jQuery and Rails: Best Friends Forever

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Covers techniques on building a rich web application with jQuery and Rails. Topics include jQuery, Ruby on Rails, AJAX, JSON, and the data tag.

Covers techniques on building a rich web application with jQuery and Rails. Topics include jQuery, Ruby on Rails, AJAX, JSON, and the data tag.

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  • Also known for it's chaining model
  • - 360k sites use jQuery, as compared to 55k MooTools, 39k Prototype, 30k YUI, 9k script.aculo.us - 66% of web page visits use jQuery
  • - what are the bare minimum, step by step - context, onstart, tons of arguments
  • - routing is akin to Interchange actionmaps (although evolved, more complex) - rendering :json automaticallly calls a to_json method on the data
  • - the request object contains a lot of useful information about the request: host, domain, format, method, type of request, headers, port, protocol, etc.
  • ParseJSON is a jQuery specific function, while JSON.stringify is not a part of the jQuery library (JSON also has it's own parse method). to_json nested elements might include images belonging to product
  • - only works in HTML5 - in addition to id, you may also want to track nested ids, or other information about that comment that has little to do with CSS styles - jQuery has getter and setter methods here, for data - e.g. of use: multiple comments on one page, but HTML for one form. When click on edit comment, data is set to identify which comment is being edited.
  • - writing your own HTML can be messy, but give you full control - using a template system encourages DRY - using a client side model-view paradigm may result in reproducing business logic for an individual model (that business logic also lives on the server side) - disadvantage to all: you aren't leveraging server side functionality or helpers for building Rails forms - advantage to all: speed, less dependency on server for AJAX hits

Transcript

  • 1. jQuery & Rails Best Friends Forever* Best Friends Forever* *Forever as used by a 6th-grader *Forever in the sense of a sixth grader.
  • 2. Ill Cover:● Brief Rails explanation● Brief jQuery explanation● Nice methods between each technology to encourage a rich web app ● AJAX ● JSON ● data● The Future
  • 3. jQuery...● is a JavaScript framework (YUI, prototype, scriptaculous)● includes basic JavaScript functionality for AJAX, DOM manipulation, events● likes to hang out with jQuery UI, user interface library, interactions, widgets, effects, themes● is known for being concise and readable http://jqueryui.com/
  • 4. Popularityhttp://www.webappers.com/infographics/javascript-frameworks-jquery.html
  • 5. Ruby on Rails...● is a MVC framework built on Ruby● is a tool for efficient development that follows universal conventions● is designed to work well with JavaScript + AJAX
  • 6. AJAX in jQuery$.ajax({ url: "test.html", data: $(#form).serialize(), type: “POST”, cache: false, dataType: “html”, success: function(){ //do something }, error: function() { //do something else }}); http://api.jquery.com/jQuery.ajax/
  • 7. Rails Tidbits● Routing: connects URLs to Code match “/products/:id” => “products#show”● Handling different responses respond_to do |format| format.html format.xml { … } end● Handling JSON response respond_to do |format| format.json { render :json => data } end
  • 8. Rails Tidbits● Request object request.xhr?● Handling CGI parameters params[:name], params[:description] params.has_key?(:name) p = Product.new(params[:product]) p.save # check for p.errors product.update_attributes(params[:product])
  • 9. Ponghttp://www.bafta.org/awards/video-games/play-pong-online,678,BA.html
  • 10. User: Initiates Action //jQuery wrapper method $.fn.comment_photo = function() { //do stuff } $(function() { $(.comment-photo).click(function() { $(this).comment_photo(); }); })
  • 11. jQuery: AJAX call $.fn.comment_photo = function() { $.ajax({ url: “/comment/new", data: { photo_id: this.attr(id) }, cache: false, dataType: “html” … }); }
  • 12. Rails: calls Controllerclass CommentsController < ApplicationController def new @comment = Comment.new respond_to do |format| format.html #new.html.erb end endend
  • 13. Rails: renders HTML erb HTML<% form_for @comment do |f| %> <form action= “/comments” method=”post”> <%= f.label :title %> <label for=“comment_title”>Title</label> <%= f.text_field :title %> <input type=“text” id=“comment_title” name=“comment[title]” /> <%= f.label :data %> <label for=“comment_data”>Data</label> <%= f.text_area :data %> <textarea id=“comment_data” name=“comment[data]” /></textarea> <%= f.submit %> <input type=“submit” id=“comment_submit” value=”Create ” /><% end %> </form> http://www.ruby-doc.org/stdlib/libdoc/erb/rdoc/
  • 14. jQuery: displays HTML $.fn.comment_photo = function() { $.ajax({ … success: function(html) { $(#new_comment).html(html); } }); }
  • 15. User: more action //extending jQuery object $.extend({ create_comment: function(form) { //do stuff } }); $(function() { $(#new_comment).submit(function() { $.create_comment($(this)); }); })
  • 16. jQuery: AJAX call create_comment: function(form) { $.ajax({ url: form.attr(action), type: “POST”, data: { comment: form.serialize() }, cache: false, dataType: “JSON” … }); }
  • 17. Rails: calls Controller class CommentsController < ApplicationController def create begin comment = Comment.new(params[:comment]) comment.user = current_user comment.save respond_to do |format| format.json :json => comment end rescue Exception => e render :status => 500, :json => {} end end end
  • 18. jQuery: success! create_comment: function(comment) { $.ajax({ … success: function(result) { $(#new_comment).hide(); //feedback to communicate success }, error: function(xhr, status, error) { //feedback to communicate error } }); }
  • 19. Interchange User jQuery ActionMap Perl Module ActionMap will route URL to desired functionality. HTML jQuery Perl Module will set mv_nextpage and set Scratch variables. jQuery JSON Perl Module can use JSON module to set Scratch variable to JSON-ified data.Perl Module ActionMap jQuery User
  • 20. Pagination respond_to do |format| format.html do if request.xhr? success:function() { render :partial => item_block //replace HTMLdataType: “html” else //apply listeners render index //replace pagination end } end end
  • 21. .js & js.erbIts worth noting that you can also return JavaScript or JavaScript froma js.erb file as a Rails controller response. erb is a templating language.The resulting JavaScript will be executed by jQuery. respond_to do |format| format.js { render :text => "alert(hello)" } endI prefer returning JSON, because Ive seen this be finicky and it can bedifficult to debug.
  • 22. JSON jQuery and JavaScript Railsvar obj = $.parseJSON(string); render :json => comment//parse a string into a JSON object # automatically calls to_jsonJSON.stringify(obj); to_json//stringify a JSON object into JSON # converts objects to string//text for use as argument string # arguments: only, except, include # nested resources http://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActiveRecord/Serialization.html
  • 23. data tag & HTML5 Rails <div id=“comment” data-id=“<%= comment.id %>”> </div> jQuery $(.comment).data(id); $(.comment).data(id, 123); $(.comment).removeData(id); everything in moderation.
  • 24. The FutureUser jQuery Controller HTML jQuery What if you want to skip the first AJAX call for performance? User jQuery JSON Controller jQuery
  • 25. The Future Options for eliminating first AJAX call● Render HTML form inline (once)● Render HTML form in JavaScript with jQuery HTML builder nodes● Use a template system like Mustache.js or Handlebars.js● Use a JavaScript [client-side] Model-View framework like Backbone.js
  • 26. Mustache.js Edit { }var comment_template = “<h3>{{header}}</h3> var comment = { header: “Edit your Comment!”, title: “Awesome”, data: “This is an awesome photo.”<p class=“error”></p> };<label for=“title”>Title</label> $.mustache(comment_template, comment);<input type=“text” name=“title” value=“{{title}}” /><label for=“data”>Data</label><textarea name=“data”>{{data}}</textarea> New<input type=“submit” value= “submit” />”; var comment = { header: “Comment on This!” }; $.mustache(comment_template, comment); http://mustache.github.com/
  • 27. Disclaimer● Other modern javascript frameworks have much of the same functionality here, specifically YUI. You have a choice. http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/
  • 28. jQuery & Rails● jQuery and Rails work together to write rich web applications.● jQuery is most popular and known for its conciseness and readability, and unique “chaining” method● DIG into the documentation. jQuery and Ruby documentation is good. Rails is “up and coming”. http://visualjquery.com/
  • 29. Photo Credits● http://www.etsy.com/listing/62497842/eloise-and-ramona-play-telephone-best● me: http://www.flickr.com/photos/just_steph/
  • 30. Questions?