Mba2216 business research week 4 case study 0613

1,437 views
1,092 views

Published on

Casestudy Methods

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,437
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
64
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mba2216 business research week 4 case study 0613

  1. 1. Research Methodology : Case Study Methods MBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT by Stephen Ong Visiting Fellow, Birmingham City University, UK Visiting Professor, Shenzhen University
  2. 2. • Introduction to Case Study Methods1 • Case Writing2 • Case Analysis 3 Today’s Overview
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION TO CASE STUDY METHODS 1 - 3
  4. 4. Figure 5.1 The research onion Source: © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill (2008), reproduced with permission Case Study as Research Strategy
  5. 5. Case Study Definition: In a case study, a particular individual, program or event is studied in depth; but findings may not be generalizable. (Leedy & Ormrod 2013)
  6. 6. Case Study as a Method  Method : The researcher collects extensive data on the individual(s), program(s), or event(s) on which the investigation is focused.
  7. 7. Evolution of Case Study Method  Roman Experience : Aristotle and Socrates used to teach philosophy in form of cases. i.e., about each Empire.  Law Schools : Used cases extensively whether civil or criminal in giving judgment.  Harvard Business School : Pioneers in case studies and use them extensively.  Case Clearing Houses : Harvard Business School has built more than 150,000 cases and they periodically update all the cases. 7
  8. 8. Case Study : Benefit 1 The Development of Diagnosis Skills  Solutions cannot be developed properly until problems have been identified.  Case study enables researchers to develop realistic solutions to the problems and to understand crucial nature of accurate diagnosis both specifically and generally. 1 - 8
  9. 9. Case Study : Benefit 2 Subject and functional integration  Case studies enable researchers to pursue issues across subject and departmental boundaries.  This gives a much more integrated view of management than might otherwise be achieved. 1 - 9
  10. 10. Case Study : Benefit 3 Deep vs. Surface Learning  Thorough analysis of a case study and complex issues may facilitate a deeper understanding, unlike other surface learning methods, i.e. listening to lecture on subject matter etc. 1 - 10
  11. 11. Case Study : Benefit 4 Review of policy and practice  If in-house cases are used in client organizations, these may lead to constructive debates about appropriate policy and practice. 1 - 11
  12. 12. 7–12 What Are Case Studies?  Case Studies  The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.  Themes  Are identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.
  13. 13. 1 - 13
  14. 14. 1 - 14
  15. 15. Types of Case Studies  Intrinsic  To understand a particular case  Instrumental  To provide insight into an issue or to redraw a generalization  Collective  To study several cases to investigate phenomenon, population, or general condition
  16. 16. Specific Classification (1) Classical Case  Detailed information about historical personalities, eg. Napoleon Secondary Case  Describing a key event of a major case. 16 Empirical Case  Observation, based on empirical facts.
  17. 17. Specific Classification (2) Decision Oriented  Gives the pros and cons of the case.  For example, a client may ask the researcher to suggest the right time for launching their new product Case History  Historical events, eg. World War II. 17 Desk Type  Collect all available information in one place.
  18. 18. Specific Classification (3) Development Oriented  External environment analysis of current issues and policy recommendations for future progress or transformation, eg. Vision 2020 Sectoral Type  Case study on private or public sectors. 18 Biography  An account of a person’s life experiences eg.My life by Bill
  19. 19. 7–19 Qualitative Research Orientations  Major Orientations of Qualitative Research 1. Phenomenology—originating in philosophy and psychology 2. Ethnography—originating in anthropology 3. Grounded theory—originating in sociology 4. Case studies—originating in psychology and in business research
  20. 20. TECHNIQUES USED IN CASE STUDY RESEARCH  Qualitative research techniques used in Case Studies are: 1. Focus Group Interview 2. Depth Interviews 3. Free-Association and Sentence Completion Methods 4. Observation  Quantitative research techniques
  21. 21. 7–21 EXHIBIT 7.2 Common Qualitative Research Tools
  22. 22. 7–22 Technique 1 : Focus Group Interview  An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group (6-10 people) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents.  Advantages: 1. Relatively fast 2. Easy to execute 3. Allow respondents to piggyback off each other’s ideas – one respondent stimulates thought among the others. 4. Provide multiple perspectives 5. Flexibility to allow more detailed descriptions 6. High degree of scrutiny – session can be observed since they are usually conducted in a room with a two-way mirror and are generally tape recorded or videotaped for later examination.
  23. 23. 7–23 1.1 Focus Group Interview - Focus Group Respondents  Group Composition 6 to 10 people Relatively homogeneous Similar lifestyles and experiences
  24. 24. 7–24 Focus Group Interview - The Focus Group Moderator  Moderator  A person who leads a focus group interview and insures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussion.  Qualities of a good moderator:  Develops rapport with the group  Good listener  Tries not to interject his or her own opinions  Controls discussion without being overbearing
  25. 25. 7–25 Focus Group Interview - Planning a Focus Group Outline  Discussion guide  Includes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session.
  26. 26. 7–26 EXHIBIT 1.2 Discussion Guide for a Focus Group Interview
  27. 27. 7–27 1.3 Disadvantages of Focus Groups  Focus groups:  Require objective, sensitive, and effective moderators.  May have unique sampling problems.  May not be useful for discussing sensitive topics in face-to-face situations.  Cost a considerable amount of money, particularly when they are not conducted by someone employed by the company desiring the focus group.
  28. 28. 7–28 Technique 2 : Depth Interviews  Depth interview  A one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic.  Laddering  A particular approach to probing asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels.  Produces distinctions at the:  attribute level  benefit level  value or motivation level
  29. 29. 7–29 Technique 3 : Free-Association and Sentence Completion Methods  Free-association techniques  Record a respondent’s first cognitive reactions (top-of-mind) to some stimulus.  Allow researchers to map a respondent’s thoughts or memory.  E.g. what is the No. 1 shampoo brand?  Sentence completion  People who drink beer are  A man who drinks light beer is  Imported beer is most liked by  The woman drinking beer in the commercial
  30. 30. 7–30 Technique 4 : Observation  Observation  Field notes  The researcher’s descriptions of what actually happens in the field.  These notes then become the text from which meaning is extracted.  Advantageous for gaining insight into things that respondents cannot or will not verbalize.
  31. 31. 8–31 Secondary Data Research  Secondary Data  Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project. • Advantages  Available  Faster and less expensive than acquiring primary data  Requires no access to subjects  Inexpensive—government data is often free  May provide information otherwise not accessible • Disadvantages  Uncertain accuracy  Data not consistent with needs  Inappropriate units of measurement  Time period inappropriate (outdated)
  32. 32. Data Analysis Data Analysis: involves : 1. organization of details about the case, 2. categorization of data, 3. interpretation of single instances, 4. identification of patterns, and 5. synthesis and generalizations.
  33. 33. Research Report Research Report: includes  a rationale for studying the case,  a detailed description of facts related to the case,  a description of data that was collected,  a discussion of patterns found, and  a connection to the larger scheme of things.
  34. 34. 2. CASE WRITING 1 - 34
  35. 35. Writing Cases from REAL WORLD situations  Cases are best written about actual situations.  Facts which may appear to be of minor importance based on real situations can turn out to be of crucial importance. 35
  36. 36. Source material  There are many sources for a case study :  experience of the author is very important,  issues that are reported in media, news papers also give valuable information.  Sometimes they can be adopted from existing materials.  Cases developed for a client organization can be adapted for use elsewhere. 36
  37. 37. Making a Start – Sources of data Primary Sources  Observation  Questionnaire  Interviews  Focus Groups Secondary Sources  Archives  Museums  Personal files  Newspaper reports 1- 37
  38. 38. Case Writing Process 1. Planning - What to write ? 2. Writing the case itself 3. Cooling off Period 4. Revision, refinements etc. 5. Ornamentation 38
  39. 39. 10 Points While Writing a case 1. Anchor - Focus on issues 2. Fairness & Objective 3. Compactness 4. Personality and leadership 5. Length & Jargon 6. Data confirmation with the company 7. Past tense 8. Acknowledgements 9. Evidence and facts 10. Exhibits & Accounts 39
  40. 40. Business Case Format 1. Introduction - Company Background 2. Industry Analysis 3. Current Vision, Mission & objectives 4. Organisation structure 10. Competition 11. Personalities 12. Environment, Sustainability, Governance, & Globalisation 13. Events, Issues & Problems 14. Company’s Future plans 40 5. Marketing - 4P 6. Operations/ Production - Product Design, Production Planning & Control 7. R & D 8. Accounting & Finance 9. HRD
  41. 41. 3. CASE ANALYSIS 1 - 41
  42. 42. Introduction Case Study method- provides the opportunity to move from a narrow, specialized view that emphasizes functional techniques to a broader, less precise analysis of the overall corporation
  43. 43. Responsive Treatment  Read the case, recognize problems/prospects  Environmental Analysis - PESTEL Analysis  SWOT Analysis  Preliminary edit of SWOT  Organizational Diagnosis  Name the reasons for Weaknesses & Threats  Strategies Vision - Mission - Objectives - Strategies  Implementation of Strategies  Visualization of Implementation plan  Evaluation and control R E S P O N S I V E 43
  44. 44. Researching the Case Situation  Determine the time periods of the case in your research  Sources of information:  Company annual reports  Stock analyst reports 12-44
  45. 45. Business Case Analysis : A Financial Analysis Approach Ratio analysis- the calculation of ratios from data on financial statements  Liquidity ratios  Profitability ratios  Activity ratios  Leverage ratios  Equity/stock ratios 12-45
  46. 46. Financial Ratio Analysis : Liquidity Ratios 12-46
  47. 47. Profitability Ratios 12-47
  48. 48. Activity Ratios 12-48
  49. 49. Leverage Ratios
  50. 50. Equity/Stock Ratios
  51. 51. 12-51 Analyzing Financial Statements  Review historical income statements and balance sheets  Compare historical statements over time  Calculate changes that occur in individual categories form year to year  Determine the change as a percentage  Adjust for inflation
  52. 52. 12-52 Financial Analysis Common size statements- financial statements in which the dollar figures have been converted into percentages Altman’s Z Value bankruptcy formula- calculate the likelihood of going bankrupt. Compare historical statements over time Index of sustainable growth- used to determine whether a company embarking on a growth strategy will need to take on debt to fund the growth
  53. 53. 12-53 Useful Economic Measures Constant dollars- dollars adjusted for inflation Prime interest rate- the rate of interest banks charge on their lowest risk loans Gross domestic product- measures total output of goods and services within a country’s borders
  54. 54. 12-54 Economic Indicators
  55. 55. Strategic Audit
  56. 56. CONCLUSION ―Whether you consider case study as a way of conceptualizing human social behaviour or merely as a way of encapsulating it, …its strategic value lies in its ability to draw attention to what can be learned from the single case.‖ (Schram 2006)
  57. 57. Core Reading  COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN, MCGRAW HILL  ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. AND GRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 8TH EDN, SOUTH-WESTERN  SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A. (2012) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, 6TH EDN, PRENTICE HALL.  SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOING RESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FT PRENTICE HALL.  LEEDY, P.D. AND ORMROD, J.E. (2013) PRACTICAL RESEARCH, 10TH EDITION, PEARSON  GLESNE, C.(2011) BECOMING QUALITATIVE RESEARCHERS, 4TH EDITION, PEARSON
  58. 58. Business Case Study : Reading  Johnson, Gerry, Whittington, Richard & Scholes, Kevan (2011) Exploring Strategy, 9th edition, FT Prentice Hall/Pearson UK.  Grant, Robert M.(2010) Contemporary Strategy Analysis, 7th edition, John Wiley  David, Fred R.(2013) Strategic Management, 14th edition, Pearson  Wheelen & Hunger (2011) Essentials of Strategic Management, 5th edition, Pearson  Porter, M.E., (2008). On Competition, Harvard Business Press.
  59. 59. QUESTIONS?

×