Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e
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Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e

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ISGEO100 Section 01 Chapter One PowerPoint

ISGEO100 Section 01 Chapter One PowerPoint

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Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e Chapt01 Lecture Getis 12e Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Geography Geography 100 Professor Cindy Sterling Clark Arthur Getis, Judith Getis, & Jerome D. Fellmann
  • Introduction Chapter 1
  • Overview
    • Organization of the Textbook
    • What is Geography?
    • Evolution of the Discipline
    • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Geography’s Themes and Standards
  • Organization of Textbook
    • Four Traditions ( W.D. Pattison and J. L. Robinson)
        • Earth science tradition (Ch. 3, 4 and 5) - Identified with physical geography in general;
        • Culture-environment tradition (Ch. 6, 7, 8 and 9) - Identified with population, cultural, political, and behavioral geography;
        • Locational (or spatial) tradition (Ch. 10, 11 and 12) - Identified with economic, urban, and environmental geography;
        • Area analysis (or regional) tradition (Ch. 13) - Regional geography.
  • Organization of Textbook
    • Four traditions
      • All four traditions, though distinctive:
        • Are intertwined and overlapping
        • Use common set of research skills and tools (Ch. 2)
  •  
  • What is Geography?
    • More than place names and locations
    • The study of spatial variation
      • How and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth
      • How spatial patterns evolved through time
      • Focus on the interaction of people and social groups with their environment and with each other
    • Geography is about earth space and the content of that space
  • Six Basic Questions Geographers Ask
    • What is it?
    • Where is it?
    • How did it come to be where it is?
    • Where is it in relation to other physical or cultural realities that affect it or are affected by it?
    • How is it a part of a functioning whole?
    • How does its location affect people’s lives?
  • Jobs/Careers in Geography
    • Cartography and Geographic Information Systems: surveyor; map librarian; GIS specialist for planners, land developers, real estate agencies, local government, utility companies; remote sensing analyst; cartographer for federal government.
    • Physical Geography: weather forecaster; outdoor guide; coastal zone manager; hydrologist; soil conservation/agriculture extension agent
  • Jobs/Careers in Geography
    • Environmental Studies: environmental manager; forestry technician; park ranger; hazardous waste planner.
    • Cultural Geography : Peace Corp volunteer; community developer; health care analyst.
    • Economic Geography: real estate agent/broker/appraiser; site selection analyst for business and industry; traffic/route delivery manager; economic developer researcher; market researcher.
  • Jobs/Careers in Geography
    • Urban and Regional Planning : transportation planner; housing, park, and recreation planner; urban and community planner; health services planner.
    • Regional Geography : travel agent; travel writer; area specialist for federal government; international business representative.
    • Geographic Education : overseas teacher; elementary/secondary school teacher; general geography college professor
  • Evolution of the Discipline
    • Ancient Greeks and Romans
      • Term reputedly coined by Eratosthenes from Greek:
        • geo “the earth”
        • graphein “to write”
      • Herodotus – (c. 484-425 B.C.)
      • Described Persian Empire
  • Evolution of the Discipline
    • Ancient Greeks and Romans
      • Strabo (c. 64 B.C. - A.D. 20)
      • Described inhabited world, including differences
      • Ptolemy – 2 nd Century A.D.
      • Map of world based on previously developed latitude/longitude, map accepted in Europe as authoritative for nearly 1500 years
    • Ptolemy World Map
  • Evolution of the Discipline
    • Ancient Chinese
      • As involved with geography as Westerners; however no contact with them
    • Muslim scholars
      • Preserved Greek and Roman knowledge
      • Described and analyzed their known world in its physical, cultural and regional variations
    • European voyages of exploration (15 th -16 th Centuries)
  • Evolution of the Discipline
    • Modern geography
      • Origins in the surge of scholarly inquiry that began in 17 th century Europe, e.g., Alexander von Humboldt
      • By 1900, geography had become distinctive and respected discipline in universities throughout Europe
      • Profession became increasingly specialized into disciplinary subdivisions
  • Evolution of the Discipline Subfields of Geography
    • Three dominating themes across subfields
      • Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth
      • Systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area with other areas
      • Human-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings (known as regional geography)
  • Evolution of the Discipline Subfields of Geography
    • Regional geography
    • Systematic/locational geography
      • Study of one or a few related aspects of the physical environment or of human populations and societies
      • Examines its interrelationships with other spatial systems and areal patterns
    • Physical geography
      • Focus is on the natural environment
    • Human geography
      • Focus is on people
  • Evolution of the Discipline Why Geography Matters
    • The only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differ from place to place
    • Vital to an understanding of national and international issues
    • Offers a diversity of job opportunities
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Geographers believe that recognizing spatial patterns is the essential starting point for understanding how people live on and shape Earth’s surface
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Geographers use a common store of concepts, terms and methods of study:
      • Space
      • Place
      • Location
      • Direction
      • Distance
      • Size and scale
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • The word spatial is an essential modifier in framing questions and forming concepts
      • Geography is a spatial science
    • Geographers are interested in:
      • The way things are distributed
      • The way movements occur and
      • The way processes operate over the surface of the earth
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Places have:
      • Location, direction, and distance with respect to other places
      • Size
      • Both physical structure and cultural content
      • Attributes that develop and change over time
      • Content that is structured and explainable
      • Elements that interrelate with other places
    • Places may be generalized into regions of similarities and differences
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Location
      • Absolute location
        • Based on a precise and accepted system of coordinates – mathematical location
          • Latitude and longitude
          • Other grid systems, e.g., street address and township, range and section property descriptions
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Location
      • Relative location
        • Position in relation to other places or things
        • Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence of places
        • May carry social and economic implications
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Location
      • Site
        • Physical and cultural characteristics of the place itself
        • Absolute location concept
      • Situation
        • External relations of a place
        • Expression of relative location
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Direction
      • Absolute direction
        • Based on the cardinal points (N-S-E-W)
      • Relative direction
        • Culturally based and locationally variable
          • “ Out West”
          • “ Back East”
          • “ Down South”
          • “ Near East”
          • “ Far East”
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Distance
      • Absolute distance
        • Uses standard units such as miles or kilometers
      • Relative distance
        • Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful to human experience or decision making, e.g.,
          • Time distance
          • Travel cost
          • Psychological perception of distance
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Size and Scale
      • Size (small, medium, large)
      • Term used by general population
      • Scale
      • Degree of generalization represented:
        • Reference to the size of unit studied
          • E.g., local , regional or global
        • Relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Places have physical and cultural attributes
      • Physical attributes
        • Climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain features, etc.
        • Natural landscape attributes help shape – but do not dictate – how people live
      • Cultural attributes
        • Language, religion, industries, food, music, etc.
        • Cultural landscape
          • Visible imprint of human activity on the physical environment
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Attributes of place are always changing
      • The physical environment undergoes continuous and pronounced change
      • Humans alter the environments they occupy
        • Pace of change has accelerated
          • Built landscape has increasingly replaced natural landscape
      • Places are the present result of the past operation of distinctive physical and cultural processes
  • Changing Landscape
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Interrelations Between Places
      • Spatial interaction
        • The movement of people, goods, information, etc. between different places
        • An indication of interdependence between areas
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Interrelations Between Places
      • Spatial interaction’s core components:
        • Accessibility
          • Relative ease with which a destination may be reached
        • Connectivity
          • All the tangible and intangible ways places are connected
        • Spatial diffusion
          • Dispersion of an idea or thing from a center of origin to more distant points
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Interrelations Between Places
      • Spatial interaction’s core components:
        • Globalization
          • Increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, economic and environmental processes becomes international in scale and effect.
          • Promoted by continuing advances in worldwide accessibility and connectivity
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Place Similarity and Regions
      • The distinctive characteristics of places – physical, cultural, locational – suggest two geographically important ideas:
        • No two places on earth can be exactly the same
        • The natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas permitting geographers to recognize and define regions
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Place Similarity and Regions
      • Regions
        • Earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories
        • Used to classify the complex reality of the earth’s surface into manageable pieces
  • Place Similarity and Regions
  • Some Core Geographic Concepts
    • Types of Regions
      • Formal (uniform) regions
        • Uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural features
      • Functional (nodal) regions
        • A spatial system with interdependent parts that operates as an organizational unit
      • Perceptual (vernacular/popular) regions
        • Exist in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society
        • Reflect feelings and images rather than objective data
  • Formal Region
  • Functional Region
  • Perceptual Regions
  • Geography’s Themes and Standards
    • Five fundamental themes
      • Formulated by joint committee of National Council for Geographic Education and Association of American Geographers
      • Basic concepts and topics that recur in all geographic inquiry
        • Location
        • Place
        • Relationships within places
        • Movement
        • Regions
  • Geography’s Themes and Standards
    • National Geography Standards (1994)
      • 18 standards grouped into six categories
      • The geographically informed person knows and understands:
        • The world in spatial terms
        • Places and regions
        • Physical systems
        • Human systems
        • Environment and society
        • The uses of geography