Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e


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  • 61 yard pass Jets or just shy of the goal line. N. Hampton is about an hour away. Always seems shorter coming back from a new place than going to.
  • Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e

    1. 1. Introduction to Geography Geography 100 Professor Cindy Sterling Clark Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, & Jerome D. Fellmann
    2. 2. Introduction Chapter 1
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Organization of the Textbook </li></ul><ul><li>What is Geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of the Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Some Core Geographic Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Geography’s Themes and Standards </li></ul>
    4. 4. Organization of Textbook <ul><li>Four Traditions ( W.D. Pattison and J. L. Robinson) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth science tradition (Ch. 3, 4 and 5) - Identified with physical geography in general; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture-environment tradition (Ch. 6, 7, 8 and 9) - Identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locational (or spatial) tradition (Ch. 10, 11 and 12) - Identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Area analysis (or regional) tradition (Ch. 13) - Regional geography. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Organization of Textbook <ul><li>Four traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All four traditions, though distinctive: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are intertwined and overlapping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use common set of research skills and tools (Ch. 2) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. What is Geography? <ul><li>More than place names and locations </li></ul><ul><li>The study of spatial variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How spatial patterns evolved through time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the interaction of people and social groups with their environment and with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geography is about earth space and the content of that space </li></ul>
    7. 8. Six Basic Questions Geographers Ask <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How did it come to be where it is? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it in relation to other physical or cultural realities that affect it or are affected by it? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it a part of a functioning whole? </li></ul><ul><li>How does its location affect people’s lives? </li></ul>
    8. 9. Jobs/Careers in Geography <ul><li>Cartography and Geographic Information Systems: surveyor; map librarian; GIS specialist for planners, land developers, real estate agencies, local government, utility companies; remote sensing analyst; cartographer for federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Geography: weather forecaster; outdoor guide; coastal zone manager; hydrologist; soil conservation/agriculture extension agent </li></ul>
    9. 10. Jobs/Careers in Geography <ul><li>Environmental Studies: environmental manager; forestry technician; park ranger; hazardous waste planner. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Geography : Peace Corp volunteer; community developer; health care analyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Geography: real estate agent/broker/appraiser; site selection analyst for business and industry; traffic/route delivery manager; economic developer researcher; market researcher. </li></ul>
    10. 11. Jobs/Careers in Geography <ul><li>Urban and Regional Planning : transportation planner; housing, park, and recreation planner; urban and community planner; health services planner. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Geography : travel agent; travel writer; area specialist for federal government; international business representative. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Education : overseas teacher; elementary/secondary school teacher; general geography college professor </li></ul>
    11. 12. Evolution of the Discipline <ul><li>Ancient Greeks and Romans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term reputedly coined by Eratosthenes from Greek: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geo “the earth” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphein “to write” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herodotus – (c. 484-425 B.C.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described Persian Empire </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Evolution of the Discipline <ul><li>Ancient Greeks and Romans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strabo (c. 64 B.C. - A.D. 20) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described inhabited world, including differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ptolemy – 2 nd Century A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map of world based on previously developed latitude/longitude, map accepted in Europe as authoritative for nearly 1500 years </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Ptolemy World Map </li></ul>
    14. 15. Evolution of the Discipline <ul><li>Ancient Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As involved with geography as Westerners; however no contact with them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslim scholars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserved Greek and Roman knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described and analyzed their known world in its physical, cultural and regional variations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European voyages of exploration (15 th -16 th Centuries) </li></ul>
    15. 16. Evolution of the Discipline <ul><li>Modern geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in 17 th century Europe, e.g., Alexander von Humboldt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900, geography had become distinctive and respected discipline in universities throughout Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profession became increasingly specialized into disciplinary subdivisions </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Evolution of the Discipline Subfields of Geography <ul><li>Three dominating themes across subfields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area with other areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings (known as regional geography) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Evolution of the Discipline Subfields of Geography <ul><li>Regional geography </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic/locational geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of one or a few related aspects of the physical environment or of human populations and societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examines its interrelationships with other spatial systems and areal patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is on the natural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus is on people </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Evolution of the Discipline Why Geography Matters <ul><li>The only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differ from place to place </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to an understanding of national and international issues </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a diversity of job opportunities </li></ul>
    19. 20. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Geographers believe that recognizing spatial patterns is the essential starting point for understanding how people live on and shape Earth’s surface </li></ul>
    20. 21. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Geographers use a common store of concepts, terms and methods of study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and scale </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>The word spatial is an essential modifier in framing questions and forming concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography is a spatial science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographers are interested in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way things are distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way movements occur and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way processes operate over the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Places have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, direction, and distance with respect to other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both physical structure and cultural content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes that develop and change over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content that is structured and explainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements that interrelate with other places </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences </li></ul>
    23. 24. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a precise and accepted system of coordinates – mathematical location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude and longitude </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other grid systems, e.g., street address and township, range and section property descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position in relation to other places or things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence of places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May carry social and economic implications </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and cultural characteristics of the place itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute location concept </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External relations of a place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of relative location </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the cardinal points (N-S-E-W) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally based and locationally variable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Out West” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Back East” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Down South” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Near East” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Far East” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses standard units such as miles or kilometers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful to human experience or decision making, e.g., </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time distance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological perception of distance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Size and Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size (small, medium, large) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term used by general population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of generalization represented: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference to the size of unit studied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., local , regional or global </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Places have physical and cultural attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain features, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural landscape attributes help shape – but do not dictate – how people live </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language, religion, industries, food, music, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible imprint of human activity on the physical environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Attributes of place are always changing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical environment undergoes continuous and pronounced change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans alter the environments they occupy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pace of change has accelerated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built landscape has increasingly replaced natural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places are the present result of the past operation of distinctive physical and cultural processes </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Changing Landscape
    32. 33. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Interrelations Between Places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The movement of people, goods, information, etc. between different places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An indication of interdependence between areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Interrelations Between Places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial interaction’s core components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative ease with which a destination may be reached </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All the tangible and intangible ways places are connected </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersion of an idea or thing from a center of origin to more distant points </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Interrelations Between Places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial interaction’s core components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, economic and environmental processes becomes international in scale and effect. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted by continuing advances in worldwide accessibility and connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Place Similarity and Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distinctive characteristics of places – physical, cultural, locational – suggest two geographically important ideas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No two places on earth can be exactly the same </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas permitting geographers to recognize and define regions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Place Similarity and Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to classify the complex reality of the earth’s surface into manageable pieces </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Place Similarity and Regions
    38. 39. Some Core Geographic Concepts <ul><li>Types of Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal (uniform) regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional (nodal) regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A spatial system with interdependent parts that operates as an organizational unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual (vernacular/popular) regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect feelings and images rather than objective data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Formal Region
    40. 41. Functional Region
    41. 42. Perceptual Regions
    42. 43. Geography’s Themes and Standards <ul><li>Five fundamental themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulated by joint committee of National Council for Geographic Education and Association of American Geographers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic concepts and topics that recur in all geographic inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships within places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Geography’s Themes and Standards <ul><li>National Geography Standards (1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 standards grouped into six categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The geographically informed person knows and understands: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The world in spatial terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places and regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment and society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The uses of geography </li></ul></ul></ul>