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See the text Instructors Manual (downloadable from the text website) for ideas for using this research-generated statistic.
Several terms are used by researchers to converse about applied and theoretical business problems. A concept is a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain concrete, unambiguous events, objects, conditions, or situations. The importance of conceptualization is discussed in the following slide. A construct is a definition specifically invented to represent an abstract phenomena for a given research project. Exhibit 3-1, a depiction of job redesign constructs, is provided in Slide 2-13. A conceptual scheme is the interrelationship between concepts and constructs. An operational definition defines a variable in terms of specific measurement and testing criteria. An example of an operational definition is provided in Slide 2-14. A variable is used as a synonym for the construct being studied. Slides 2-15 through 2-20 expand on different types of variables. A proposition is a statement about observable phenomena that may be judged as true or false. (Slide 2-21) A hypothesis is a proposition formulated for empirical testing. (Slides 2-22 through 2-25) A theory is a set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to explain or predict phenomena. Slide 2-26 shows an example of a theory. A model is a representation of a system constructed to study some aspect of that system. Slide 2-27 shows an example of a model.
We must attempt to measure concepts in a clear manner that others can understand. If concepts are not clearly conceptualized and measured, we will receive confusing answers.
Exhibit 3-1 Exhibit 3-1 illustrates some of the concepts and constructs relevant to job redesign. The concepts at the bottom of the exhibit (format accuracy, manuscript errors, and keyboarding speed) are the most concrete and easily measured. Keyboarding speed is one just concept in the group that defines a construct that the human resource analyst calls Presentation Quality . It is not directly observable like keyboarding speed. It is a term used to communicate (a label) the combination of meanings presented by the three concepts. Concepts at the next level are vocabulary, syntax, and spelling. As they are related, the analyst groups them into a construct she calls language skill . Language skills is placed at a higher level of abstraction in the exhibit because two of the concepts that comprise it, vocabulary and syntax, are more difficult to observe and measure. The construct of job interest is not yet measured nor are its components specified. Researchers often refer to such constructs as hypothetical constructs because they are inferred only from the data—they are presumed to exist but no measure tests whether such constructs actually exist. If research shows the concepts and constructs in this example to be interrelated, and if the connections can be supported, then the analyst has the beginning of a conceptual scheme. One exercise you can try is to have students attempt to identify the concepts/constructs in the hypothetical construct…job interest, and discuss which elements are truly measurable…and how.
Operational definitions are definitions stated in terms of specific criteria for testing or measurement. The specifications must be so clear that any competent person using them would classify the objects in the same way. If a study of college students required classifying students by class level, a definition of each category would be necessary. Students could be grouped by class level based on self-report, number of years in school, or number of credit hours completed. Credit hours is the most precise measure.
In practice, the term variable is used as a synonym for the property being studied . In this context, a variable is a symbol of an event, act, characteristic, trait, or attribute that can be measured and to which we assign categorical values. The different types of variables are presented on the following slides.
For the purposes of data entry and analysis, we assign numerical values to a variable based on that variable’s properties. Dichotomous variables have only two values that reflect the absence or presence of a property. Variables also take on values representing added categories such as demographic variables. All such variables are said to be discrete since only certain values are possible. Continuous variables take on values within a given range or, in some cases, an infinite set.
Exhibit 3-2 Exhibit 3-2 presents the commonly used synonyms for independent and dependent variables. An independent variable is the variable manipulated by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the variable expected to be affected by the manipulation of an independent variable.
Moderating variables are variables that are believed to have a significant contributory or contingent effect on the originally stated IV-DV relationship. Whether a variable is treated as an independent or as a moderating variable depends on the hypothesis. Examples of moderating variables are shown in the slide.
Extraneous variables are variables that could conceivably affect a given relationship. Some can be treated as independent or moderating variables or assumed or excluded from the study. If an extraneous variable might confound the study, the extraneous variable may be introduced as a control variable to help interpret the relationship between variables. Examples are given in the slide.
An intervening variable (IVV) is a factor that affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be measured or manipulated. It is a conceptual mechanism through which the IV and MV might affect the DV.
A proposition is a statement about observable phenomena that may be judged as true or false. A hypothesis is a proposition formulated for empirical testing. A case is the entity or thing the hypothesis talks about. When the hypothesis is based on more than one case, it would be a generalization. Examples are provided in the slide.
A descriptive hypothesis is a statement about the existence, size, form, or distribution of a variable. Researchers often use a research question rather than a descriptive hypothesis. Examples are provided in the slide. Either format is acceptable, but the descriptive hypothesis has three advantages over the research question. Descriptive hypotheses encourage researchers to crystallize their thinking about the likely relationships. Descriptive hypotheses encourage researchers to think about the implications of a supported or rejected finding. Descriptive hypotheses are useful for testing statistical significance.
A relational hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two variables with respect to some case. Relational hypotheses may be correlational or explanatory (causal). A correlational hypothesis is a statement indicating that variables occur together in some specified manner without implying that one causes the other. A causal hypothesis is a statement that describes a relationship between two variables in which one variable leads to a specified effect on the other variable.
This slide presents the functions served by hypotheses.
The conditions for developing a strong hypothesis are more fully developed in Exhibit 3-4.
Exhibit 3-5 What is the difference between theories and hypotheses? Theories tend to be complex, abstract, and involve multiple variables. Hypotheses tend to be simple, limited-variable statements involving concrete instances. A theory is a set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to explain or predict phenomena. To the degree that our theories are sound and fit the situation, we are successful in our explanations and predictions. The product life cycle, shown in Exhibit 3-5, is an example of a theory.
Exhibit 3-7: Business models are developed through the use of inductive and deductive reasoning. As illustrated in Exhibit 3-7, a business model may originate from empirical observations about market behavior based on researched facts and relationships among variables. Inductive reasoning allows the modeler to draw conclusions from the facts or evidence in planning the dynamics of the model. The modeler may also use existing theory, managerial experience or judgment, or facts.
Exhibit 3-6 A model is a representation of a system constructed to study some aspect of that system or the system as a whole. Models versus Theories a model’s role is to represent or describe A theory’s role is to explain . Models in business research may be descriptive, predictive, and normative. Descriptive models are used for complex systems because they allow for the visualization of numerous variables and relationships. Predictive models forecast future events and facilitate business planning. Normative models are used for control, because they indicate necessary actions. Exhibit 3-6, shown in the slide, is a distribution network model called a maximum flow model used in management science. In this example, a European manufacturer of automobiles needs an increased flow of shipping to its Los Angeles distribution center to meet demand. However the primary distribution channel is saturated and alternatives must be sought. Models allow researchers to specify hypotheses that characterize present or future conditions: the effect of advertising on consumer awareness or intention to purchase, brand switching behavior, an employee training program, or other aspects of business.
Good business research is based on sound reasoning because reasoning is essential for producing scientific results. This slide introduces the scientific method and its essential tenets. The scientific method guides our approach to problem-solving. An important term in the list is empirical . Empirical testing denotes observations and propositions based on sensory experiences and/or derived from such experience by methods of inductive logic, including mathematics and statistics. Researchers using this approach attempt to describe, explain, and make predictions by relying on information gained through observation. The scientific method is described as a puzzle-solving activity.
The steps followed by business researchers to approach a problem are presented in the slide.
This ad from Synovate reinforces the notion that researchers must be curious. Students can see the Synovate website at www.synovate.com.
Exposition consists of statements that describe without attempting to explain. Argument allows us to explain, interpret, defend, challenge, and explore meaning. There are two types of argument: deduction and induction. Deduction is a form of reasoning in which the conclusion must necessarily follow from the premises given. The next slide provides an example of a deductive argument. Induction is a form of reasoning that draws a conclusion from one or more particular facts or pieces of evidence. Slide 2-8 illustrates an inductive argument.
This slide provides an example of a deductive argument.
This slide provides an example of an inductive argument.
Exhibit 3-8 Induction and deduction can be used together in research reasoning. Induction occurs when we observe a fact and ask, “Why is this?” In answer to this question, we advance a tentative explanation or hypothesis. The hypothesis is plausible if it explains the event or condition (fact) that prompted the question. Deduction is the process by which we test whether the hypothesis is capable of explaining the fact. Exhibit 3-8 illustrates this process.
Abdm4064 week 04 research methodology
ABDM4064 BUSINESS RESEARCHResearch MethodologyResearch Methodology by Stephen Ong Principal Lecturer (Specialist) Visiting Professor, Shenzhen
Recap What is Research? Research and Business Business Managers and Research Approach to Business Research
Topics of Discussion Research Area and Topic of Research Sources of Research Problem Management problem and research problem Literature Review
Learning Objectives Understand . . . The terminology used by professional researchers employing scientific thinking. What you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis. The need for sound reasoning to enhance research results. 3-4
Research and Attitudes “Brand communities play a pivotal role for a brand connecting with its consumers, and as one of our Never Ending Friending focus group respondent notes: “I want brands to be my friends,” which means that consumers would like to have common ideas, conversations and benefits delivered to them on their own terms.” Judit Nagy vice president, consumer insights MySpace/Fox Interactive Media 3-5
PulsePoint:Research Revelations 55 The percent of executives who admitted that their companies do not have an official policy for social networks. 3-6
Language of Research Conceptual Conceptual Concepts Concepts Constructs schemes schemes Operational Operational Models Models definitions definitions Terms used in research Variables Propositions/ Propositions/ Hypotheses Hypotheses 3-7
Language of Research Clear conceptualization of concepts Success of Research Shared understanding of concepts 3-8
Operational Definitions How can we define the variable “class level of students”?Freshman < 30 credit hoursSophomore 30-50 credit hoursJunior 60-89 credit hoursSenior > 90 credit hours 3-10
A Variable Is the PropertyBeing Studied Event Act Variable Variable Characteristic Trait Attribute 3-11
Types of Variables Male/Female Male/Female Dichotomous Dichotomous Employed/ Unemployed Employed/ Unemployed Ethnic background Ethnic background Discrete Discrete Educational level Educational level Religious affiliation Religious affiliation Income Income Temperature Continuous Continuous Temperature Age Age 3-12
Moderating Variables (MV)• The introduction of a four-day week (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV), especially among younger workers (MV)• The switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales (DV) per worker, especially more experienced workers (MV).• The loss of mining jobs (IV) leads to acceptance of higher-risk behaviors to earn a family-supporting income (DV) – particularly among those with a limited education (MV). 3-17
Extraneous Variables (EV)• With new customers (EV-control), a switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales productivity (DV) per worker, especially among younger workers (MV).• Among residents with less than a high school education (EV-control), the loss of jobs (IV) leads to high-risk behaviors (DV), especially due to the proximity of the firing range (MV). 3-18
Intervening Variables (IVV)• The switch to a commission compensation system (IV) will lead to higher sales (DV) by increasing overall compensation (IVV).• A promotion campaign (IV) will increase savings activity (DV), especially when free prizes are offered (MV), but chiefly among smaller savers (EV-control). The results come from enhancing the motivation to save (IVV). 3-19
Propositions and Hypotheses Brand Manager Jones (case) has a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). Generalization Brand managers in Company Z (cases) have a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). 3-20
Hypothesis FormatsDescriptive ResearchHypothesis QuestionIn Detroit, our What is the marketpotato chip market share for our potatoshare stands at13.7%. chips in Detroit?American cities are Are American citiesexperiencing budget experiencing budgetdifficulties. difficulties? 3-21
Relational HypothesesCorrelational CausalYoung women (under An increase in family35) purchase fewer income leads to anunits of our product increase in thethan women who are percentage of incomeolder than 35. saved. Loyalty to a groceryThe number of suits store increases thesold varies directly with probability ofthe level of the business purchasing that store’scycle. private brand products. 3-22
The Role of Hypotheses Guide the direction of the study Guide the direction of the study Identify relevant facts Identify relevant facts Suggest most appropriate research design Suggest most appropriate research design Provide framework for organizing Provide framework for organizing resulting conclusions resulting conclusions 3-23
Characteristics ofStrong Hypotheses Adequate Adequate AA Strong Strong Testable Testable Hypothesis Hypothesis Is Is Better Better than rivals than rivals 3-24
The Scientific Method Direct observation Direct observation Clearly defined variables Clearly defined variables Clearly defined methods Clearly defined methods Empirically testable Empirically testable Elimination of alternatives Elimination of alternatives Statistical justification Statistical justification Self-correcting process Self-correcting process 3-28
Curiosity Is theAlly of a ResearcherSynovate’s campaignassociates importantdiscoveries in researchto a common trait ofentrepreneurs:curiosity.As one of the world’slargest researchorganizations, it claimscuriosity is “whatmakes us tick.” 3-30
Deductive Reasoning Inner-city household Inner-city household interviewing is especially interviewing is especially difficult and expensive difficult and expensive This survey involves This survey involves substantial inner-city substantial inner-city household interviewing household interviewing The interviewing in this The interviewing in this survey will be especially survey will be especially difficult and expensive difficult and expensive 3-32
Inductive Reasoning Why didn’t sales increase during our promotional event? Regional retailers did not have sufficient stock to fill customer requests during the promotional period A strike by employees prevented stock from arriving in time for promotion to be effective A hurricane closed retail outlets in the region for 10 days during the promotion 3-33
LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING OUTCOMESAfter studying this chapter, you should1. Define the meaning of theory2. Understand the goals of theory3. Understand the terms concepts, propositions, variables, and hypotheses4. Discuss how theories are developed5. Understand scientific method6. Define ethics and understand how it applies to business research 3–38
Introduction researchers hope Theory building is the means by which basic to expand knowledge and search for the truth. A theory is a formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another. It is built through a process of reviewing previous findings of similar studies, simple logical deduction and knowledge of applicable theoretical areas. It plays a role in understanding practical research as well as academic or basic business research. It helps the researcher know what variables need to be included in the study and how they may relate to one another. 3–39
Goals of Theory Two issues—understanding and predicting—are the two purposes of theory. Accomplishing the first goal allows the theorist to gain an understanding of the relationship among various phenomena. That understanding enables us to predict the behavior or characteristics of one phenomenon from the knowledge of another phenomenon. 3–40
Example: A business researcher may theorise that older investors tend to be more interested in investment income than younger investors. This theory once verified, should allow researchers to predict the importance of expected dividend yield on the basis of investors’ ages. The researcher also want to gain understanding of the situation. So the two goals go hand in hand! Theories provide these explanations. 3–41
RESEARCH CONCEPTS, CONSTRUCTS, PROPOSITIONS, VARIABLES, AND HYPOTHESES Concept (or construct) Concept (or construct) is a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences or process that has been given a name. Examples:
Concept (or construct) (cont’d) Concepts are the building blocks of theory. Concepts abstract reality (i.e., concepts express in words various events or objects). Concepts may vary in degree of abstraction. Ladder of abstraction —organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general. Moving up the ladder of abstraction, the basic concept becomes more general, wider in scope, and less amenable to measurement. 3–43
A Ladder Of Abstraction For Concepts Vegetation Increasingly more abstract Fruit Banana Reality 44
Concept (or construct) (cont’d) The basic or scientific business researcher operates at two levels—on the abstract level of concepts (and propositions) and on the empirical level of variables (and hypotheses). Empirical level — Abstract level — 3–45
Concepts are Abstractions of Reality Abstract CONCEPTS LevelEmpirical OBSERVATION OF OBJECTSLevel AND EVENTS (REALITY) 46
Concept (or construct) (cont’d) Latent construct —a concept that is not directly observable or measurable, but can be estimated through proxy measures. Researchers are concerned with the observable world (i.e., reality). Theorists translate their conceptualization of reality into abstract ideas. Things are not the essence of theory; ideas are. Concepts in isolation are not theories—to construct a theory we must explain how concepts relate to other concepts. 3–47
EXHIBIT 3.2 3.2 Concepts are Abstractions of Reality 3–48
Research Propositions and Hypotheses Propositions are statements concerned with the relationships among concepts and explain the logical linkage among certain concepts by asserting a universal connection between concepts. A hypothesis is a formal statement explaining some outcome. In its simplest form, a hypothesis is a guess. A hypothesis is a proposition that is empirically testable, so when on estates a hypothesis, it should be written in a manner that can be supported or shown to be wrong through an empirical test. It is an empirical statement concerned with the relationship among variables. Often apply statistics to data to empirically test hypotheses.
Research Propositions and Hypotheses (cont’d) Empirical testing means that something has been examined against reality using data. When the data are consistent with a hypotheses - hypothesis is supported. When the data are inconsistent with a hypothesis - hypothesis is not supported. Variables : Anything that may assume different numerical values or categorical values. (anything that varied or changes in value). Operationalizing —the process of identifying the actual measurement scales to assess the variables of interest. 3–50
Proposition at Abstract Level Concept A Concept B (Reinforcement) (Habits)Hypothesis at Empirical Level V- Dollar bonus for V sales volume Always makes over quota four sales calls a day 51
The abstract proposition “Reinforcement will increase habit strength” may be tested empirically with a hypothesis. Bonus pay and sales calls are variables – reflecting the concepts – reinforcement and habits. Variables may be measured. 52
Theory Building A Process Of Increasing Abstraction Theories Increasingly more abstract Propositions Concepts Observation of objects and events (reality )
Theory Building Theory generation can occur at the abstract, conceptual level and at the empirical level. Deductive reasoning is Inductive reasoning is Over the course of time, theory construction is often the result of a combination of deductive and inductive reasoning. 3–54
The Scientific Method Scientific Method Suggested steps: A set of prescribed 1. Assess relevant existing knowledge of phenomenon procedures for 2. Formulate concepts and establishing and propositions connecting theoretical 3. State hypotheses statements about events, 4. Design research to test the for analyzing empirical hypotheses evidence, and for 5. Acquire empirical data predicting events yet 6. Analyze and evaluate data unknown. 7. Propose an explanation of Techniques or the phenomenon and state procedures used to new problems raised by analyze empirical the research evidence in an attempt to confirm or disprove prior conceptions.
The Scientific Method: An OverviewAssess Formulate Statement Designrelevant concepts & of researchexisting Propositions Hypothesesknowledge Acquire Analyze & Provide empirical evaluate explanation- data data state new problem 56
Introduction Topic identification is a most difficult and yet the most important part in the process of research. It is the starting point of your research, once you have clear about this, you will be able to choose the most appropriate research strategy and data collection and analysis techniques. The formulating and clarifying process is time consuming. However, without spending time on this stage you are far less likely to achieve successful research.
Research Problem Any question that you want answered and any assumption or assertion that you want to challenge or investigate can become a research problem or a research topic for your study. But not all questions can be transformed into research problems. As a newcomer it might seem easy to formulate a problem but it requires a considerable knowledge of both the subject area and research methodology. When we examine a question more closely we will soon realise the complexity of formulating an idea into a problem which is researchable.
Formulating a Research Problem It is like the identification of a destination before undertaking a journey. In the absence of a clear research problem, a clear and economical plan is impossible. The problem serves as the foundation of a research study, it is well formulated, you can expect a good study to follow.
Attributes of a Good Research Topic Your research topic must be something you are capable of undertaking Your ability to find the financial and time resources to undertake on the topic Data availability Clearly defined research questions and objectives Link with theory Career goals
Research Area and Topic Research Topic falls within a area. Selection of topic is more difficult part of research. Example: Research Area: E-Business Research Topic: Internet Marketing behavior among MNC’s and Domestic companies Factors Determining adoption of e-business among the domestic companies in Malaysia Cost Benefit analysis on e-business with reference to consumer durable Goods Manufactures in Malaysia
Choice of the Problem Based on the Purpose of Research: Basic Research Applied Research Based on the objectives Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory (Hypothesis testing)
Methods of Generating and Refining Research Ideas Rational Thinking Examine your own strength and interest Looking at past research reports Discussions Searching the literature Creative Thinking Exploring personal preferences using past projects brainstorming
Sources of Problem of Research Practical Problems in your field Literature in your specific field Request for proposal Secondary Data Analysis Pilot Study Brain Storming Focus Groups
Choice of the Problem Should be Timely Area should not be Too Crowed The Area should not be Too Prominent Consumer of Research Feasibility of the Research Study
Formulation of a Research Problem The following steps may be followed to narrowing the problem or ‘zeroing in on the problem, to have a better formulated research problem
Formulation … Identify: a broad area Dissect the broad area into sub-area Select a sub-area Raise Research questions Formulate objectives Assess these objectives Double check
Turning Research Idea into Research Project Research Question It is important that the question is sufficiently involved to generate the sort of project. Begin with one general focus research question that flows from your research idea. This may leads to several more detailed questions or the research objectives Research Objectives From the research question you can write a set of research objectives. It is more generally accepted to the research community as a evidence of the researcher’s clear sense of purpose and direction. Research objectives require more rigorous thinking which derives use of more formal language.
Research Idea to Research Question (General Focus)Research idea General Focus Research QuestionThe sponsorship of country food What benefit do commercialclubs by commercial organizations organizations derive from their sponsorship of country cricket clubs?The adoption of Flexible workforce Why do manufacturing companiesby manufacturing company divide their workforces into core and peripheral workers?The future of trade unions What strategies should trade unions adopt to ensure their viability in the future?
Formulation of Objectives Objectives should be listed under two headings Main objectives and Sub-objectives The main objective is an overall statement of the thrust of your study. It is also a statement of the main associations and relationships that you seek to discover or establish. The sub objectives are the specific aspects of the topic that you want to investigate within the main framework of your study.
Formulation of Objectives Objectives should be listed under two headings; Main objective(s) Sub-objectives
Research Question to Research ObjectivesResearch Question Research ObjectivesWhy have organizations introduce To identify organization’steam briefing? objectives for team briefingHow can the effectiveness of To establish suitable effectivenessteam- briefing schemes be criteria for team-briefing schemes.measures?How can the team briefing To determine the factorseffectiveness be explained? associated with the effectiveness of the team briefing.Has team briefing been effective? To describe the extent to which the effectiveness criteria for team briefing have been met.
Management Problems vs. Research Problems Most management research problems manifest themselves as Management Decision Problems Situation arises, management needs to make a decision, requires research, starts the research process No actionable guidance Simply a statement of the issue that management is dealing with Must restatement in research terms.
Management Problems vs. Research Problems Management Problem: a statement of the information needed by a decision maker to help solve a management decision problem.
Tips for Accurately Defining Research Problems Find out why the information is being sought. Determine whether the information already exists. Determine whether the question really can/should be answered. Use exploratory research to define background of the problem Situation analysis The iceberg principle Determine relevant variables
Definition of Research Objectives Management Research Objectives: the specific bits of knowledge that need to be gathered to close the information gaps highlighted in the research problem. Stated in action terms Serve as a standard to evaluate the quality and value of the research Objectives should be specific and unambiguous
Putting It All Together Management Problem Placement office has noticed, while major companies make annual recruiting visits to campus for engineers, not many national or local companies are formally recruiting business majors through the placement office Why? How do we address this? Management Research Problems Why are companies not taking advantage of the resources that the placement service offers? Are companies going around the service? Are companies aware of the University placement service? Are companies aware of the reputation of the MBA programme? What kind of things might generate more recruiting activity? Management Research Objectives To determine to what extent companies are aware of the placement service Determine whether companies, especially locals, are aware of the strong reputation of the Business School To determine whether a quarterly newsletter highlighting business programs and students might generate more recruiting activity.
Review of Literature Importance Sources Purpose Stages of Research and Literature Review Method of Presentation
Introduction Literature review for a proposal or a research study means locating and summarizing the studies about the topic. Often these summaries are research studies, but it may also include conceptual articles or thought pieces that provide frameworks for thinking about the topic.
Need and Importance Knowledge doesn’t exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in relation to other people’s work. Your work and your finding will be significant only to the extent that they are same as or different from others work and findings. The items your read and write about will enhance your subject knowledge and help you to clarify your research question(s) further. This process is called critically reviewing the literature.
Purpose of the Literature Review Literature reviews help researchers limit the scope of their inquiry. It convey the importance of the topic of study to the readers It shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported. It relates a study to the larger ongoing dialogue in the literature about a topic, may be fill in gaps and extending prior studies
Purpose … It provide a frame work for the study, to identify the important variables, to frame hypotheses, source of data, method of data collection, measurement of subjective variables, to develop questionnaire, to identify appropriate statistical technique for data analysis.
Purpose … It serves as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings.
Forms of Literature Review Integrative: The researcher summarizing broad themes in literature. This is useful, in proposal writing and to introduce the problem and background of the research. Theoretical: The researcher focuses on extant theory that relates to the problem under study. This form is useful for development of theoretical frame work of the study, integration of theory in to the study.
Forms …. Methodological Review: In which the researcher focuses on methods and definitions. The reviewers may provide not only summary of studies but also an actual critique of the strength and weakness of the method sections. Normally it is put into a separate section or chapter, in dissertations and review of related literature.
SourcesDocumentation Services Journals Government Reports Research Abstracts
States of Research and Review of Literature Identification and Selection Formulation of the Selected problem Operationalisation of Concepts Research Methodology Tools for collection of data Writing the report
Presentation of the Review By Chronological order By Topic Problem - Solution Cause - effect Argument and Counter argument Group on the basis of a particular Variable
ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS RESEARCHQuestions Ethical Questions Are Philosophical Business ethics is the application of morals to behavior related to the exchange environment. Moral standards are principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is unethical (e.g., the Golden Rule). Ethical dilemma refers to a situation in which one chooses from alternative courses of actions, each with different ethical implications. Relativism is a term that reflects the degree to which one rejects moral standards in favor of the acceptability of some action. 3–89
Idealism is a term that reflects the degree to which one bases their morality on moral standards. Researchers and business stakeholders face ethical dilemmas practically every day 3–90
General Rights and Obligations of Concerned Parties Everyone involved in research can face an ethical dilemma: The people actually performing the research —the “doers.” The research client, sponsor, or the management team requesting the research— the “users.” The research participants—the actual research respondents or subjects. Each party has certain rights and obligations toward the other parties. 5–91
EXHIBIT 5.7 5.7 Interaction of Rights and Obligations 5–92
Rights and Obligations: Research Participant Rights: Obligations: 5–93
Rights and Obligations: Research Participant (cont’d) Rights to be informed Most business research is conducted with the research participant’s consent (i.e., the participant is active). Informed consent means that the individual understands what the researcher wants him/her to do and agrees to in the research study. The obligation to be truthful In return for being truthful, the subject has the right to expect confidentiality. Confidentiality means that information involved in the research will not be shared with others. 3–94
Rights and Obligations: Research Participant (cont’d)Participants’ Right to Privacy Active Research The issue involves the participant’s freedom to choose whether to comply. Be considerate of participants’ time and identify yourself. Adhere to the principles of the “Do Not Call” policy and respect consumers’ “Internet privacy.” Passive Research It is generally believed that unobtrusive observation of public behavior is not an invasion of privacy. Recording behavior that is not conducted in public would be a violation of privacy. Technology allows the passive collection of data based on consumers’ on-line behavior, and researchers should gain consent before harvesting information. 3–95
Rights and Obligations: Research ParticipantProtection from Harm (cont’d) Questions to ask to help avoid harming a research participant: Has the research subject provided consent to participate in an experiment? Is the research subject subjected to substantial physical or psychological trauma? Can the research subject be easily returned to his or her initial state? Human subjects review committee Reviews proposed research designs to ensure that no harm can come to any research participant. 5–96
Rights and Obligations of the Researcher The researcher should: Understand that the purpose of research is research (no sales pitch to research participants) Maintain objectivity Not misrepresent research Be honest in reporting errors Protect the confidentiality of both subjects and clients 5–97
Rights and Obligations of the Researcher (cont’d) Researchers have rights, too: right to cooperation from the sponsoring client right to be paid as long as the work is done professionally right to be paid in full and in a timely manner 3–98
Rights and Obligations of the Client Sponsor (User) Ethical Behavior between Buyer and Seller The general business ethics expected between a purchasing agent and a sales representative should hold in a research situation. An Open Relationship with Research Suppliers To encourage objectively, a full and open statement of the decision situation, a full disclosure of constraints in time and money, and any other insights that assist the researcher should be provided. Researcher should be provided adequate access to key decision makers. 5–99
Rights and Obligations of the Client Sponsor (User) (cont’d) An Open Relationship with Interested Parties Conclusions should be based on data – not conjecture. Advocacy research – research undertaken to support a specific claim in a legal action or to represent some advocacy groups. Researchers often conduct advocacy research in their role as an expert witness. 3–100
Further Reading COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN, MCGRAW HILL ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. AND GRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 8TH EDN, SOUTH-WESTERN SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A. (2012) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, 6TH EDN, PRENTICE HALL. SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOING RESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FT PRENTICE HALL. 1 - 101