8 1 The First President2

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  • 1. The First President Ch. 8 sec 1.
  • 2. On April 30 , 1789 Washington took the oath of office as the first President of the United States under the federal government. John Adams become the first vice President.
  • 3. Precedents
      • Washington had no one to go on or examples and he knew his decisions would shape the presidency.
        • Precedents
      • “ Mr. President”
      • The first cabinet raised many questions: would they answer to the President or the Congress and once appointed if the President could dismiss them?
  • 4. The Cabinet
      • Secretary of State
        • Thomas Jefferson
        • Secretary of Treasury
        • -Alexander Hamilton
        • Secretary of War
        • -Henry Knox
        • Attorney General
        • -Edmond Randolph
      • Today’s Cabinet
        • 15 Departments
  • 5. Judiciary Act of 1789
      • Disagreements between state courts and Federal Courts
      • A compromise allowing 13 district courts and three circuit courts with the Supreme Court having the final ruling over them all.
      • State courts and laws would remain, but federal courts had power to reverse (?)
      • Washington appointed John Jay to head the Supreme Court
  • 6. Hamilton and the National Debt
      • The U.S. was in debt.
    Foreign debt – money owed to foreign nations such as Spain and France Domestic debt – money owed to American citizens
      • The U.S. had borrowed money from its’ citizens in order to pay for the Revolutionary War through the sale of bonds .
      • Many citizens thought that the government would never be able to pay back their debt. Therefore, they sold their bonds to speculators at a loss.
  • 7. Hamilton’s Economic Plan Alexander Hamilton wanted to restore people’s faith in the U.S. economy by doing the following:
      • pay back all federal and state bonds
      • combine all state and federal debts into one huge national debt
    Southerners such as James Madison hated this plan because:
      • most Southern states had already paid their debts
      • most speculators, who became rich, lived in the North
  • 8. The South agreed to… The North agreed to… … allow the federal government to take over the debts of the northern states. … move the capital of the U.S. to the South. (Washington, D.C.) Hamilton’s Compromise
  • 9. Washingtons Farewell
      • After 2 terms in office Washington retired from the presidency, setting a precedent for future presidents
      • In his Farewell speech he warned of
          • The two party system
          • Observe good faith and justice to all nations
          • Stay away from permanent alliances.