The following notes are NOT in your textbook! Simple machines        CP Physics
What is a simple machine?• All machines are devices that make work easier   – Some do by using other energy sources:      ...
Examples of simple machinesWe will focus on inclined planes
What do simple machines do?– They make it easier to do the SAME amount of work, but they  do not actually make the amount ...
Less force applied over a longer            distance din  F in       F out   dout Q
Mechanical advantage• Definition: The number of times a machine can multiply the input (or effort)  force• Actual Mechanic...
Work input & output• The same work equation still applies…                      The work that YOU put in…                 ...
Simple machines: inclines                          • It takes 100 N of force to                              pull a box th...
Simple machines: Pulleys                 • Pulleys divide the load                   force over a number of               ...
Data table         Pulling Masses   Lifting Masses    Displacing Masses on       Measuring Work /                         ...
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Cp simple machines-website

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Cp simple machines-website

  1. 1. The following notes are NOT in your textbook! Simple machines CP Physics
  2. 2. What is a simple machine?• All machines are devices that make work easier – Some do by using other energy sources: electricity, gas, etc.• Simple machines make work easier, are often human powered, and have minimal moving parts
  3. 3. Examples of simple machinesWe will focus on inclined planes
  4. 4. What do simple machines do?– They make it easier to do the SAME amount of work, but they do not actually make the amount of work LESS – they make the input force required to do the work less! – For example: you may not be able to lift a snow blower onto the bed of a truck yourself, but you could do it using a ramp• Exert a smaller force over a greater distance• You end up doing the same amount, or even more work (real world has friction!)
  5. 5. Less force applied over a longer distance din F in F out dout Q
  6. 6. Mechanical advantage• Definition: The number of times a machine can multiply the input (or effort) force• Actual Mechanical Advantage: It takes into account real-world factors like friction. It is the ratio of the output force and the input force. AMA = Output force Input force• Ideal Mechanical Advantage: the MA of an “ideal machine” with 100% efficiency. It is the ratio of the distances through which the forces must move in a simple machine. IMA = Input Distance Output Distance
  7. 7. Work input & output• The same work equation still applies… The work that YOU put in… Win = FinXin The work done by the machine… Wout = FoutXout• Simple machines are never 100% efficient due to friction, so we also calculate their efficiency. Efficiency =(Wout / Win) x 100 = (AMA / IMA) x 100
  8. 8. Simple machines: inclines • It takes 100 N of force to pull a box that weighs 300 N up a ramp into the back of a pick up truck. If theDin ramp is 5 meters long, and the height of the pickup F in F out dout truck is 1.0 meter, calculate: 500 JQ (a) The work input (b) The work output 300 J (c) The AMA of the ramp 2 (d) The IMA of the ramp 5 (e) The efficiency of the ramp 60%
  9. 9. Simple machines: Pulleys • Pulleys divide the load force over a number of ropes • MA = # of strands that are lifting upwards (not counting the force you apply if you pull down to lift the load)
  10. 10. Data table Pulling Masses Lifting Masses Displacing Masses on Measuring Work / an Inclined Plane Efficiency of Inclined PlaneMass Distance Force Height Force Height Distance Force Work Work Eff (%) (m) (N) (m) (N) (m) (m) (N) in (J) out (J)1.0 kg 0.5 0.25 0.25 1.0 0.5 0.50.5 kg 0.5 0.25 0.25 1.0 0.5 0.5 Work in = Force x Distance on inclined plane Work out = Force x Height of lifting mass Efficiency = (work out / work in) x 100

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