) tradition (Ch. 10, 11 and 12) - Identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography;
          • Area analysis (or regional) tradition (Ch. 13) - Regional geography.
    • 5. Organization of Textbook
      • Four traditions
        • All four traditions, though distinctive:
          • Are intertwined and overlapping
          • Use common set of research skills and tools (Ch. 2)
    • 6.  
    • 7. What is Geography?
      • More than place names and locations
      • The study of spatial variation
        • How and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth
        • How spatial patterns evolved through time
        • Focus on the interaction of people and social groups with their environment and with each other
      • Geography is about earth space and the content of that space
    • 8. Six Basic Questions Geographers Ask
      • What is it?
      • Where is it?
      • How did it come to be where it is?
      • Where is it in relation to other physical or cultural realities that affect it or are affected by it?
      • How is it a part of a functioning whole?
      • How does its location affect people’s lives?
    • 9. Jobs/Careers in Geography
      • Cartography and Geographic Information Systems: surveyor; map librarian; GIS specialist for planners, land developers, real estate agencies, local government, utility companies; remote sensing analyst; cartographer for federal government.
      • Physical Geography: weather forecaster; outdoor guide; coastal zone manager; hydrologist; soil conservation/agriculture extension agent
    • 10. Jobs/Careers in Geography
      • Environmental Studies: environmental manager; forestry technician; park ranger; hazardous waste planner.
      • Cultural Geography : Peace Corp volunteer; community developer; health care analyst.
      • Economic Geography: real estate agent/broker/appraiser; site selection analyst for business and industry; traffic/route delivery manager; economic developer researcher; market researcher.
    • 11. Jobs/Careers in Geography
      • Urban and Regional Planning : transportation planner; housing, park, and recreation planner; urban and community planner; health services planner.
      • Regional Geography : travel agent; travel writer; area specialist for federal government; international business representative.
      • Geographic Education : overseas teacher; elementary/secondary school teacher; general geography college professor
    • 12. Evolution of the Discipline
      • Ancient Greeks and Romans
        • Term reputedly coined by Eratosthenes from Greek:
          • geo “the earth”
          • graphein “to write”
        • Herodotus – (c. 484-425 B.C.)
        • Described Persian Empire
    • 13. Evolution of the Discipline
      • Ancient Greeks and Romans
        • Strabo (c. 64 B.C. - A.D. 20)
        • Described inhabited world, including differences
        • Ptolemy – 2 nd Century A.D.
        • Map of world based on previously developed latitude/longitude, map accepted in Europe as authoritative for nearly 1500 years
    • 14.
      • Ptolemy World Map
    • 15. Evolution of the Discipline
      • Ancient Chinese
        • As involved with geography as Westerners; however no contact with them
      • Muslim scholars
        • Preserved Greek and Roman knowledge
        • Described and analyzed their known world in its physical, cultural and regional variations
      • European voyages of exploration (15 th -16 th Centuries)
    • 16. Evolution of the Discipline
      • Modern geography
        • Origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in 17 th century Europe, e.g., Alexander von Humboldt
        • By 1900, geography had become distinctive and respected discipline in universities throughout Europe
        • Profession became increasingly specialized into disciplinary subdivisions
    • 17. Evolution of the Discipline Subfields of Geography
      • Three dominating themes across subfields
        • Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth
        • Systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area with other areas
        • Human-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings (known as regional geography)
    • 18. Evolution of the Discipline Subfields of Geography
      • Regional geography
      • Systematic/locational geography
        • Study of one or a few related aspects of the physical environment or of human populations and societies
        • Examines its interrelationships with other spatial systems and areal patterns
      • Physical geography
        • Focus is on the natural environment
      • Human geography
        • Focus is on people
    • 19. Evolution of the Discipline Why Geography Matters
      • The only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differ from place to place
      • Vital to an understanding of national and international issues
      • Offers a diversity of job opportunities
    • 20. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Geographers believe that recognizing spatial patterns is the essential starting point for understanding how people live on and shape Earth’s surface
    • 21. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Geographers use a common store of concepts, terms and methods of study:
        • Space
        • Place
        • Location
        • Direction
        • Distance
        • Size and scale
    • 22. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • The word spatial is an essential modifier in framing questions and forming concepts
        • Geography is a spatial science
      • Geographers are interested in:
        • The way things are distributed
        • The way movements occur and
        • The way processes operate over the surface of the earth
    • 23. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Places have:
        • Location, direction, and distance with respect to other places
        • Size
        • Both physical structure and cultural content
        • Attributes that develop and change over time
        • Content that is structured and explainable
        • Elements that interrelate with other places
      • Places may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences
    • 24. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Location
        • Absolute location
          • Based on a precise and accepted system of coordinates – mathematical location
            • Latitude and longitude
            • Other grid systems, e.g., street address and township, range and section property descriptions
    • 25. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Location
        • Relative location
          • Position in relation to other places or things
          • Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence of places
          • May carry social and economic implications
    • 26. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Location
        • Site
          • Physical and cultural characteristics of the place itself
          • Absolute location concept
        • Situation
          • External relations of a place
          • Expression of relative location
    • 27. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Direction
        • Absolute direction
          • Based on the cardinal points (N-S-E-W)
        • Relative direction
          • Culturally based and locationally variable
            • “ Out West”
            • “ Back East”
            • “ Down South”
            • “ Near East”
            • “ Far East”
    • 28. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Distance
        • Absolute distance
          • Uses standard units such as miles or kilometers
        • Relative distance
          • Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful to human experience or decision making, e.g.,
            • Time distance
            • Travel cost
            • Psychological perception of distance
    • 29. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Size and Scale
        • Size (small, medium, large)
        • Term used by general population
        • Scale
        • Degree of generalization represented:
          • Reference to the size of unit studied
            • E.g., local , regional or global
          • Relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth
    • 30. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Places have physical and cultural attributes
        • Physical attributes
          • Climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain features, etc.
          • Natural landscape attributes help shape – but do not dictate – how people live
        • Cultural attributes
          • Language, religion, industries, food, music, etc.
          • Cultural landscape
            • Visible imprint of human activity on the physical environment
    • 31. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Attributes of place are always changing
        • The physical environment undergoes continuous and pronounced change
        • Humans alter the environments they occupy
          • Pace of change has accelerated
            • Built landscape has increasingly replaced natural landscape
        • Places are the present result of the past operation of distinctive physical and cultural processes
    • 32. Changing Landscape
    • 33. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Interrelations Between Places
        • Spatial interaction
          • The movement of people, goods, information, etc. between different places
          • An indication of interdependence between areas
    • 34. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Interrelations Between Places
        • Spatial interaction’s core components:
          • Accessibility
            • Relative ease with which a destination may be reached
          • Connectivity
            • All the tangible and intangible ways places are connected
          • Spatial diffusion
            • Dispersion of an idea or thing from a center of origin to more distant points
    • 35. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Interrelations Between Places
        • Spatial interaction’s core components:
          • Globalization
            • Increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, economic and environmental processes becomes international in scale and effect.
            • Promoted by continuing advances in worldwide accessibility and connectivity
    • 36. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Place Similarity and Regions
        • The distinctive characteristics of places – physical, cultural, locational – suggest two geographically important ideas:
          • No two places on earth can be exactly the same
          • The natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas permitting geographers to recognize and define regions
    • 37. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Place Similarity and Regions
        • Regions
          • Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories
          • Used to classify the complex reality of the earth’s surface into manageable pieces
    • 38. Place Similarity and Regions
    • 39. Some Core Geographic Concepts
      • Types of Regions
        • Formal (uniform) regions
          • Uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features
        • Functional (nodal) regions
          • A spatial system with interdependent parts that operates as an organizational unit
        • Perceptual (vernacular/popular) regions
          • Exist in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society
          • Reflect feelings and images rather than objective data
    • 40. Formal Region
    • 41. Functional Region
    • 42. Perceptual Regions
    • 43. Geography’s Themes and Standards
      • Five fundamental themes
        • Formulated by joint committee of National Council for Geographic Education and Association of American Geographers
        • Basic concepts and topics that recur in all geographic inquiry
          • Location
          • Place
          • Relationships within places
          • Movement
          • Regions
    • 44. Geography’s Themes and Standards
      • National Geography Standards (1994)
        • 18 standards grouped into six categories
        • The geographically informed person knows and understands:
          • The world in spatial terms
          • Places and regions
          • Physical systems
          • Human systems
          • Environment and society
          • The uses of geography