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Abdm4064 week 06 data collection methods part 2
Research Design :Research Design :Data Collection Methods –Data Collection Methods –Sources of DataSources of Datapart 2part 2Research Design :Research Design :Data Collection Methods –Data Collection Methods –Sources of DataSources of Datapart 2part 2ABDM4064 BUSINESS RESEARCHABDM4064 BUSINESS RESEARCHbyStephen OngPrincipal Lecturer (Specialist)Visiting Professor, Shenzhen
7–2LEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMES1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantagesof primary and secondary data2. Define types of secondary data analysisconducted by business research managers3. Identify various internal and proprietarysources of data4. Give examples of various external sourcesof dataAfter this lecture, you should be able to
Topics of DiscussionTopics of Discussion Data CollectionData CollectionSources of DataSources of DataPrimary SourcesPrimary SourcesSecondary SourcesSecondary SourcesMethods of Data CollectionMethods of Data CollectionInterview MethodInterview MethodDesign of QuestionnairesDesign of QuestionnairesObservationObservation
DataData Data are facts, figures and other relevant materials, pastData are facts, figures and other relevant materials, pastand present, serving as bases for study and analysis.and present, serving as bases for study and analysis. Types of Data:Types of Data: Demographic and Socio-economicDemographic and Socio-economicCharacteristicsCharacteristics of Individuals: age, race,of Individuals: age, race,religion, marital status, education,religion, marital status, education,occupation, income, etc.occupation, income, etc. Behavioural VariablesBehavioural Variables: Attitudes, opinions,: Attitudes, opinions,awareness, knowledge, etcawareness, knowledge, etc Organizational DataOrganizational Data: origin, ownership,: origin, ownership,objectives, resources, function, performanceobjectives, resources, function, performanceand growth.and growth. Territorial dataTerritorial data: Related to geophysical: Related to geophysicalcharacteristics.characteristics.
Sources of DataSources of Data The sources of data may be classified intoThe sources of data may be classified into Primary Sources:Primary Sources: Primary sources are original sources fromPrimary sources are original sources fromwhich the researcher directly collects datawhich the researcher directly collects datathat have not been previously collected.that have not been previously collected.Primary data are first hand informationPrimary data are first hand informationcollected through various sources andcollected through various sources andmethods.methods. Secondary Sources:Secondary Sources: These are sources containing data whichThese are sources containing data whichhave been collected and compiled forhave been collected and compiled foranother purpose. Researchers may beanother purpose. Researchers may beused for their studies.used for their studies.
Sources of Primary DataSources of Primary Data IndividualsIndividuals Focus Groups andFocus Groups and PanelsPanels
Focus GroupsFocus Groups Focus Group:Focus Group: Normally a focus group consist of 8 to 10Normally a focus group consist of 8 to 10members with a moderator leading themembers with a moderator leading thediscussion on a particular topic or concept ordiscussion on a particular topic or concept orproduct.product. Members are generally chosen on the basisMembers are generally chosen on the basisof their expertise in the topic on whichof their expertise in the topic on whichinformation sought.information sought. Aim:Aim: It aimed at obtaining respondents’It aimed at obtaining respondents’impression, interpretation and opinions asimpression, interpretation and opinions asthe members talk about the event, concept,the members talk about the event, concept,product or service.product or service.
ModeratorModerator The moderator introduces the topic,The moderator introduces the topic,observes and takes notes and /or tapesobserves and takes notes and /or tapesthe discussion.the discussion. The moderator plays a vital role inThe moderator plays a vital role insteering the discussions in a mannersteering the discussions in a mannerthat would draw out the informationthat would draw out the informationsought and keeping the members onsought and keeping the members ontrack.track. The moderator never becomes anThe moderator never becomes anintegral part of the discussions.integral part of the discussions.
Data and its UseData and its Use Data obtained through these homogeneousData obtained through these homogeneousgroup (focus group) members are the leastgroup (focus group) members are the leastexpensive and also lend themselves forexpensive and also lend themselves forquick analysis.quick analysis. The data obtained provides onlyThe data obtained provides only qualitativequalitativeand not quantitative information.and not quantitative information. Since the members are not selectedSince the members are not selectedrandomly, the information collected may notrandomly, the information collected may notrepresentative. However, it may be basis forrepresentative. However, it may be basis forfurther scientific research.further scientific research.
PanelsPanels Panels are like a focus groups, as aPanels are like a focus groups, as asource of primary information. Focussource of primary information. Focusgroups meet for one-time groupgroups meet for one-time groupsession but the panels meet more thansession but the panels meet more thanonce and the members are chosenonce and the members are chosenrandomly.randomly. Aim:Aim: In case where the effects of certainIn case where the effects of certaininterventions or changes are to beinterventions or changes are to bestudiedstudied over a period of timeover a period of time, panel, panelstudies are very useful.studies are very useful.
Types of PanelsTypes of Panels Static:Static: The same members serve on theThe same members serve on thepanel over extended periods ofpanel over extended periods oftime.time. Dynamic:Dynamic: The panel members are changeThe panel members are changefrom time to time as variousfrom time to time as variousphases of the study are inphases of the study are inprogress.progress.
Sources of Secondary DataSources of Secondary Data The secondary sources consist ofThe secondary sources consist ofreadily available facts and alreadyreadily available facts and alreadycomplied statistical statements andcomplied statistical statements andreports whose data may be used byreports whose data may be used byresearchers for their studies, like,researchers for their studies, like,census reports, annul report of thecensus reports, annul report of theGovernment departments, financialGovernment departments, financialstatement of the companies, etc.statement of the companies, etc. Secondary sources consist of not onlySecondary sources consist of not onlypublished records and reports but alsopublished records and reports but alsounpublished records.unpublished records.
Uses of Secondary DataUses of Secondary Data Reference Purpose:Reference Purpose: Some specific information fromSome specific information fromsecondary sources may be used forsecondary sources may be used forreference purpose.reference purpose. For example, information about numberFor example, information about numberof registered companies in Malaysia, itsof registered companies in Malaysia, itscapital structure, performance maycapital structure, performance mayuseful to quoted as a backgrounduseful to quoted as a backgroundinformation in a study on theinformation in a study on theperformance of a specific industrialperformance of a specific industrialsector.sector.
Use of Secondary DataUse of Secondary Data Used as Bench Marks:Used as Bench Marks:Finding of local or regionalFinding of local or regionalsurvey may be compared withsurvey may be compared withnational average.national average. Used as the Sole Source ofUsed as the Sole Source ofInformation for Research:Information for Research:
Advantages and LimitationsAdvantages and Limitations Advantages:Advantages: Quick and cheap source of dataQuick and cheap source of data Wider geographical area and longer referenceWider geographical area and longer referenceperiodperiod Enables a researcher to verify the findings based onEnables a researcher to verify the findings based onprimary dataprimary data Limitations:Limitations: Data may not meet our specific research needData may not meet our specific research need The available data may not be as accurate asThe available data may not be as accurate asdesireddesired Data are not up-to-date and become obsolete whenData are not up-to-date and become obsolete whenthey appear in print.they appear in print. The source of data may not be available in someThe source of data may not be available in somecasescases
Data Collection MethodData Collection Method Primary data can bePrimary data can be collectedcollected throughthroughinterviews or observations.interviews or observations. Interview:Interview: It may be defined as a two way systematicIt may be defined as a two way systematicconversation between an investigator and anconversation between an investigator and aninformant (respondent), initiated forinformant (respondent), initiated forobtaining information relevant to a specificobtaining information relevant to a specificstudy.study. Observation:Observation: Observation may be defined as a systematicObservation may be defined as a systematicviewing of a specific phenomenon in itsviewing of a specific phenomenon in itssetting for the specific purpose of gatheringsetting for the specific purpose of gatheringdata for a particular study.data for a particular study.
Methods & Types of InterviewMethods & Types of Interview Methods of InterviewMethods of Interview Face-to-faceFace-to-face TelephoneTelephone MailedMailed Computer AssistedComputer Assisted Types:Types: UnstructuredUnstructured StructuredStructured
Types of InterviewTypes of Interview Unstructured Interview:Unstructured Interview: Interview without any planned sequence ofInterview without any planned sequence ofquestions that will be asked from thequestions that will be asked from therespondents. The main aim of the interview isrespondents. The main aim of the interview isto cause some preliminary issues to surfaceto cause some preliminary issues to surfaceso that researcherso that researcher can decide what variablescan decide what variablesneed further in-depth investigation.need further in-depth investigation. Structured Interview:Structured Interview: Structured interviews are those conductedStructured interviews are those conductedwhen it is know at the outset whatwhen it is know at the outset whatinformation is needed. The questions will beinformation is needed. The questions will beasked to everybody inasked to everybody in the same mannerthe same manner..
Tips to follow in InterviewingTips to follow in Interviewing Training Interviewers:Training Interviewers: Interviewers have to be thoroughly briefedInterviewers have to be thoroughly briefedabout the research and trained in how toabout the research and trained in how tostart an interview, how to proceed with thestart an interview, how to proceed with thequestions, how to motivated respondents toquestions, how to motivated respondents toanswer and how to close an interview.answer and how to close an interview. They also need to be instructed about takingThey also need to be instructed about takingnotes and coding the interview responses.notes and coding the interview responses. Good planning, proper training, offering clearGood planning, proper training, offering clearguidelines to interviewers and supervisingguidelines to interviewers and supervisingtheir work all help in profitably utilising thetheir work all help in profitably utilising theinterviewing technique as a viable datainterviewing technique as a viable datacollection mechanism.collection mechanism.
Minimise Interviewer andMinimise Interviewer andInterviewees BiasInterviewees Bias Interviewer Bias:Interviewer Bias: This kind of bias will appear when there noThis kind of bias will appear when there noproper trust and rapport with theproper trust and rapport with theinterviewee or when the response areinterviewee or when the response areeither misinterpreted or distorted.either misinterpreted or distorted. Interviewees Bias:Interviewees Bias: Interviewees can bias the data when theyInterviewees can bias the data when theydo not come out with their true opinionsdo not come out with their true opinionsbut provide information that they think isbut provide information that they think iswhat the interviewer expects of them orwhat the interviewer expects of them orwould like to hear.would like to hear.
Methods to Control the BiasMethods to Control the Bias Establish Rapport and MotivatingEstablish Rapport and MotivatingIndividuals to Response:Individuals to Response: To obtain honest information fromTo obtain honest information fromthe respondents, thethe respondents, theresearcher/interviewer should beresearcher/interviewer should beable to establish rapport and trustable to establish rapport and trustwith them.with them. The researcher should state theThe researcher should state thepurpose of the interview and assurepurpose of the interview and assurecomplete confidentiality about thecomplete confidentiality about thesource of the responses.source of the responses.
The Questioning TechniqueThe Questioning Technique Ask open end questions firstAsk open end questions first Unbiased questionsUnbiased questions Clarifying issuesClarifying issues Helping the respondent to thinkHelping the respondent to thinkthrough issuesthrough issues Taking notesTaking notes
Advantages and Limitations ofAdvantages and Limitations ofFace to Face InterviewFace to Face Interview Advantages:Advantages: In direct interviews the researcher can adaptIn direct interviews the researcher can adaptthe questions necessary, clarify doubts andthe questions necessary, clarify doubts andensure that the respondents understood theensure that the respondents understood thequestion properly. The researcher can pickquestion properly. The researcher can pickup nonverbal cues from the respondents.up nonverbal cues from the respondents. Limitations:Limitations: Limited geographical coverage, cost ofLimited geographical coverage, cost ofsurvey is high, possibility of interviewer biassurvey is high, possibility of interviewer biasand the respondents may feel uneasy toand the respondents may feel uneasy toanswer the questions when they interact faceanswer the questions when they interact faceto face.to face.
Telephone InterviewTelephone Interview Advantage:Advantage: With in a short period of time wideWith in a short period of time widegeographical coverage is possible. Most ofgeographical coverage is possible. Most ofthe respondent may feel comfortable tothe respondent may feel comfortable toanswer the questions through phone thenanswer the questions through phone thenface to face interview.face to face interview. Limitations:Limitations: There may be lot of non responseThere may be lot of non responseproblems. Tproblems. T he researcher will not be able to see thehe researcher will not be able to see therespondent nonverbal communication.respondent nonverbal communication.
Mailed SurveyMailed Survey Advantages:Advantages: Less costly than face to face interviewLess costly than face to face interview Cover extensive geographical areaCover extensive geographical area Useful in contacting persons such as seniorUseful in contacting persons such as seniorbusiness executivesbusiness executives Impersonal, free from interviewer biasImpersonal, free from interviewer bias Limitations:Limitations: Possible to collect information fromPossible to collect information fromeducated onlyeducated only Response rate is lowResponse rate is low The cause for inadequate and non responsesThe cause for inadequate and non responsescan not be known.can not be known.
Computer Assisted InterviewComputer Assisted Interview Advantages:Advantages:Quick, more accurateQuick, more accurateinformation gathering, fasterinformation gathering, fasterand easier analysis of date.and easier analysis of date.The cost of data collectionThe cost of data collectionand analysis also low.and analysis also low.
QuestionnairesQuestionnaires This is a common instrument ofThis is a common instrument ofprimary data collection. It contain aprimary data collection. It contain aset of questions logically related toset of questions logically related toa problem under study, aim ata problem under study, aim ateliciting responses from theeliciting responses from therespondents. This can berespondents. This can beclassified under two differentclassified under two differenttypes.types. One is called as personally administeredOne is called as personally administeredquestionnaires andquestionnaires and another one is called as mailanother one is called as mailquestionnaires.questionnaires.
Personally AdministeredPersonally AdministeredQuestionnairesQuestionnaires A researcher or a member of theA researcher or a member of theresearch team can collect data byresearch team can collect data bymeeting the respondents personally,meeting the respondents personally, and any doubts that the respondentsand any doubts that the respondentsmight have on any questions could bemight have on any questions could beclarified on the spot.clarified on the spot. The required information can beThe required information can becollected within short period of time.collected within short period of time.
Mail QuestionnairesMail Questionnaires These questionnaires are sent toThese questionnaires are sent tothe respondents, who canthe respondents, who cancomplete them at theircomplete them at theirconvenience and send it back toconvenience and send it back tothe researcher.the researcher. It possible to cover wideIt possible to cover widegeographical area.geographical area. However, the response rate is low.However, the response rate is low.
Guidelines for Questionnaire DesignGuidelines for Questionnaire Design Sound questionnaire design should focusSound questionnaire design should focuson three important areas.on three important areas. The first related to wording of theThe first related to wording of thequestions;questions; The second related to planning of issuesThe second related to planning of issuesof how the variables will be categorized,of how the variables will be categorized,scaled and coded after the receipt of thescaled and coded after the receipt of theresponse; andresponse; and Finally, the general appearance of theFinally, the general appearance of thequestionnaires. We will see more detailsquestionnaires. We will see more detailsabout the wording of the questions.about the wording of the questions.
Principles of WordingPrinciples of Wording The content of the questionsThe content of the questions LanguageLanguage Type and form of questionsType and form of questions The sequence of questionsThe sequence of questions The personal data sought formThe personal data sought formthe respondentsthe respondents
Content and Purpose of theContent and Purpose of theQuestionsQuestions The purpose of the eachThe purpose of the eachquestions should be carefullyquestions should be carefullyconsidered so that theconsidered so that thevariables are adequatelyvariables are adequatelymeasured and yet nomeasured and yet nosuperfluous questions aresuperfluous questions areasked.asked.
LanguageLanguage The language of the questionnaireThe language of the questionnaireshould be to the level ofshould be to the level ofunderstanding of the respondents.understanding of the respondents. The choice of the words wouldThe choice of the words woulddepend on their educational level, thedepend on their educational level, theusage of terms and idioms in theusage of terms and idioms in theculture.culture. The questions asked, the languageThe questions asked, the languageused and the wording should beused and the wording should beappropriate to tap respondents’appropriate to tap respondents’attitudes, perceptions and feelings.attitudes, perceptions and feelings.
Types and Forms of QuestionsTypes and Forms of Questions Open-ended vs Closed Questions:Open-ended vs Closed Questions: Open-end questionsOpen-end questions allow respondentsallow respondentsto answer them in a way they choose.to answer them in a way they choose. AA closed questionclosed question, in contrast, would, in contrast, wouldask the respondents to make choicesask the respondents to make choicesamong a set of alternatives given by theamong a set of alternatives given by theresearcher.researcher. Closed questionsClosed questions help the respondentshelp the respondentsto make quick decision to chooseto make quick decision to chooseamong the several alternatives beforeamong the several alternatives beforethem.them. Moreover,Moreover, closed questionsclosed questions are easierare easierfor the researcher for analysis.for the researcher for analysis.
Positively and NegativelyPositively and NegativelyWorded QuestionsWorded Questions Instead of phrasing allInstead of phrasing allquestions positively, it isquestions positively, it isadvisable to include someadvisable to include somenegatively worded questions asnegatively worded questions aswell, so the tendency inwell, so the tendency inrespondents to mechanicallyrespondents to mechanicallycircle the points towards onecircle the points towards oneend of the scale isend of the scale is minimizedminimized..
Double-Barreled QuestionsDouble-Barreled Questions A question that lends itself toA question that lends itself todifferent possible responses to itsdifferent possible responses to itssubparts is called a doublesubparts is called a doublebarreled questions. Suchbarreled questions. Suchquestions should be avoided andquestions should be avoided andtwo or more separate questionstwo or more separate questionsasked instead.asked instead. Example: Do you think there is a goodExample: Do you think there is a goodmarket for the produce and do youmarket for the produce and do youthink the product will sell well?think the product will sell well?
Ambiguous QuestionsAmbiguous Questions If a question is ambiguouslyIf a question is ambiguouslyworded the respondent may notworded the respondent may notbe sure what exactly it means.be sure what exactly it means. Example: To what extentExample: To what extentwould you say you are happy?would you say you are happy?
Recall Dependent QuestionsRecall Dependent Questions Some questions may requireSome questions may requirerespondents to recallrespondents to recallexperiences from the past.experiences from the past. Answers to such questionsAnswers to such questionsmay have bias.may have bias.
Leading QuestionsLeading Questions Questions should not be phrased inQuestions should not be phrased insuch a way that they lead thesuch a way that they lead therespondent to give the responses thatrespondent to give the responses thatthe researcher would like or want themthe researcher would like or want themto give.to give. Example: Don’t you think that in theseExample: Don’t you think that in thesedays of increasing cost of living,days of increasing cost of living,workers should have been given goodworkers should have been given goodpay raises?pay raises?
Loaded QuestionsLoaded Questions Another type of bias inAnother type of bias inquestions occurs when theyquestions occurs when theyare phrased in an emotionallyare phrased in an emotionallycharged manner.charged manner.
Socially DesirabilitySocially Desirability Questions should not beQuestions should not beworded such that they elicitworded such that they elicitsocially desirable responses.socially desirable responses.Example: Do you think that olderExample: Do you think that olderpeople should be laid off?people should be laid off?
Sequencing of QuestionsSequencing of Questions The sequence of questions inThe sequence of questions inthe questionnaire should bethe questionnaire should besuch that the respondent is ledsuch that the respondent is ledfrom questions of a generalfrom questions of a generalnature to those that are morenature to those that are morespecific and from questionsspecific and from questionsrelatively easy to more difficult.relatively easy to more difficult.
Personal InformationPersonal Information Unless necessary, personalUnless necessary, personalinformationinformation should notshould not bebeasked.asked.
Observational SurveyObservational Survey Types of Observation:Types of Observation: Participant Observation:Participant Observation:In this observation the observer is aIn this observation the observer is apart of the group which is observedpart of the group which is observedand he act as both observer andand he act as both observer andparticipant.participant. Non-participant Observation:Non-participant Observation:Observer is not a part of the group.Observer is not a part of the group.This method calls for skill in recordingThis method calls for skill in recordingobservations in an unnoticed manner.observations in an unnoticed manner.
Direct and Indirect ObservationDirect and Indirect Observation Direct Observation:Direct Observation: This means observation of an eventThis means observation of an eventpersonally by the observer when its takespersonally by the observer when its takesplace. This method is more flexible andplace. This method is more flexible andallows the observer to see and recordallows the observer to see and recorddifferent aspects of the event, such asdifferent aspects of the event, such asbehaviour as they occur.behaviour as they occur. Indirect Observation:Indirect Observation: This does not involve the physical presenceThis does not involve the physical presenceof the observer, and the recording is doneof the observer, and the recording is doneby mechanical, photographic or electronicby mechanical, photographic or electronicdevices.devices.
Advantages and LimitationsAdvantages and Limitations Advantages:Advantages: Free from respondents’ biasFree from respondents’ bias Useful to note the effect ofUseful to note the effect ofenvironmental influences on specificenvironmental influences on specificoutcomes and certain groups ofoutcomes and certain groups ofindividuals, for example, childindividuals, for example, childpreferences of toyspreferences of toys Limitations:Limitations: Very slow and costly method of dataVery slow and costly method of datacollectioncollection Observer biasObserver bias
Further ReadingFurther Reading COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011)BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11THEDN,MCGRAW HILL ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. ANDGRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCHMETHODS, 8THEDN, SOUTH-WESTERN SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A.(2012) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESSSTUDENTS, 6THEDN, PRENTICE HALL. SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOINGRESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FTPRENTICE HALL.