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Mba533 final exam paper

  1. 1. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 1 Human Resources Role in Target Corporation Stephanie J. Jones Dr. Coronel MBA 533 12/11/11
  2. 2. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 2 Introduction Human resource is an appellation used in referring to the workforce of anorganization or company. Human resource management is involved in the act of puttingtogether employees in an organized manner to assure the objectives of the organization areachieved in acompetent and experienced manner. Human resources are the mostimportantservices of any organization since they are the catalysts of non-human resourcesand the medium for developing competitive advantages and sounds of creativity. Noorganization can exist without a human resources department (Walsh, 2009). Acompanywithout an HR department would be reducing its operations and could collapse within a shortamount of time. The Target Corporation is a large American retailer with its headquarters inMinneapolis, Minnesota. It is the second-largest discount retailer in the U.S. and was foundedin 1902 as Dayton Dry Goods Company, even though the first store opened in 1962. Theygrew and became the largest division of Dayton Hudson Corporation, culminating in thecompany being renamed as Target Corporation in August 2000. Target announced itsexpansion into Canada on January 13, 2011 and has an aim of operating over a hundredstores in Canada by 2013.Target Corporation sells as well as retail goods in their departmentstores. There are several ways of collecting data for analysis for this paper. Questionnaires,one on one interrogation, online research and organizational newsletters are among theseways. The method chosen to collect data for this particular paper is online research andorganizational newsletters. The purpose of the paper is to assess human resource managementand its effect on the employees of the Target Corporation.
  3. 3. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 3 Job Design Job design refers to deciding the contents of a certain job, or job analysis (Ivancevich,2010). It is repairing the duties and responsibilities of the job holder, how to perform the joband define the relationship between subordinates, superiors and colleagues. This should beclearly defined in a company’s policies and procedures, to assure that employees adhere tothem. Any explanation needed with regards to job descriptions should be answered by seniormanagement of a company, preferably the human resource manager. Job design involves the comprehension of several issues in any company. A companyhas to ordain job analysis and confirm the support of top management. Job analysis includesreviewing existing job details and should be communicated to employees and management.Job design helps to reduce or curtail job dissatisfaction amongst employees in the workplace,since employees are involved in what they like most (Roberts, 1997). It creates rotation sincean employee is able to learn how to perform multiple tasks in the organization. Employees can interact when the necessary job design is implemented. Job designincreases productivity in a company since employees are fully motivated to work. Also, itensures the chain of command is used, if correctly followed in an organization. Job designassists balance requirements of any job with human aspects. A poorly executed job designresults in a higher rate of employee turnover, more conflicts and other industrial relatedproblems. There are many factors that can affect job design in an organization.Job scope shouldbe properly described, at all times. A narrow scope implies less challenge,allowing no chancefor developmentvia management. A wide scope on the other hand, will produce the overworked management and may result in distress, dissatisfaction and loss of control. Job designshould offer full time challenges at the workplace. Managers’ efforts should be fully utilized
  4. 4. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 4to ensure efficientuse of time, during working hours, as this might make managers over-steptheir authority and distress the workstaff. Putting a manager’s skills into effect, before his job design is put into place, isessential. Not everyone is gifted or talented in the same manner so, a highly skilled managershould be given a job with a lot of challenge. A manager should also be flexible and open tolearning new skills for future promotions and job opportunities. Jobs should also be flexibleenough to accommodate managers according to their skills and experience. Managers responsible for job placementshould keep in mind the organizationalrequirements and culture, since all companiesdo not have the same job design. Individualsshould be flexible enough to fit into the culture of an organization (Grote, 1996). Target Corporation has a very detailed job design that clarifies the responsibilities ofemployees in their various departments. They have a strong and effective job design in place,since it is a constantly growing company. All the departments at Target coexist very wellwith one another and this has allowed continued success over years. Not one departmentworks independently. Instead, they are all connected, which allows them to assist one anotherin their duties and with the customers. There is a thorough screening process before any candidate is hired. An intensiveinterview is conducted, allowing only the most qualified candidates an opportunity foremployment. Canvassing is not tolerated, as this leads to automatic disqualification from theselection process. All the employees at Target wear the same company uniform throughoutthe entire organization. Name tags are worn by each personwith no title showing on the tags,which eases tension in a new employee who may notice a supervisor via a name tag. Employees must conduct themselves with professionalism and courteousness, at alltimes. Protocols or systematic approaches are observed in solving any organizational issue.Employees have their work clearly detailed to them, in job descriptions of their respective
  5. 5. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 5departments. This reducesthe potential for problemsin regards to job distribution. This jobdesign seems to work for Target as it has decreased turn-over in the past years. Employeesare more focused while working, than they were before and managers and other team leadersare able to build relationships with their respective teams. Productivity has increased due toan efficient job design adopted by Target. Training activities Training is a necessity at Target, as it takes a newly hired person through thenecessary steps of their position, before they assume their responsibility. It occurs before theemployeebegins their job. Usually, it is given by a company trainer or leaderwith vastexperience in the company’s operations. Ample time should be given to the training aspect ofthe job, as this will have an overall effect on a company’s activities. A company should layout necessary steps to be used in training before the hiring process is completed. The humanresource manager should ensure that new hires are given an all-round training experiencepertaining to the job they are to assume (Kinlaw, 1997). Training enables a company to adapt and utilize technology advancement, since it hasa staffequipped with knowledge. Training increases efficiency of any team and also assiststheimprovement of motivating the staff. It is through training that companies have confidence toventure into new markets, since the employee base is well knowledgeable. In smallorganizations, and some large organizations, training helps increase employee retention aswell as decrease the need for supervision. This makes it easier on management to involvethemselves in other issues that involve the company’s operation as a whole. Training should be done in an orderly fashion and there are manysteps that need to befollowed. Organizational objectives should be kept in mind and the need for training on theside of employees. An assessment should be conducted to ascertain whether there is any typeof gap between employees and senior management. Training objectives should be clearly
  6. 6. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 6laid out, so as to conduct an organized training. Departments and employees in need ofadditional trainingshould be observed,to improve time management when training individualswho need it. Not every method works for all trainees, therefore, effective methods of trainingshould be formulated to suit everyone, individually or as a group,in a company. The trainershould put into place an efficient method of evaluation to make sure training has an impact onthe trainee afterwards. First, a trainer needs to understand where the training is neededsothere is little time wasted when establishing if trainees really require what is being offered. Supervisors and managers should understand that training making an employee moreeffective, productive, and efficient. Management should not limit training to fit its company,but should also consider offering additional training to better educate their employees, evenoutside a company’s premises. Some issues need little training and/or trainingmaterials.Some materials are sent to employees via e-mail for them to read and learn bythemselves and ask questions later. Target Corporation gives every new team members a detailed plan of all the technicaltraining and leadership training, which they will be undergoing. This information is availableduring the first ninety days of employment and is offered in Spanish with over fifty modules.Training materials are published for the Human Resources department sand translation forkey operational tasks are done in both English and Spanish. Team leaders and supervisors are also given intensive training themselves, whichfocuses on tools and experiences needed to become a better leader. This encourages everyteam leader and supervisor at Target with the knowledge, that they are well equipped withmaterials which enable them to make rational decisions, at all times. There are also week-long assessments, year-long development series and shorter development programs for
  7. 7. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 7nomination-based leadership development programs for potential leaders at all levels of thecompany. Target upholds training for all employees because management understands that anemployee is better positioned to perform well, when given adequate training. Managersbelieve in their employees’ capabilities and therefore offer them great training allowingemployees to rise to any challenge. An employee at Target is open to work at any departmentsince training offered is all inclusive. Employees feel respected, valued and appreciated whileworking, which contributes to the growth of the company. Also, the employees’ morale is boosted by the education and training that is providedto them. They perform their tasks with confidence and ease. Quality products are evidence toshow that employees do not just work but they give their best to make sure the image ofTarget Corporation is appreciated even in the outside world. Employees understand theculture of Target Corporationthru their training, hence making it easier for employees tointeract well with one another, and without reservations. Recruitment Activities Any company needs to be sure that vacancies are available long before placingnotices. This will ensure that a company is not over-staffed. It is also the responsibility of themanagement to assure that current employees are not under-staffed resulting in them beingover-worked. Recruitment refers to finding qualified candidatesthat the company feels aresuited to achieve the goals set by the company and improve its operations (Ivancevich, 2010).It is the enlistment of people for various vacancies that have arisen within the company. Recruitment should not be for short term placement, although these particular needsare needed.In these particular situations, the company may hire temporary workers, to helpwith the extra work load. Management should understand that recruitment is the first process
  8. 8. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 8towards creating a competitive workforce that will give them a competitive edge over othercompanies, in the same industry. Recruitment is not just hiring qualified individuals, but, is a lengthy, proceduralprocess that takes time. It begins when a company becomes aware of a vacancy.Usually,departmental leaders are the ones who report an open position to the Human Resourcesdepartment, in case of need to hire. Departmental leaders have to specify number of positionsand people needed to fill these position, as well as, the duties and qualifications to beperformed. Preparing the job description for these vacancies should be done with thespecifics required to fill those vacancies. The company then needs to list sources ofemployees required. They may source for the individuals internally or may opt to outsource,or hire externally. Hiring externally calls for an extensive way of advertising for eachvacancy. Some companies however, prefer using recruitment agencies to do the wholeprocess of recruitment on their behalf. Once the advertisements, job posts, and notices have been placed, individuals mayapply for those vacancies.A company uses its recruiting department to chooseexperiencedindividuals according to given qualifications required. The chosen candidates are then calledfor interviews by someone from Human Resource department. Recruitment is affected by several factors. Top management may decide torecommend individuals referred to them by fellow supervisors in the organization, or fromwithin. This is because the recommended individuals have a special relationship with topmanagement. Such occurrences may cause a company to hire employees that don’t have theskills and qualifications needed to perform the job. On the other hand, it can have a positiveaffect too, allowing the company to hire someone from within, saving time and resourcesrequired, to train them and to bring them to the level of other employees. Recruitment is also
  9. 9. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 9affected by time of production. When production is increased, a company hires be it casual orpermanent employees, to ensure continuity in production. Target Corporation, being a large company, has a well-defined recruitment process. Itmay decide to hire internally but may also hire the services of recruiting agencies. Sincerecruitment is done through the Human Resource department, Target Corporation has adeveloped department that is able to coordinate all other Human Resource departments. It isclearly described in the company’s policy that any applicant who canvasses in any way isdisqualified from the hiring process. In its quest to strengthen its team with the most qualified individuals, TargetCorporation holds job fairs at universities, colleges and other training institutions. Whiledoing this, they conduct various career conversationsand interviews with people in thoseinstitutions. The recruiting panel at Target Corporation also attends organized networkingevents to enable them access to diversified candidates. There is also a designed Target Recruitment Application form that potentialcandidates complete. Candidates are required to fill out the application with theiremployment and education details, achievements, skills or training, availability, referencesand right to work details. Candidates are also expected to sign a privacy statement thatspecifies the details they provide are true as this is also verified by references the candidatesprovide. Selection Approaches After the recruitment process is performed, a company then begins the process ofselecting viable candidates for the positions available. The selection process is not usuallyvery long since a company already has all the information needed,from the candidates whohave applied for various positions. From this point, it is only a matter of making decision
  10. 10. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 10from applications received and the interviews done. The best candidates are then selected ifthere is no interruption from senior management. A typical selection process at Target Corporation begins with an initial screeningcompleted by Human Resources, followed by two or more interviews, which are conductedby potential supervisors. Interviews at Target Corporation are structured, that is, they areconducted as per a predetermined outline. The selection process is open which ensures thatcompetitive candidates are chosen for the positions that are vacant. There is no complicity between potential candidates and the top management atTarget Corporation. This makes it possible for competitive candidates to be picked for theopen positions. Also, it improves the confidence of the candidates since they are sure thatthey will havean equal chance of being selected. This openness of selection allows employeesto be sure that growth is merit based, but, not on the basis of whom one knows in within thecorporation. Performance Appraisal Systems This is also referred to as employee appraisal, career development discussion orperformance review. It is a way of evaluating one’s job performance in terms of quality ofwork, quantity of work, cost and time. This evaluation is done by the employee’s immediatesupervisor. It assesses an employee’s strengths and weaknesses, successes and opportunitiesfor growth among others. Performance appraisals help management to make decisions withregards to more training and suitability of promotion, from one position to another. Performance appraisal is aimed at giving employees feedback on their performance,in order to help them identify areas that require more training and/or education. It also helpsin forming a basis for human resource management in making decisions in regards topromotions, salary increases, and award of certificates for good performance, as well as,disciplinary actions and bonuses if any. Performance appraisals aid the facilitation or
  11. 11. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 11improvement of communication between manager and employee. Employees may benefit inreceiving additional coaching, development and counselling. Performance appraisals can be performed in various ways. Management may decideto use questionnaires where employees are requested to answer questions, though this is donein the presence of a supervisor. This type of appraisal helps bridge gap between employeesand their supervisors. A company may also choose to use 360-degree appraisal where anemployee is assessed by managers, peers, subordinates and customers. This type of appraisalgives the manager a better view of the employee on whom appraisal is being done. Target Corporation has a unique appraisal system. Employees receive a positiveapproach which isn’t intended to intimidate the employees but rather to motivate them towork harder and achieve success. It is usually conducted by immediate team leaders orsupervisors of respective departments. This appraisal happens periodically, and may bemonthly or yearly, depending on the managements’ decision. It usually takes a longer periodof time as compared to other companies, since Target Corporation is an internationalcompany. All appraisals for every employee should be received by the top managementwhenever an appraisal is to be conducted. The method of appraisal to be employed dependson the market and the season. It is virtually impossible to conduct appraisals when it is a busytime of season, since production time will be wasted. Target Corporation managementhandles performance appraisals in off season times, since this will not affect production asmuch. Employees are usually informed of when their appraisals willtake place and wherethey will be performed. The place varies upon the location, since all employees can’t meet atheadquarters, as it wouldn’t be cost efficient for both the employees and the employer. Appraisals at Target have helped improve employees’ confidence in the company andhas also decreased turnover. Employees are able to work more effectively, efficiently and
  12. 12. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 12they also maintain the company’s culture. The management has earned the confidence ofemployees since no conflict has occurred in the past with regards to promotion and salaryincrements. Promotion systems implemented Promotion refers to changing an employee from a lower position to a higher position.This usually comes after performance appraisals have been completed on employees. It isbased on merit as well as hard work, on the side of employees. Promotion boosts employees’moral, helping them to develop trust and respect for the company. Promotion is usually doneif vacancies arise in higher positionswithin an organization. It may not be implemented ifthere aren’t any places for employees to move up the ladder in the company. At Target Corporation, promotion is implemented immediately after performanceappraisals are done. The way promotions are done at Target Corporation has encouragedemployees and helped to own the company since they know that at some point they will getpositions higher in rank. This has allowed employees to be more focussed and workdiligently, in effort to try and move up the ladder. Production has increased and quality of products and services has been relativelyhigh. The opening of other branches in the U.S. and other parts of the world is also anopportunity for employees to grow. This is because the new branches will absorb employeeswho have received a nod of promotion from top management. Pay parts and other benefits Target Corporation pays $6.25 to $8 an hour, for entry level positions(, 2011). It also offers health care insurance to employees which are a bitrestrictive. Target dropped health care insurance for all casual employees. However, they
  13. 13. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 13offer multiple health care plans to their employees based on the geographic location, as perthe company’s handbook for employees. Target is a flexible place to work, for employees who want part time or full time jobs.Target’s 401(k) plan for retirement is among the best in the retail industry. It matches dollarto dollar, up to five percent of total contributions made by employees. All employees receivea ten percent discount on most merchandise purchased. These benefits have made employees work productively and efficiently. Target hasalso expanded in recent years as a result of employees’ devotion in marketing, as well as,offering goods and services to its customers. This has made loyal customers in the companytherefore, allowing guaranteed growth. Supervisory styles There are several types of supervisory styles that can be applied in any company. Thishas to be applied effectively so as to make sure that goals of a company are not compromised.It is also necessary to have experienced supervisors as this will ensure that work is done inthe best way possible. Supervisors should be able delegate, train, coach and communicate tosubordinates. The various types of supervisory styles are authoritarian, Laissez Faire,companionable and synergistic supervision (, 2011). Authoritariansupervision is based on the belief that the team requires continuous supervision probablybecause of immaturity as staff may attempt to work less, needing closer supervision. LaissezFaire supervision allows employees to be free to use their talents to perform their duties. It isbased on the expression, “Hire people and get out of their way.” Companionable supervisionis where supervisors create a friendly environment because they avoid confrontation withstaff. Synergistic supervision is a cooperative effort whereby staff and supervisors worktogether, in an attempt to solve problems that might have risen in the course of work. This
  14. 14. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 14type of supervision is dedicated to helping staff develop their problem solving abilities and besolution focused, enabling them to grow in their careers. Target Corporation applies the Synergistic type of supervision blended with theLaissez Faire type of supervision. This helps employees to use basic reason even in theabsence of supervisors to solve problems that might arise. It allows employees to becomeself-sufficient and develop their supervisory skills. Employees support supervisors and vice-versa, so errors are minimized. Employees at Target Corporation are content with this type supervision since itensures their growth. Productivity is of high quality and efficiency of employees is alsocommendable. Also, employees’ morale has increased since they are sure of job securityhaving earned respect amongst their supervisors. Many of them become long termemployees, since job satisfaction is almost guaranteed. Conclusion Target Corporation is a large company that has been growing in the recent past. Thisis evidenced by the many stores that have continued to be opened in several parts of theworld. However, in any company, there has to be opportunities for growth and TargetCorporation is not an exemption (Rowley, 2004). Target Corporation has been involved in several community service drills. Thisshould be upheld and improved as this will help improve the company’s image in the outsideworld. A company’s involvement in community service is also a form of advertising itsproducts and services. Target Corporation has an exceptional health scheme for employees and this hasenhanced job satisfaction amongst employees. In the retail industry, this company has acompetitive health scheme for its employees. However, all workers should be given auniformed medical plan whether they are full-time or part-time. When the medical plan was
  15. 15. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 15removed for casual employees, this affected production adversely so; bringing this back willdefinitely work for the company. The wage per hour should be increased since currently; it is low, compared to theprevailing market conditions. Employees have researched and proven that other companiesare offering better terms and the management should respond to this by giving a pay increase. The type of supervision employed at Target should continue as is because this has ledto a strong bond between employees and supervisors and also increased production in thecorporation. The company should organize more employees’ supported functions, to ensureemployees know and understand one another. This would increase teamwork and production,as a consequence. A strong bond between employees is an assurance of quality production.Employees will complement each other and work together towards achievement of goals, ifthey know, respect, understand one another.
  16. 16. Human Resources Role in Target Corporation 16 ReferencesGrote, R.C. (1996). The complete guide to performance appraisal. New York: AmacomIvancevich, J. (2010). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Kinlaw, D. (1997). Handbook of Leadership Training Activities: 50 One-Hour Designs. New York: McGraw-HillRoberts, G. (1997). Recruitment and selection: a competency approach. London: Institute of Personnel and DevelopmentRowley, L. (2004). On Target: How the Worlds Hottest Retailer Hit a Bulls-Eye. New York: John Wiley & SonsWalsh, D.J. (2009). Employment Law for Human Resource Practice. Stamford: Cengage LearningTarget Corporation: Information from (n.d.). Wiki Q&A combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedias. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from Salary By Job Title - (n.d.). Find startup jobs, startup work, and companies. See Salaries. | Retrieved December 11, 2011, from