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The American Revolution Web

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  • 1. Chapter 6 Notes
  • 2.  
  • 3.
      • May 17, 1774 British Thomas Gage takes command of His Majesty’s troop and becomes the governor of Massachusetts
      • Gage was in Boston to enforce the Coercive Acts
      • Militias in New England began to drill
  • 4. “ Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
  • 5.
      • In early April General Thomas Gage received orders from Britain to crush the rebellion before it got out of hand and to arrest its leaders.
      • The “shot heard ‘round the world”
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • 1,200 militiamen under Colonel William Prescott
      • “ Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.”
    • Costly British victory – more than 1,000 dead and wounded.
      • “ A dear bought victory, another such would have ruined us.” –British Officer
  • 8.  
  • 9. As word of Lexington and Concord reached Virginia, Washington prepared to leave for the meeting of the Second Continental Congress. Unsure of what would happen next the 43 year old planter packed his old red and blue uniform he had worn fighting under General Braddock in the French and Indian War. Is was a wise decision! Congress elected Washington to lead the new Continental Army as Commander-in-Chief.
  • 10.  
  • 11. The committee of five presented the Declaration of Independence to the second Continental Congress on July 2 nd . The Second Continental Congress voted to accept the Declaration of Independence on July 4 th
  • 12. When Washington arrived in Massachusetts to take command of the army he found 14,500 men camping like hobos around Boston. He stated they “regarded an officer as no more than a broomstick” Washington had to attack the discipline problem with his troops first!
  • 13.
    • British Advantages
    • Most powerful Army and Navy in the World
    • Military Supplies
    • Wealth
    • Disadvantages
    • Slow and cost to move supplies and troops
    • Hessians - mercenaries
    • Size of territory to conquer
    • Patriot Advantages
    • Will to Fight
    • Fighting on home ground
    • Washington and others
    • Disadvantages
    • Began war with no navy or army
    • Shortage of weapons, money, supplies and men
  • 14. The city of Boston is surrounded by Patriots so the British soldiers rather than risk a bombardment decide to evacuate the two. Two weeks later the entire British army along with 1,000 loyalists leave for Canada. Patriots now turned against anyone suspected of siding with Britain: pelted with eggs, tar and feathered, and forced on their knees
  • 15. British landed 32,000 soldiers on Staten Island led by General William Howe Washington’s 19,000 ill-trained soldiers were no match for the British and the Hessians Teacher Nathan Hale was captured and hung as a spy – “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” The Continental Army was driven through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania As the weather turned cold and early hopes faded, the Army melted away to only 3,000 Why was the number of Continental troops dwindling?
  • 16. Why was there a reluctance to enlist African Americans? Who was reluctant?
  • 17. Washington knew that he had to do something quickly or the revolution would fall apart. On December 23, 1776, he gathered his remaining troops together for a reading of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense The words inspired the troops and Washington revealed a plan to attack the British and Hessians at their winter camp
  • 18. While the Hessians were celebrating Christmas with drinking and eating Washington led his troops during the late night across the Delaware in small boats and then by foot on icy dark roads toward Trenton
  • 19. The Hessians awoke to find themselves under attack and after a brief and confused battle surrendered Washington stated “This is a glorious day for our country!” Washington pushed the British troops out of Princeton.
  • 20. The British would take Albany, New York and gain control of the Hudson River to cut the New England colonies off from the Middle Colonies General William Howe would lead his troops upriver from New York City General John Burgoyne would lead 8,000 troops south from Canada To capture the upper part of the Hudson River Colonel Barry St. Leger would move west from Lake Ontario
  • 21.
      • Howe did not know about the plan until it was to late.
      • Howe captured the city and forced the Continental Congress to flee
  • 22.
      • By the time General Burgoyne reached the Hudson River the British were outnumbered three to one
      • On October 17 th he surrendered to the Patriots
      • The effects of the American Victory were enormous
  • 23.
      • Until the victory at Saratoga France had remained officially neutral
      • Because they hated the British and to stop them from being powerful, France (1777) and Spain (1779) became allies with the colonies
  • 24. After trying to dislodge Howe from Philadelphia, The capital Washington retired with his army for the winter to Valley Forge, PA Men lacked food, shelter, clothing and shoes due to profiteering But even with a large amount of deserts the army made it through the winter
  • 25.  
  • 26.
      • Women: served as soldiers, nurses, spies, and cooks
      • African Americans fought for American independence with the hope of ending slavery
      • Native American groups choose in most cases to side with the British
  • 27.  
  • 28.
      • General Nathanael Greene was sent by Washington to slow the British advance in the south
      • Rather than risk losing his outnumbered force in large battles, he harassed the British in a series of hit and run attacks
      • Guerrilla Warfare
  • 29.
      • Cornwallis moves his army to Yorktown, Virginia
      • Washington waits for French war ships outside of New York City
      • British General Clinton controls New York City
  • 30.
      • Washington learns that the French navy is headed toward Chesapeake Bay instead of New York
      • Washington changed his plan to advance on the British at Yorktown
      • Washington and Rochambeau join armies and move in secret
      • Washington marched 200 miles in 15 days
      • They would trap Cornwallis army
  • 31.  
  • 32.
      • Washington’s plan worked
      • 14,000 American and French troops had trapped Cornwallis’s 7,500 British and Hessian troops while De Grasse’s fleet kept him from escaping
      • On October 9 th the Americans began to bombard the British.
      • The British ran low on supplies while many were sick or wounded.
      • Cornwallis realized his situation and surrendered on October 19th
  • 33.
    • The battle of Yorktown did not end the war, there were a few more clashes on land and sea.
    • But the British realized the war was to costly to continue.
    • Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay represented the colonies at the writing of the Treaty of Paris.
    • The Treaty was ratified on September 3, 1783 and the United States was independent of Britain!
    • The U.S. received all land east of the Mississippi River between Florida and Canada.
    • The United States in turn, agreed to return property confiscated from loyalists during the war and allow British merchants to collect their debts.
  • 34.
      • The Newburgh Conspiracy: Payment to soldiers
      • December 4 th Washington says his farewells and returns home to Mt. Vernon in time for Christmas
      • But he would not stay in retirement!
  • 35.
      • They fought on their own ground!
      • The Battle of Yorktown
      • Ambushes and guerrilla warfare
      • Help from France and Spain
      • Most Important: Spirit of the Patriots and the Revolution!