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MBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT

Research Reporting
Research Reporting

by
Stephen Ong
Visiting Fellow, Birmingham City
...
LEARNING OUTCOMES
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After this lecture, you should be able to
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

Discuss the research ...
Figure 14.2

A format for developing the storyline

Source: Developed from Raimond (1993:175) Management Project: Design, ...
Using a matrix in the planning of the content for the results and conclusions
chapters
Figure 14.1
Communication Process


Communication Process




The process by which one person or source
sends a message to an audie...
The Communication Process
Communication Occurs in a
Common Field of Experience
Written
Presentation
and the
Research
Process

20-8
Relevance. Not Quantity.
“Focus on relevance. It’s never
about the volume of analyzed data
or the complexity of an algorit...
What is a Business
Research Report?



Research Report
 An

oral presentation or written
statement of research results, ...
Report Format
Adapting Report Format to
Required Formality
The Parts of the Report


Title page should state:
 The

title of the report

 The

title should give a brief but
compl...
The Parts of the Report (cont’d)


Letter of Transmittal






Releases or delivers the report to the recipient in
rel...
EXHIBIT 25.5
25.5

Sample
Letter of
Transmittal
The Parts of the Report (cont’d)


The Executive Summary
 Briefly

explains why the research
project was conducted, what...
The Parts of the Report (cont’d)


The Body (cont’d)


Research methodology section— describes
the structure and technic...
The Parts of the Report (cont’d)


The Body (cont’d)


Conclusions and recommendations section
—provides opinions based ...
Basic Business Research Report
Outline
1.
2.
3.

Abstract
Introduction
Background
a.
b.

4.
5.
6.

Literature Review
Hypot...
Using Tables Effectively


Graphic Aids
Pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex
points or emphasize a message.
 Sho...
Parts of a Table
Reporting Format for a
Typical Cross-Tabulation
Reporting Format for a
Typical Statistical Test
Using a Stubhead Format to Include Several
Cross-Tabulations in One Table
Using Charts Effectively


Charts
 Translate

numerical information into
visual form so that relationships may
be easily...
Distortion by Alternating Scales
Distortion from Treating Unequal
Time Intervals as Equal

Source: Adapted with permission from Mary Eleanor Spear, Practic...
Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)
 Pie

Charts

 Show

the composition of
some total quantity at a
particular time.
 Ea...
Pie Charts
Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)


Line Graphs
 Show

the relationship of one variable
to another.
 The dependent vari...
Simple Line Graph
Multiple-Line Graph
Stratum Chart
Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)
 Bar

Charts

 Show

changes in the value of a
dependent variable (plotted on the
vert...
Simple Bar Chart
Subdivided Bar Chart
Multiple-Bar Chart
The Written Research Report

20-38
Guidelines for Short Reports
Tell reader why you are writing
Tell reader why you are writing
Remind reader of request
Remi...
Components: Short Report
Memo or Letter-Style
Introduction




Problem statement
Research objectives
Background

Conclu...
Components: Short Report
Technical
 Prefatory Information (all)
 Introduction
(all, plus brief methodology
and limitatio...
The Long Research Report

20-42
Report Modules
Prefatory Information
Prefatory Information

Introduction
Introduction

Methodology
Methodology

Findings
F...
Components: Long Report
Management
Prefatory Information
Prefatory Information
Introduction
Introduction
(includes brief m...
Components Long Report:
Technical
Prefatory Information
Prefatory Information

Introduction
Introduction

Methodology(deta...
Prewriting Concerns
What is the report’s purpose?
What is the report’s purpose?

Who will read the report?
Who will read t...
The Outline
Major Topic Heading
A.

Major subtopic
heading
1. Subtopic
a. Minor subtopic
1) Further detail
20-47
Types of Outlines
Topic
Demand
A.

How measured
1. Voluntary
error
2. Shipping
error
a. Monthly
variance

Sentence
Demand ...
Grammar and Style
Proofreader Results

20-49
Adjusting Pace
Use ample white space
Use ample white space

Use headings
Use headings

Use visual aids
Use visual aids

Us...
Considerations for Writing
Readability
Comprehensibility
Tone
Avoiding Overcrowded Text
Use shorter paragraphs
Indent or space parts of text
Use headings
Use bullets

20-52
Appropriate Data Displays
Sample Findings Page:
Tabular

20-54
Charts for Written Reports

20-55
Components of a Whole or
Frequency

20-56
Relationships or Comparisons

20-57
Sample Findings Page: Graphical

20-58
Findings Page Templates

20-59
Appropriate Data Displays

20-60
Text Presentation
Wal-mart regained its number-1 rank in the Forbes 500
due to its strong sales performance (11% increase;...
Alternative Text Presentation
• Oil giant and energy exploration leader ExxonMobil is
the most profitable company in the F...
Parts of a Table

Body

20-63
Tabular Presentation
Wal-mart regained its number one rank in 2007 by
increasing its sales 11 percent over its prior year’...
Sample Graphics within Report

20-65
Sample Line Graph

2008

2009

2010

20-66
Sample Area Chart

20-67
Sample Pie Charts

20-68
Sample Bar Chart

20-69
Pictograph

20-70
Geographs

20-71
3-D Graphs

20-72
Preparing & Delivering
the Written Report

20-73
Preparing & Delivering
the Written Report
Prefatory Information
Prefatory Information

Introduction
Introduction
Methodolo...
Preparing & Delivering
the Written Report
Preparing & Delivering
the Written Report

20-76
Preparing & Delivering
the Written Report

20-77
Assignment Report Format


The sample report format (Saunders,
Lewis & Thornhill (2012) Chapter 14) :










...
Oral
Presentation
and the
Research
Process

21-79
Model for
Presentation Planning

21-80
Artistotle’s Proofs

21-81
Aristotle Proofs
& the Presentation
Ethos
Ethos
Pathos
Pathos
Logos
Logos
21-82
Questions Guide the Plan

21-83
Audience Analysis
Seven Questions to Understand Your Audience

• Who are they?
• Why are they here?
• What keeps them up a...
The Oral Presentation


Oral Presentation
A spoken summary of the major findings,
conclusions, and recommendations, given...
Rx for Better Slides
Low Word Count
Low Word Count
Avoid Slideuments
Avoid Slideuments
Keep it Simple
Keep it Simple
10-20...
Modes of Delivery
Impromptu
Impromptu
Memorized
Memorized
Manuscript Reading
Manuscript Reading

Extemporaneous
Extemporan...
Delivery Principles
Avoid
Avoid
Clutter
Clutter
Reduce Jargon
Reduce Jargon
Align Non-Verbal
Align Non-Verbal
Communicatio...
Non Verbal Admonitions
for a Speaker
Causes of Anxiety
Perceiving audience as judges
Perceiving audience as judges

Possibility of visible failure
Possibility ...
Anxiety Coping Strategies
Speaker Behaviours to Avoid
Vocal

Physical

•Speak

•Rock

too softly
•Speak too rapidly
•Fail to vary volume,
tone, and ...
Further Reading










COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011)
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN,
MCGRAW HILL
ZI...
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  • Exhibit 20-1 details the reporting phase of the research process.
  • This quote should be a good starting place for the typical student question: “How long should the report be?” Questions like: “Should this graph be in the report?” can be answered by asking another question: Does this graph/table/finding add insight to a recommendation related to the management question? Is it needed to understand a subsequent graph/table/finding? If the answer to either question is “YES” it should be in the report.
  • Reports may be defined by their degree of formality and design.
    The formal report follows a well-delineated and relatively long format.
    The short report is more informal.
    Short reports are appropriate when the problem is well defined, of limited scope, and has a simple and straightforward methodology. They are usually about 5 pages in length. A letter of transmittal is a vehicle to convey short reports.
    The letter is a form of a short report. Its tone should be informal. The format follows that of any good business letter and should not exceed a few pages. A letter report is often written in a personal style. Short reports can also follow the style of a memo. The suggestions in the slide are provided for writing short reports.
    Report Access: With managers who have an interest in research often located in different locations, report access has become of increasing interest. Often paper based reports are delivered to the primary sponsor, with electronic versions made available to a wider audience.
  • A letter or memo style short report contains a complete introduction and conclusions. The other components are not included.
  • The short technical report contains all prefatory information (letter of transmittal, title page, authorization statement, executive summary, and table of contents, introduction (including problem statement, research objectives, and background plus a brief statement on the methods and limitations of the study), findings, conclusions and recommendations, and relevant appendices.
  • Long reports may be technical or management reports. Some projects require both forms.
    a management report is written for the non-technically oriented manager or client.
    The management report focuses on an introduction with conclusions and recommendations. Individual findings follow to support the conclusions already made. The appendices provide any required methodological details. It also makes liberal use of visual displays.
    A technical report is written for an audience of researchers
    The technical report should include full documentation and detail. It has the full story of what was done and how. A good guide is to provide sufficient information that would enable others to replicate the study.
    The Technical report should also include a full presentation and analysis of significant data with conclusions and recommendations.
  • Research reports, long and short, have a set of identifiable components.
    Headings and subheadings divide the sections.
    Each report is individual so sections may be dropped or added to meet the needs of the audience. Exhibit 20-2 lists the four types of reports and the sections that are typically included in each one.
    Prefatory items include the letter of transmittal, title page, authorization statement, executive summary, and table of contents.
    The introduction includes the problem statement, research objectives, and background.
    The methodology includes the sampling design, research design, data collection, data analysis, and limitations.
    The findings contains the results for each research question or hypothesis.
    The conclusions include the summary, conclusions, and recommendations.
    The components for each type of report are addressed next.
  • The long management report contains all prefatory information (letter of transmittal, title page, authorization statement, executive summary, and table of contents, introduction (including problem statement, research objectives, and background as well as a brief statement of the methods and limitations), conclusions and recommendations, followed by the findings, and relevant appendices.
  • The long technical report contains all possible components in the order designated in Exhibit 21-2.
  • Before writing the report, one should ask and answer these questions to help frame the situation.
  • Before writing, the researcher should develop an outline. This slide presents a useful organizational structure.
  • In a topic outline, a key word or two is used. The sentence outline expresses the essential thoughts associated with the specific topic.
  • Exhibit 20-4 shows sample output from a commercial package used on one of this text’s vignettes. The slide shows one table from the exhibit. The statistics summarize the readability, grade level, and sentence structure of the document.
  • This is a list of suggestions for adjusting the pace of one’s writing.
    Service words are words that transition from one idea to another; examples include:
    On the other hand
    In summary
    In contrast
  • The researcher should write a level appropriate for the audience’s reading abilities. To test writing for difficulty level, use a standard readability index. The Flesch Reading Ease Score gives a score between 0 and 100. The lower the score, the harder the material is to read. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level provides a score that corresponds with the grade level needed to easily read and understand the document.
    Comprehensibility means that the writing is designed to convey information in a precise manner. This also includes consideration of pace. Pace is the rate at which the printed page presents information to the reader.
    If the text is too overcrowded, there is too much information per sentence. Techniques for adjusting the pace are addressed on the next slide.
    Finally, ensure that tone is appropriate. Avoid use of the term “you,” and remove negative phrasing.
  • This slide lists four techniques for minimizing the appearance of overcrowding in written reports.
  • Exhibit 20-1 details the reporting phase of the research process. This is the part of exhibit 20-1
  • Exhibit 20-3
    Each report needs to have a standard findings page style guide.
    This is especially true if the report pages are prepared by distinct individuals.
    This common style makes it easier for the reader to quickly grasp research results.
    Many organizations have a template for findings pages.
    The template used for this slide requires the summarization of findings to lead the page, the question to appear as it appeared on the questionnaire, and the data table below.
  • Exhibit 20-6 Charts for Written Reports provides two sets of graphical displays, those charts recommended to report components of a whole or frequency and those charts recommended to report relationships or comparisons.
  • Exhibit 20-6 Charts for Written Reports provides two sets of graphical displays, those to report components of a whole or frequency and those to report relationships or comparisons.
  • Exhibit 20-6 Charts for Written Reports provides two sets of graphical displays, those to report components of a whole or frequency and those to report relationships or comparisons.
  • Templates for graphical data presentations often include specifications for graphical data presentation choices and color codes assigned to different categories or order of data.
    For this page from the sample data report included in the text, the template specified only vertical bar charts, and for such charts to use the most intense color of gold at the far left, followed by a lighter tint of gold, followed by a series of green bars moving from darkest to lightest tint.
  • Templates also usually specify the order of ordinal and interval data.
    In the sample report, these two pages (and all others in the report) order the vertical bars from the least desirable result at the far left to the most desirable result at the far right.
    In a quality report consistency in color use and order of data is important, as it makes reading the report easier.
  • Exhibit 20-1 details the reporting phase of the research process.
  • This is an example of a text presentation of data. It is the most common method when there are only a few statistics.
  • Lists can be easy to read and understand when there are just a few figures to be listed. Bulleted lists imply no order. Numbered lists imply order.
  • A part of Exhibit 20-5
  • Tables are generally superior to text for presenting statistics but they should be accompanied by comments directing the reader’s attention to important figures. Tables are either general or summary in nature.
  • This graphics presentation is pulled from the annotated MindWriter client report within Chapter 20.
    Graphics presentations often show less information than tables but are easier to read and remember.
  • Line graphs are chiefly used for time series and frequency distributions. There are several guidelines for designing a line graph:
    Put the time units or the independent variable on the horizontal axis.
    When showing more than one line, use different line types.
    Try not to put more than four lines on one chart.
    Use a solid line for the primary data.
  • Exhibit 20-9
    An area chart is also used for a time series. Consisting of a line that has been divided into component parts, it is best used to show changes in patterns over time.
  • Exhibit 20-9
    A pie chart is another form of area chart. It is often used with business data. They can easily be improperly prepared, though. Pie charts are useful for frequency data. Consider the following suggestions when designing pie charts:
    Show 100% of the subject being graphed
    Label the slides with “call outs”
    Put the largest slice at twelve o’clock and move clockwise in descending order
    Use light colors for large slices
    In a pie chart of black and white slices, a single red one will command the most attention
    Do not show evolution over time
  • A bar chart is a graphical presentation technique that represents frequency data as horizontal or vertical bars. It can be very effective when properly constructed.
  • Pictographs are bar charts using pictorial symbols rather than bars to represent frequency data.
    This one is from the Ohio Lottery: Innovative Research Drives Winning case. It was used in both the written report AND the oral presentation.
  • A geographic chart uses a map to show regional variations in data. This one is for digital camera ownership.
  • Exhibit 20-10
    A 3-D graphic is a presentation technique that permits a graphical comparison of three or more variables.
    Exhibit 20-10 illustrates a 3-D column, 3-D Ribbon, 3-D Wireframe, and 3-D Surface Line.
  • Not all researchers are asked to prepare recommendations, but increasingly many are. The researcher needs to clarify the extent to which the sponsor seeks recommendations before preparing the report.
    Students need to clearly distinguish between data, the interpretation of data, a conclusion drawn from the data, and a recommendation related to the manager’s dilemma that stimulated the need for the research.
    Compiling the written report means preparing and gathering the totality of all written materials which will be delivered to the sponsor and the format in which these will be delivered. 3-ring binders, bound printed reports, and PDF reports are all fairly common for research report compilations. All require a detailed table of contents. The PDF report has the added value of being key-word searchable by the reader. Decisions at this stage involve determining order of material within the report (usually determined by sponsor preference or researcher template, and quantity of copies.
    Delivery of the report often is determined by whether an oral presentation of data findings is planned. Written reports are delivered before oral presentations or following oral presentations, depending on the preference of the sponsor. Reports are delivered by courier or package delivery service or in person, depending on the arrangements to address questions if no oral presentation is planned.
  • Exhibit 20-2 lists the four types of reports and the sections that are typically included in each one. Non data sections usually include the following:
    Prefatory items
    the letter of transmittal
    title page
    authorization statement
    executive summary
    table of contents (All reports require a detailed table of contents so that aspects of interest can be found quickly; this is especially important for the long report. The PDF report has the added value of being key-word searchable by the reader, but the table of contents is still valuable.)
    Introduction
    the problem statement
    research objectives
    background
    Methodology
    sampling design
    research design
    data collection process
    description of the data analysis
    limitations
  • Compiling the written report means preparing and gathering the totality of all written materials which will be delivered to the sponsor and the format in which these will be delivered. This can include materials the sponsor has provided (prior research reports, promotional materials, etc.) 3-ring binders, bound printed reports, and PDF reports are all fairly common for research report compilations. Protecting anonymity of respondents must be balanced against the sponsors need for data at this stage. Usually, actual completed questionnaires are not provided to the sponsor to protect anonymity.
    Outside research suppliers often spend considerable time on the appearance of the total compilation as it affects how professionally the report is perceived by the sponsor. The report access decision influences the decisions at this stage:
    use of color
    type of report holder/binder
    order of material within the report (usually determined by sponsor preference or researcher template),
    quantity of report copies
  • Delivery of the report often is determined by whether an oral presentation of data findings is planned.
    Written reports are delivered before oral presentations or following oral presentations, depending on the preference of the sponsor.
    Delivered reports arrive by courier or package delivery service or in person, often depending on the arrangements to address questions if no oral presentation is planned.
  • As many managers are not schooled in statistical analysis, questions about the findings, researcher interpretations and conclusions are likely to arise. A researcher needs a process and a time frame for addressing these questions. This is especially critical if not oral presentation is planned.
  • Exhibit 20-1 details the full oral presentation process within the research process series.
  • The basis of persuasion was defined by Aristotle with his three principles of proof: ethos, pathos, and logos. He associated communication with persuasion and identified communication as the ability to discover, in any given case, the available means to achieve persuasion.
    Exhibit 21-3 presents The Role of Aristotle’s Proofs in Persuasive Communication
    The next slide presents a platform to discuss ethos, pathos, and logos.
  • Ethos
    Our perception of a presenter’s character affects how believable or convincing we find that person.
    The projection of credibility via personal character is called the speaker’s ethos.
    A strong research presentation relies on a researcher’s ability to convince his or her audience of the following:
    That he or she is credible.
    That the findings from the research are credible.
    That the audience should act upon the findings, as well as conclusions and recommendations drawn from these findings.
    Aristotle says that three things move us to belief apart from any proof: good sense, goodwill, and good moral character.
    Without prior experience, research presenters must borrow it by linking their methodology and procedures to credible sources with experience.
    Pathos
    Pathos relies on an emotional connection between the speaker and his or her audience.
    Pathos is the strongest of the three appeals.
    Most informational, progress, and interim reports are of this kind.
    People hear messages based on their state of mind. If their emotional disposition is positive, they are more likely to be receptive to the message; if it is negative, they will be less receptive to the message.
    The research presenter must arouse emotions exactly because they have the power to modify the audience’s predispositions and, thus, its judgments.
    Knowing the audience’s predisposition (e.g., resistance or skepticism or receptivity) and predetermining a desired emotional response encourages the presenter to build the content and delivery of a presentation to stimulate a desired emotional state.
    Logos
    Logos, the logical argument, provides explicit support for a position. This translates into supporting evidence and analytical techniques that reveal and uphold the researchers’ findings and conclusions.
    Logos uses a variation of the syllogism called an enthymeme. An enthymeme is a a truncated syllogism where one or more minor premises are left unstated, but where the audience provides the missing premises to reach the conclusion.
    Logos is the core of most research presentations; it is normally used to describe facts and findings that support the speaker’s contentions about research results, however it should not be the only source of support.
    Researchers prone to build their presentations solely on logos reduce the likelihood that they will achieve their desired result—implementation of recommended actions inherent in the research findings.
  • Who makes up the audience?
    What do they want to learn about?
    Why is this presentation occurring and how does it connect to the larger picture?
    When will the presentation take place and what are the time-of-day considerations?
    Where will the presentation take place—including nature of the venue and travel?
  • Audience Analysis
    The ultimate success of a presentation depends on the speaker’s ability to anticipate audience response.
    Audience analysis is accomplished by keeping three questions in mind:
    Who will I be addressing?
    Why should my listeners really care about the information I present?
    What do I want the audience to know, believe, and or do because of my presentation?
    Exhibit 21-4 offers seven questions to guide a complete audience analysis.
    The answers to the first two questions help develop the pathos of your presentation.
    Elements of pathos can be discovered by collecting past impressions from prior associations; interviewing critical members of the intended audience; or, often less feasibly, surveying a sample of the invitees regarding agreement with a series of statements about issues (to determine predispositions).
    Demographic and dispositional audience characteristics also play an important role in assessing the answer to the first question.
    The answers to the third question help develop the logos of your presentation.
    The remote audience for a presentation (using Web services to present and connect) requires more, not less analysis, as the presenter has to work doubly hard to establish and maintain a connection.
    A large audience size may require a more formal presentation, or affect your language choice and visual aides. Presenting to an individual or a small group may dictate an informal briefing rather than a formal presentation.
  • Exhibit 21-12 summarizes key rules for better PowerPoint slides.
    Low word count. (Consider using a title only).
    Heed the bullet law: if you have to use bullets at all, use them in moderation, and remember they should represent keywords or brief headlines only, never sentences.
    Slideuments defeat you. (a two-level title and numerous sub-points)
    Keep it simple. A clean background is better than a busy one, one element is better than multiple ones.
    The 10–20–30 rule (use no more than 10 slides, no more than 20 minutes—even if you have been allotted more time—and never use text on a slide smaller than 30 points.
    Font size = oldest age/2
    This slide follows the guidelines of the Rx for better slides.
  • In research presentations, the delivery should be more restrained than in those that seek action or behavioral change.
    Demeanor, posture, dress, and total appearance should be appropriate for the occasion.
    Speed of speech, clarity of enunciation, pauses, and gestures all play a part. Voice pitch, tone quality, and inflections are proper subjects for concern.
    Rapport-developing techniques are essential so that the speaker can get and hold the audience’s attention.
    Impromptu speaking a presentation without prior preparation; inappropriate for a research presentation.
    Memorization a presentation where all material is committed to memory; virtually precludes establishing rapport with the audience members and adapting to their reactions while speaking; produces a self- or speaker-centered presentation not recommended for research presentations.
    Manuscript reading a verbatim delivery of a presentation script; precludes establishing rapport; not recommended for research presentation.
    Extemporaneous presentation a presentation made from minimal notes; preparation includes fully prepared scripting; audience-centered and ideal for research presentations.
    The Extemporaneous presentation is a different color as it is the most preferred for the research presentation.
  • Four admonitions for the presenter.
    Eye contact. Lack of eye contact is particularly bothersome to listeners and is common with inexperienced presenters; frequency of eye contact with the audience helps to establish rapport and comfort, thereby increasing the speaker’s approachability.
    Gestures. If you do not gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as unanimated, especially if you keep your hands at your sides. A speaking style that is animated and lively gains audience attention, facilitates learning, and makes your content more interesting.
    Posture and body orientation. You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk and stand. Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates that you are approachable, receptive, engaged, and friendly.
    A research presenter needs to know what is on his or her visual aids so that the aid does not demand his or her full attention; the audience should have that.
    Paralanguage. This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as tone, pitch, rhythm, pause, timbre, loudness, and inflection. Practice varying these seven elements to avoid one of the major criticisms is of presenters—speaking in a monotone.
  • Research found five causal common denominators among individuals who experience performance anxiety—all based in negative self-perception:
    I perceive or imagine the presence of significant others who are able to judge me.
    I consider the possibility of my visible failure at a task.
    I feel a need to do well to avoid failure.
    I feel uncertain as to whether I will do well.
    I focus on my own behavior and appearance.
  • Optimal strategies for coping with performance anxiety include
    reduce the imagined power of others by increasing the sense of one’s own power;
    eliminate the imagination of negative possibilities, and think about the positive outcomes of a successful presentation;
    hold the performance in perspective by seeing its outcome as insignificant in relation to the totality of one’s life;
    remember that one cannot control other’s reactions or judgments, but only one’s own performance;
    refocus one’s attention away from self and increase one’s awareness of others, without considering them as judges.
    See Exhibit 21-14 for strategies to reduce performance anxiety.
    Reduce the imagined power of others.
    Remind yourself that you know the methodology and the findings far better than anyone in the audience.
    Remind yourself that you have new information and new insights that could help resolve the manager’s problem.
    See yourself as the audience’s partner in solving their problem.
    Wear clothing that increases your power (suits win out over causal apparel).
    Eliminate imagining negative possibilities.
    Remind yourself of the positive outcomes of the sponsor adopting your recommendations… their company grows, avoid layoffs, etc.
    Plan for contingencies
    Create a disaster kit with extra power cords, projection bulbs, and laptop.
    Burn your presentation to CD, as well as to a USB thumb drive.
    Make multiple copies of your script note cards or slide note pages, put them in different places (luggage, backpack, car).
    Have multiple copies of handouts of your slides as a backup to a PowerPoint malfunction.
    Hold the performance in perspective.
    Think of the presentation as an opportunity for career-enhancing experience.
    Remind yourself of what you’ll be doing later today or tomorrow that will provide you great joy.
    Plan a dinner with friends the evening following the presentation.
    Plan a celebration with your teammates for after the presentation.
    Control your own performance.
    Get some exercise to burn off your nervous energy.
    Rest shaking hands on the podium to hide trembling.
    Eat a couple of hours before you go onstage to avoid low blood sugar (can make you feel light-headed) or too much undigested food (can make you nauseous).
    Craft your support materials with great care.
    Apply the visualization techniques that the professionals use.
    Develop strong examples, exercises, slides, and handouts.
    Practice, Practice, Practice.
    Increase your awareness of others without considering them judges.
    Meet your audience (all or at least some) before your presentation.
    Learn something personal about a few audience members that makes them appear more human . . . they have kids who eat bark, they like cherry Kool-Aid, they hate sunshine (or snow), they have a Chihuahua named Brutus, etc.
  • Asking these questions and then trying to correct speaker characteristics will improve the presentation!
  • Transcript of "Mba2216 week 12 research presentation"

    1. 1. MBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT Research Reporting Research Reporting by Stephen Ong Visiting Fellow, Birmingham City University, UK
    2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING OUTCOMES After this lecture, you should be able to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Discuss the research report from the perspective of the communications process Define the parts of a research report following a standard format Explain how to use tables for presenting numerical information Summarize how to select and use the types of research charts Describe how to give an effective oral presentation Discuss the importance of Internet reporting and research follow-up
    3. 3. Figure 14.2 A format for developing the storyline Source: Developed from Raimond (1993:175) Management Project: Design, Research and Presentation . Reproduced with permission of Thompson Publishing Services
    4. 4. Using a matrix in the planning of the content for the results and conclusions chapters Figure 14.1
    5. 5. Communication Process  Communication Process   The process by which one person or source sends a message to an audience or receiver and then receives feedback about the message. Elements that Influence Successful Communication      Communicator Message Medium Audience Feedback
    6. 6. The Communication Process
    7. 7. Communication Occurs in a Common Field of Experience
    8. 8. Written Presentation and the Research Process 20-8
    9. 9. Relevance. Not Quantity. “Focus on relevance. It’s never about the volume of analyzed data or the complexity of an algorithm but about the actionability of derived insight.” Michael Fassnacht, founder Loyalty Matrix 20-9
    10. 10. What is a Business Research Report?  Research Report  An oral presentation or written statement of research results, strategic recommendations, and/or other conclusions to a specific audience.  Directed to the client or management who initiated the research.  Usually supported by a formal presentation delivered in person or via the Internet.
    11. 11. Report Format
    12. 12. Adapting Report Format to Required Formality
    13. 13. The Parts of the Report  Title page should state:  The title of the report  The title should give a brief but complete indication of the purpose of the research project.  Addresses and titles of the preparer and recipient may also be included.  For whom the report was prepared  By whom it was prepared  Date of release or presentation
    14. 14. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  Letter of Transmittal    Releases or delivers the report to the recipient in relatively formal and very formal reports. Letter of Authorization  Approves the project, details who has responsibility for it, and describes resources available to support it. The Table of Contents  Should list the divisions and subdivisions of the report with page references.  Is based on the final outline of the report, but it should include only the first-level subdivisions.
    15. 15. EXHIBIT 25.5 25.5 Sample Letter of Transmittal
    16. 16. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  The Executive Summary  Briefly explains why the research project was conducted, what aspects of the problem were considered, what the outcome was, and what should be done.  The Body  Introduction section—discusses background information and the specific objectives of the research.
    17. 17. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  The Body (cont’d)  Research methodology section— describes the structure and technical procedures of the project. It may be supplemented with an appendix or glossary of technical terms. Research design  Sample design  Data collection and fieldwork  Analysis   Results section— presents the findings of the project. It includes tables, charts, and an organized narrative.
    18. 18. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  The Body (cont’d)  Conclusions and recommendations section —provides opinions based on the results and suggestions for action.   The conclusions and recommendations should be presented in this section in more detail than in the summary, and the text should include justification as needed. The Appendix  Contains material that is too technical or too detailed to go in the body —includes materials of interest only to some readers or subsidiary materials not directly related to the objectives.
    19. 19. Basic Business Research Report Outline 1. 2. 3. Abstract Introduction Background a. b. 4. 5. 6. Literature Review Hypotheses Research Methods Results Discussion a. b. c. Implications Limitations Future Research 7. 8. 9. Conclusions References Appendices
    20. 20. Using Tables Effectively  Graphic Aids Pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex points or emphasize a message.  Should always be interpreted in the text.   Creating Tables  Most useful for presenting numerical information, especially when several pieces of information have been gathered about each item discussed. Table number  Title  Stubheads and bannerheads  Footnotes and source notes 
    21. 21. Parts of a Table
    22. 22. Reporting Format for a Typical Cross-Tabulation
    23. 23. Reporting Format for a Typical Statistical Test
    24. 24. Using a Stubhead Format to Include Several Cross-Tabulations in One Table
    25. 25. Using Charts Effectively  Charts  Translate numerical information into visual form so that relationships may be easily grasped.  Chart elements  Figure number  Title  Explanatory legends  Source and footnotes  Charts are subject to distortion.
    26. 26. Distortion by Alternating Scales
    27. 27. Distortion from Treating Unequal Time Intervals as Equal Source: Adapted with permission from Mary Eleanor Spear, Practical Charting Techniques (New York; McGraw-Hill, 1969), p. 57.
    28. 28. Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)  Pie Charts  Show the composition of some total quantity at a particular time.  Each angle, or “slice,” is proportional to its percentage of the whole.
    29. 29. Pie Charts
    30. 30. Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)  Line Graphs  Show the relationship of one variable to another.  The dependent variable generally is shown on the vertical axis, and the independent variable on the horizontal axis.  Simple line graph  Multiple-line graph  Stratum chart
    31. 31. Simple Line Graph
    32. 32. Multiple-Line Graph
    33. 33. Stratum Chart
    34. 34. Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)  Bar Charts  Show changes in the value of a dependent variable (plotted on the vertical axis) at discrete intervals of the independent variable (on the horizontal axis).  Types:  Subdivided-bar chart  Multiple-bar chart
    35. 35. Simple Bar Chart
    36. 36. Subdivided Bar Chart
    37. 37. Multiple-Bar Chart
    38. 38. The Written Research Report 20-38
    39. 39. Guidelines for Short Reports Tell reader why you are writing Tell reader why you are writing Remind reader of request Remind reader of request Write in an expository style Write in an expository style Write report and hold for review Write report and hold for review Attach detailed materials in appendix Attach detailed materials in appendix 20-39
    40. 40. Components: Short Report Memo or Letter-Style Introduction    Problem statement Research objectives Background Conclusions   Summary and conclusions Recommendations
    41. 41. Components: Short Report Technical  Prefatory Information (all)  Introduction (all, plus brief methodology and limitations)  Findings  Conclusions  Appendices 20-41
    42. 42. The Long Research Report 20-42
    43. 43. Report Modules Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction Methodology Methodology Findings Findings Conclusions & Recommendations Conclusions & Recommendations Appendices Appendices Bibliography Bibliography 20-43
    44. 44. Components: Long Report Management Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction (includes brief methodology (includes brief methodology & limitations) & limitations) Findings Findings Conclusions & Conclusions & Recommendations Recommendations Appendices Appendices 20-44
    45. 45. Components Long Report: Technical Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction Methodology(detailed) Methodology(detailed) Findings Findings Conclusions Conclusions Appendices Appendices Bibliography Bibliography 20-45
    46. 46. Prewriting Concerns What is the report’s purpose? What is the report’s purpose? Who will read the report? Who will read the report? What are the circumstances? What are the circumstances? How will the report be used? How will the report be used?
    47. 47. The Outline Major Topic Heading A. Major subtopic heading 1. Subtopic a. Minor subtopic 1) Further detail 20-47
    48. 48. Types of Outlines Topic Demand A. How measured 1. Voluntary error 2. Shipping error a. Monthly variance Sentence Demand for refrigerators A. Measured in terms of factory shipments as reported by the U.S. Department of Commerce 1. Error is introduced into year to year comparisons 20-48
    49. 49. Grammar and Style Proofreader Results 20-49
    50. 50. Adjusting Pace Use ample white space Use ample white space Use headings Use headings Use visual aids Use visual aids Use italics and underlining Use italics and underlining Choose words carefully Choose words carefully Repeat and summarize Repeat and summarize Use service words Use service words strategically strategically
    51. 51. Considerations for Writing Readability Comprehensibility Tone
    52. 52. Avoiding Overcrowded Text Use shorter paragraphs Indent or space parts of text Use headings Use bullets 20-52
    53. 53. Appropriate Data Displays
    54. 54. Sample Findings Page: Tabular 20-54
    55. 55. Charts for Written Reports 20-55
    56. 56. Components of a Whole or Frequency 20-56
    57. 57. Relationships or Comparisons 20-57
    58. 58. Sample Findings Page: Graphical 20-58
    59. 59. Findings Page Templates 20-59
    60. 60. Appropriate Data Displays 20-60
    61. 61. Text Presentation Wal-mart regained its number-1 rank in the Forbes 500 due to its strong sales performance (11% increase; $351.1 billion). Although Wal-mart surpassed number-2ranked ExxonMobil in sales, Wal-mart’s profitability ($11.2 billion) was far below the oil giant ($39.5 billion). Some credit several challenging public relations problems with the lower-than-expected level. Number-6ranked General Electric also outperformed Walmart in profits with $20.8 billion. GE’s robust sales growth (27.4%) is an indication that it will likely challenge both Walmart and ExxonMobil in the future. 20-61
    62. 62. Alternative Text Presentation • Oil giant and energy exploration leader ExxonMobil is the most profitable company in the Fortune 500 due to record crude oil prices increasing its profits to $39.5 billion, compared to $11.2 billion for Wal-mart. • ExxonMobil’s profits jumped 9% on a 2% increase in sales, while Wal-mart’s profits increased a mere 0.5% on an 11% increase in sales. • General Electric provided a 27.4% increase in profits on a 7.1% increase in sales, and outperformed Walmart on profits ($20.8 billion to $11.2 billion).  Although Wal-Mart regained the top spot in the Fortune 500, its performance shows signs of weakness in profitability. 20-62
    63. 63. Parts of a Table Body 20-63
    64. 64. Tabular Presentation Wal-mart regained its number one rank in 2007 by increasing its sales 11 percent over its prior year’s sales. But it still trails in profitability. Company Rank Revenue ($, millions) Sales Growth Profits Profit Growth Wal-Mart 1 $351,139.0 11.2% $11,284.0 0.5% Exxon Mobil 2 $347,254.0 02.2% $39,500.0 9.3% General Electric 6 $168,307.0 07.1% $20,829.0 27.4% 20-64
    65. 65. Sample Graphics within Report 20-65
    66. 66. Sample Line Graph 2008 2009 2010 20-66
    67. 67. Sample Area Chart 20-67
    68. 68. Sample Pie Charts 20-68
    69. 69. Sample Bar Chart 20-69
    70. 70. Pictograph 20-70
    71. 71. Geographs 20-71
    72. 72. 3-D Graphs 20-72
    73. 73. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report 20-73
    74. 74. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction Methodology Methodology 20-74
    75. 75. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report
    76. 76. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report 20-76
    77. 77. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report 20-77
    78. 78. Assignment Report Format  The sample report format (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2012) Chapter 14) :          Abstract Introduction Literature review Methodology Findings Discussion Conclusions References Appendices (including Survey Questionnaire, Data analysis)
    79. 79. Oral Presentation and the Research Process 21-79
    80. 80. Model for Presentation Planning 21-80
    81. 81. Artistotle’s Proofs 21-81
    82. 82. Aristotle Proofs & the Presentation Ethos Ethos Pathos Pathos Logos Logos 21-82
    83. 83. Questions Guide the Plan 21-83
    84. 84. Audience Analysis Seven Questions to Understand Your Audience • Who are they? • Why are they here? • What keeps them up at night? • Why should they care about the presentation? • What do you want them to do? • Should you expect resistance? • How can you best reach them? 21-84
    85. 85. The Oral Presentation  Oral Presentation A spoken summary of the major findings, conclusions, and recommendations, given to clients or line managers to provide them with the opportunity to clarify any ambiguous issues by asking questions.  Keys to effective presentation:  Preparation (rehearsal)  Adapting to the audience  Not lecturing or reading to the audience  Use graphic aids effectively  Speaking effectively and convincingly 
    86. 86. Rx for Better Slides Low Word Count Low Word Count Avoid Slideuments Avoid Slideuments Keep it Simple Keep it Simple 10-20-30 Rule 10-20-30 Rule Large Font Size Large Font Size Use Bullets in Moderation Use Bullets in Moderation
    87. 87. Modes of Delivery Impromptu Impromptu Memorized Memorized Manuscript Reading Manuscript Reading Extemporaneous Extemporaneous
    88. 88. Delivery Principles Avoid Avoid Clutter Clutter Reduce Jargon Reduce Jargon Align Non-Verbal Align Non-Verbal Communication Communication Practice Practice
    89. 89. Non Verbal Admonitions for a Speaker
    90. 90. Causes of Anxiety Perceiving audience as judges Perceiving audience as judges Possibility of visible failure Possibility of visible failure Need to avoid failure Need to avoid failure Uncertainty of ability to do well Uncertainty of ability to do well Focus on own behaviour Focus on own behaviour & appearance & appearance 21-90
    91. 91. Anxiety Coping Strategies
    92. 92. Speaker Behaviours to Avoid Vocal Physical •Speak •Rock too softly •Speak too rapidly •Fail to vary volume, tone, and rate of speaking •Fill pauses with “you know, um, ah” back and forth •Pace without purpose •Fiddle with things, hair, jewelry, clothing •Stare into space •Fail to make eye contact •Move cursor without purpose. 21-92
    93. 93. Further Reading      COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN, MCGRAW HILL ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. AND GRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 8TH EDN, SOUTH-WESTERN SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A. (2012) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, 6TH EDN, PRENTICE HALL. SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOING RESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FT PRENTICE HALL. 360° CUBE© Copyright S.Ong & S.Hassani (2012). All rights reserved.
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