Intermedia vol 40 no 1 march 2012 working out wrc 12


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Intermedia vol 40 no 1 march 2012 working out wrc 12

  1. 1. www.iicom.orgMarch 2012 Volume 40 Issue 1by Stephen McClellandWorking out WRC-12 WJust what did the worlds mostimportant treaty summit ofradiofrequency and satellitesachieve? W O R IThe radiofrequency world has probably never seen moreexcitement. At the same time that Europe1 and the US2progressed important spectrum legislation and strate-gies, policymakers were having to contend with furtherspectrum headaches - probably earlier than many wereexpecting - to cope with the continuing appetite ofmobile broadband at the Word RadiocommunicationsConference 2012 (WRC-12) organized by the ITU in I N GGeneva. UThe mobile spectrum appetite is a global one, mostpressing in those markets that have seen an explosionin traffic (see The Need for Allocation sidebar) due tosmartphone demand. Tricia Paoletta and Damon Ladsonfrom the Wiltshire & Grannis law firm in Washington He continued: "Broadcasters are concerned that as theirtold Intermedia "Going into WRC-12, the number one spectrum is squeezed, there will be fewer “white spaces”,priority for the US was securing a WRC-15 agenda item to U T that is, unused spectrum between and among their Wallocate new spectrum for mobile broadband, includingIMT, as well as to identify additional existing bands for assignments." This in turn could have implications for their channel offering but also beyond for other commu- Cmobile broadband, including IMT. Since the entire world nities such as the nascent white space communicationsis seeking additional mobile broadband, including IMT industry that is seeking to develop innovative applica-spectrum and additional identifications, the outcome was tions3 and data services particularly around upcominga given. The issue is how and where (within the ITU-R) to markets in smart city, M2M and similar markets. Mean-conduct sharing/compatibility studies." while, in the foreseeable future, there could be a potential impact on professional wireless users.4A second dividend? C - 1 3 Policy makers, whilst steering in a direction of technological neutral-African countries called for what amounts to a move ity for wireless services, have been keen to see these early stage in-to release more spectrum from television broadcasting novations develop especially where collective uses provide for greaterbands [specifically, in Region 1 which covers both Europe efficiencies, and ideally replicate the hugely successful Wi-Fi industry.and Africa]. Gerald Oberst of Hogan Lovells in Brussels See, for example, Article 4 of the ratified Radio Spectrum Policy Programme which states "... Member States, in cooperation with thetold Intermedia: "Broadcasters are worried about the Commission, shall, where appropriate, foster the collective use of spec-move towards a “second digital dividend” in the UHF trum as well as shared use of spectrum. Member States shall also fosterspectrum, a move that seemingly was initiated by the the development of current and new technologies, for example, inAfrican countries but which has been on the minds of cognitive radio, including those using "white spaces" at http://register.policymakers in Europe as something coming down the 4 The impact of the putative second dividend could be especiallyline. Now it appears that allocation of mobile uses in the severe on this community. Program Making and Special Events (PMSE)700 MHz band on a co-primary basis will become reality representatives seemed especially startled by WRC-12 outcomes, andafter the next radio conference in 2015." in a public response commented that PMSE wireless is now "at the limit of its possibilities" but needs to retain this spectrum. It said that1 See for example Roadmap for a Wireless Europe summarizing the PMSE services require 96MHz of white space spectrum for "daily use"Radio Spectrum Policy Programme that commits the European Union on national basis, and around 270MHz to cover special events, withto a roadmap in this area at probably more for Olympic Games-level activities, commenting: "Thepolicy/ecomm/radio_spectrum/eu_policy/rspp/index_en.htm. professional event and content production is based on the use of free2 See, for example, the spectrum provisions of Temporary Payroll Tax broadcast spectrum. If free broadcast spectrum no longer exists, thenCut Continuation Act of 2012, and the Obama Administration report, that would be a disaster." See Economic Benefits of New Spectrum for Wireless Broadband. pressrelease30012012.pdf 12
  2. 2. March 2012 Volume 40 Issue 1 O R K W O R K K W O R KN G O I N G O O I N G OT W R U T W R Far reaching changes exactly how much spectrum will be involved and when the new arrangements will take effect in practice." R European broadcasting communities T worried. The W U are R- comments. "While all other relevant WRC-12 agenda European Broadcasting Union issued post-conference C David Wood told Intermedia: "The governments of ITU 2 1 2 Region 1, which -includes Europe and Africa, have decided 1 items were concluded successfully for broadcasters, the that, after 2015, spectrum in the band below 800MHz full implications of this digital dividend decision, which can be used for mobile services with equal priority to was an unforeseen late addition to the agenda, will broadcasting - they are co-primary users. What should only become clear over the months and years ahead," be the lower limit in this co-primary band is still for pointed out EBU officials in a statement. "Its difficult to discussion, but it is likely to be around 700 MHz. A part predict now the consequences of this for either existing of the ITU has been asked to study issues such as limits2 C - digital broadcasting services, or future digital broadcast services," David Wood, EBU Deputy Director Technology 1 2 on allowable interference to either service in this band before 2015. and Development, told Intermedia. He adds: "There is a lot of technical work to be done. So, "The WRC-12 decision may have far-reaching implications what has been agreed is what might be called a poten- for free-to-air television in Europe," said Lieven Vermaele, tial second digital dividend for Region 1, though many EBU Director of Technology & Development, in a state- believe the term digital dividend does not take into ment. Mr Vermaele continued: "A free-to-air platform account that there will be losers as well as winners here." is essential for Public Service Media. We trust that the He continued: "But in some countries it may be necessary ITU will look at all service demands before conclusions to re-arrange broadcast services out of the 700MHz band are drawn. The reassignment of the 700MHz band was (restacking) if they are there now. It may be necessary in not on the agenda for WRC-12. Were confident that the some countries to change the DTT system from DVB-T to authorities within the ITU will address the appropriate- DVB-T2. It is possible that there will be costs and incon- ness of this move ahead of the next conference in 2015." venience involved for the TV viewing public. It is possible NewsAnalysis IPTV Analysis that there will be more limited means of broadcasting WRC-12 "WRC-12 set a course for a second digital dividend. ITU HDTV, 3DTV, or UHDTV terrestrial in the future, which members have decided that further spectrum currently may influence the popularity of terrestrial broadcasting. allocated for terrestrial broadcasting will be made avail- All these have yet to be quantified in the coming years able for mobile broadband services. It remains unclear before 2015." Other commentators were also predicting a political and economic minefield across Europe if a 13
  3. 3. www.iicom.orgMarch 2012 Volume 40 Issue 1 agencies worldwide, including the Mr Oberst comments: "On the Satellites US’ NASA, for the Space Research one hand, the difficult Iran versus Service (SRS) and by Iridium for France satellite slot controversy was critical Inter-Satellite Service Links taken off the agenda, to be solved (ISL). Sharing between SRS and ISL amongst the parties. On the other Under its mandate, WRC-12 also was just agreed to at WRC-12 after hand, the WRC-12 participants are included a considerable focus on many years. Observers doubt that probably proud of themselves for satellite issues from orbital resource SRS and ISL can additionally share reaching any kind of consensus efficiencies to signalling crackdowns with MSS, but instead argue that any on the difficult issue of intentional on satellite jamming. Gerald Oberst new MSS allocations must be outside jamming of satellite signals (also of Hogan Lovells told Intermedia, of the SRS-ISL spectrum. related to Iran, by the way), but "One surprising turnaround was the the result is fairly inconsequential. shift in the satellite sector towards In satellite signal jamming, the EBU An ad hoc group to the plenary a defined 90-day period in Article says that numerous complaints have reached a position on February 9, 11 of the Radio Regulations for been lodged with the ITU about that “any transmission which has bringing into use satellites in order international satellite TV programmes the intent to cause interference to to satisfy ITU requirements and in Persian and Arabic, carried mainly stations of other administrations is remain in the Master Registry. The on Eutelsat and Arabsat satellites and an infringement of the Constitution, US changed its position during the says the interference practice, which Convention or Radio Regulations.” conference, throwing support to the has increased since September 2011, This would seem to have been fairly longer defined period – as opposed prevented audiences from receiving obvious from the outset. The net to the vague approach up to now. TV and radio programmes of the result was that Radio Regulation The concern will be whether this BBC, Radio France Internationale, No. 15.21 was modified to say that period accommodates all situations Deutsche Welle, and RFE/RL, Inc.s if an administration knows about in the future and whether it will be Radio Farda. Radio Netherlands international interference it should enforced in a nondiscriminatory Worldwide (RNW), Voice of America “take the necessary actions”. How manner." (VOA), and the EBU added their this advances anything is far from voices to the demands for stricter obvious, especially if the interference "An issue predicted to be the most anti-jamming measures. is state-sponsored." controversial pre-WRC, AI 1.7 which looked at long term aeronautical The regulatory change, adopted by Mr Oberst continues: "Another satel- safety requirements in the L-band 165 member states of the WRC (out lite issue is the resolution to treat the used by LightSquared and Inmarsat of 193 ITU members), was to Article frequency assignments and orbital was essentially resolved at the two 15.21 of the regulations, which positions of the former Intelsat week mark," says Wiltshire & Grannis now reads, "If an administration has intergovernmental organization as Tricia Paoletta. information of an infringement of a “common heritage” to provide the Constitution, the Convention or international services in developing The UAE promoted a WRC-15 the Radio Regulations (in particular countries. I predict this will be trou- agenda item, AI 1.10, to allocate Article 45 of the Constitution and blesome and inefficient once anyone additional MSS spectrum above 22 No. 15.1 of the Radio Regulations) figures out what it means. This item GHz. At the WRC, the UAE compro- committed by a station under its is Resolution COM5/11 (WRC-12) for mised to the range 22 GHz to 26 jurisdiction, the administration shall now, until it is renumbered." GHz. However, the lower part of ascertain the facts and take the that range is used by space science necessary actions."second dividend policy meant curtailing free-to-air the agenda item for the next WRC to use the extendedbroadcast options or forcing another round of retuning digital dividend at 700MHz for mobile in Africa and theon the public. Middle East."The prevailing atmosphere now surrounding the entire He continued: "This has the great advantage for theissue seems one of uncertainty both in terms of what African countries of allowing them to access equipmentthe picture will be, but also a possibly truncated timeline otherwise destined for Asia and America, reaping scaleto when it will happen. Other spectrum watchers took economies. However, this leads to a potential collisiona similar view that the pressure is on. Dr Dan Maldoom course with European broadcasters. It seems that theof the Dotecon consultancy, which advises on spectrum great debate whether terrestrial broadcast of TV is an effi-economics internationally, points out: "The surprise was cient use of spectrum is not going to die anytime soon." 14
  4. 4. March 2012 Volume 40 Issue 1William Webb, CTO of Neul, an innovative whitespace communications technology developer toldIntermedia, "Many European countries will find it very The need for allocationdifficult to open up the 700MHz band without atbest massive re-planning of TV transmission. Likely, How far are new spectrum allocations justified for thenot all adopt the plan, and many not do so until well future mobile communications sector? Forecasting actualafter 2015." traffic growth has been a precarious business for at least a decade, but at the last WRC, the Apple iPhone hadEBU officials agree on the difficulties involved. "In only just appeared on the market. Today, no one in thepractice I believe its unlikely that we will see any industry doubts the traffic explosion and implied spec-actual reallocation of spectrum in Europe before trum demand that has recently taken place. "An averagely2018," said the EBUs Lieven Vermaele, "but European used SmartPhone places a demand on spectrum that’sregulators and governments have a considerable 24 times more than the feature phones that preceded it.challenge on their hands in deciding how to imple- Tablets place a demand on spectrum that’s about 120ment this decision. As with all ITU resolutions, the times more," commented FCC Chairman Julius Gena-implementation falls upon individual member states. chowski at WRC-12.This means that European governments will haveto decide on the most appropriate path to follow A white paper released immediately prior to WRC-12 byaccording to their own national circumstances, the UMTS Forum, an industry group representing thewhere in many cases terrestrial broadcasting plat- mobile cellular community, argued persuasively for moreforms are growing in importance." spectrum to keep pace with evaluations of what would be needed, but did not specify a particular band as a primary target, instead choosing to request that identificationGetting procedural and study should be performed for WRC-15.1 By common consent, largely because of the smartphone revolution,However, complex procedural arrangements now network traffic has beaten the most aggressive estimateshave to move into high gear to service the mobile that were undertaken in the early to mid-2000s - a timebroadband developments. "The first Conference when most existing 3G networks were in fact significantlyPreparatory Meeting (CPM) for the next WRC 2015 follows on the heels of WRC-12. Mobilebroadband providers would have liked to have the The white paper points out "The mobile data traffic inissue studied in their Working Party 5D, while other 2010 was more than 5 times greater than some of theservices (satellite, space science, etc.) argued that estimates for Report ITU-R M.2072. Moreover, the datasuch studies would be appropriate for a Joint Task traffic being experienced by some operators in 2011Group (JTG) composed of affected Working Parties" was even greater than some of the 2020 forecasts givensaid Wiltshire & Grannis Tricia Paoletta and Damon in Report ITU-R M.2072." Given the recent impetus toLadson. Mr Ladson is no stranger to this way of cloud computing and moves towards greater broadbandoperating: he was formerly the Vice-Chair of the US participation around the world as well a likely aggrega-delegation to WRC-2000 where IMT spectrum was tion of e-government and other services into cloud-first made available and was the primary US spokes- like approaches, more demand still, rather than less, isperson for IMT deliberations. "The US and others increasingly likely.advocated and prevailed at WRC-15 CPM that studiesfor mobile broadband including IMT be done in a The UMTS Forum says it wants to see harmonizationJoint Task Group of a number of Study Groups. A JTG as well as the extra spectrum. "Harmonisation of IMTcomprised of Study Groups 4,5,6 and 7 will under- frequency bands is more important than ever," says thetake these sometime contentious studies over the UMTS Forum and continues: "Frequency band harmoni-next several years." sation is by far the most critical enabler for a large and diversified choice of terminal devices in the market.They continued: "The reality is that to successfullysecure new mobile broadband spectrum at WRC-15,compatibility studies must be completed in a manner 1 Spectrum for future development of IMT-2000 and IMT-Advanced, UMTS NewsAnalysis IPTV Analysis Forum, January 2012, The paper commentssatisfactory to satellite, space services and others. WRC-12 that "during WRC-07, countries and administrations recognised the needOtherwise, there could be another WRC battle for additional IMT spectrum and identified new bands for IMT. Thoughsimilar to the IMT versus C-band satellite battle that significant progress has been achieved since WRC-07, the spectrum cur-dominated WRC-07. That would not serve the inter- rently identified for IMT networks is still far below the amount recom- mended in ITU-R Report M.2078. The identified amount of IMT spec-ests of proponents of additional mobile broadband trum varies between 664 MHz and 947 MHz depending on the Region,spectrum, since disagreement at WRC-15 will lead to when the calculated minimum spectrum demand is 1280 MHz." 15
  5. 5. www.iicom.orgMarch 2012 Volume 40 Issue 1delay in allocating or identifying more spectrum for their But spectrum usage is a complex issue, and he arguesuse. Through the JTG, WRC-15 CPM-1 provided a forum that there is even a possibility of a better outcome fromfor all concerned parties to jointly conduct compat- the white space point of view. "If 700MHz is replannedibility and sharing studies." Nevertheless, point out Ms for cellular, it is likely to be on the basis of frequencyPaoletta and Mr Ladson, "For the first time the United division duplex (FDD) with an uplink and downlink andStates entered the WRC without taking certain bands off central guard band. It is quite likely that this guard bandthe table in advance of studies. US Ambassador Anstrom would be available for white space usage and wouldDecker’s preferred approach was to study any band in a form a set of national channels on which there was noJoint Task Group and let the chips fall where they may. licensed use, making them “superior” white space. NotWhile the WRC could not concur on a JTG, CPM-1 did only would this add back enough channels to bring theadopt the Task Group approach which in the long run is available white space back to around 100MHz it wouldlikely to serve all parties." actually increase the quality of the spectrum available. Also, restricting the bandwidth of white space will allowWhite space scenarios more efficient antennas, increasing the efficiency of usage slightly."Given the policy signals appearing for a second digitaldividend, should the white space community5 be Getting cognitiveworried? In an interview with Intermedia, Neuls ProfWilliam Webb acknowledged that the existing commu- Indeed, such is the interest in clever future technolo-nities have sizeable competing claims over the broad- gies now being developed, the Geneva events gave acasting and mobile broadband arguments, ahead lot of attention to them in spite of the potential digitalperhaps of white space technologies that have yet to dividend threat. "The Radiocommunication Assemblyreach mass deployment. But he says there are various and the WRC-12 issued positions in favour of more studyrationales to be taken and the WRC decision is not likely on cognitive radio (in Resolution ITU-R 58 and Recom-to have any impact for some time. "The amount of white mendation COM 6/1, respectively), which can translatespace is typically proportional to the total amount of TV among other matters into techniques for using thosespectrum – roughly halving the TV spectrum results in white spaces more efficiently," says Hogan Lovells Geraldhalf the amount of white space. So any reduction in TV Oberst. "We can expect a lot of debate on the intersec-frequencies will reduce white space," he confirms6. tion of broadcasting spectrum and wireless data in the coming years especially as cognitive radio and collectiveHe continues: "Most European countries have previously use is a big item on the recently-approved Europeanagreed that the band 790-862MHz would be made Radio Spectrum Policy Programme."available for cellular usage making the default whitespace band 470-790MHz (320MHz). WRC-12 decided It may be a complex road. Wiltshire & Grannis Triciathat the band 694-790MHz - the so-called “700MHz Paoletta comments, "For my own clients, the insistenceband” - should be harmonised for cellular usage by 2015 by the Russians on having some outcome at WRC onand made available in European and African countries cognitive radio, despite being completely isolated,on a voluntary basis." But, he says, that in the UK (as was frustrating. Given that the Radiocommunicationa common white space example), the remaining UK Assembly had adopted a Resolution on further studiesspectrum for TV transmissions is 256MHz if the so-called on cognitive radio just before the WRC began, and that600MHz band is released to auction. "Calculations the leading commercial technology for sharing betweensuggest an average of around 100MHz of this is available systems – Super Wi-Fi in TV white spaces – has beenas white space in any location," he says. "If, instead, the deployed, additional outcomes at the WRC level were notUK decided to adopt the WRC plan then the TV transmis- warranted. Yet the Russians continued their press, weeksions would be 470-694MHz – 224MHz (perhaps less after week, finally agreeing to a WRC Recommendation8 or 16MHz for channels reserved for radio astronomy that in effect merely ratifies the ITU-R Resolution." Msand wireless microphones). Scaling for the drop from Paoletta points out however that winners from WRC-12256MHz to 224MHz, we might expect white space are likely to be the mobile broadband players, even ifavailability to fall from 100MHz to 88MHz. Such a small the worldwide hunt for broadband spectrum remains adecrease is unlikely to make any material difference to frustration that is not going to disappear in the foresee-white space usage." able future.5 The community remains very small compared to mobile and broad-casting interests but already has provided some unique approaches to Stephen McClelland is Editor in Chief of models. See for example He can be contacted on s.mcclelland@iicom.org6 16
  6. 6. March 2012 Volume 40 Issue 1 Adapted from International Telecommunication Union data by Stephen McClelland WRC-12 in brief fuel costs and reduced CO² emissions. ITU-R will continue to study any compatibility issues between the broadcasting service and aeronautical mobile SPECTRUM FOR IMT Meteorological-satellite (route) service in the band 108–117.975 MHz. In addition to the use of the 790-862 MHz in Non-geostationary satellites are an important Aviation safety Regions 1 and 3, WRC-12 considered further part of the space-based Global Observing spectrum allocations to the mobile service, in the System and WRC-12 allocated additional spec- The growth in the aviation industry calls for frequency band 694 – 790 MHz. This issue has trum to the meteorological-satellite service. expanded capacity of over-the-horizon mobile been placed on the WRC-15 Agenda together communication links. Notifying administra- with the need to consider additional spectrum Satellite remote passive sensing tions of mobile-satellite service networks shall allocations for the mobile service. accommodate the spectrum needed for distress, WRC-12 updated spectrum use aimed at the urgency and safety communications of the SPECTRUM/ORBIT RESOURCE future of Earth observation applications for global maritime distress and safety system EFFICIENCY passive sensing on meteorological and environ- (GMDSS) and for the aeronautical mobile-satel- mental satellites. lite (route) service communications. In addition to the clarification of the notion of bringing into use of satellite network frequency Oceanographic radar Aeronautical mobile (route) service assignments (satellite deployed and maintained at the notified orbital position for a continuous WRC-12 adopted the relevant protection levels Aeronautical mobile (route) service systems are period of ninety days), WRC-12 also mandated for interference caused by oceanographic radars. critical for various air traffic and flight safety the ITU Radiocommunication Bureau to initiate communications. Some of the communication enquiries to administrations to provide informa- MARITIME SERVICES systems, such as traffic information, automatic tion on the movement of satellites and improve dependent surveillance-broadcast, and flight due diligence information. WRC-12 improved the Maritime communication information provide easily accessible air traffic satellite coordination by reducing the coordina- requirements for safety information to multiple air traffic managers at tion arc in parts of the most congested spectrum the same time, allowing for more efficient use and agreed to look into the possibility of further WRC-12 addressed maritime communication of airspace. The allocation of the frequency reductions. requirements to support safety systems for ships band 960−1164 MHz to the aeronautical mobile and port operations. The conference included (route) service is intended to support the DISASTER MITIGATION AND RELIEF provisions in the Radio Regulations to improve introduction of data-intensive applications in air satellite detection of automatic information traffic management. With reference to emergency telecommunica- systems using VHF channels. tions, WRC-12 addressed the application of IMT Protecting other primary services in and intelligent transport systems (ITS) to support VHF maritime mobile band 37−38 GHz band or supplement advanced public protection and disaster relief applications. WRC-12 instructed The conference also considered the use of new A number of countries are deploying space ITU-R to continue studying relevant aspects of technologies in the maritime service needed research service earth station receivers in the radiocommunications and ICT and encouraged to the “Table of transmitting frequencies in the band 37−38 GHz to support manned near-Earth administrations to consider using identified VHF maritime mobile band”, which defines the missions and deep-space missions. WRC-12 frequency bands for the purposes of achieving channel numbering for maritime VHF communi- decided to exclude the aeronautical compo- regionally harmonized frequency bands or cations based on 25 kHz channel spacing as well nent of this mobile service allocation to ensure ranges for advanced public protection and as where digital technologies could be deployed. proper protection of existing and planned space disaster relief solutions. research and mobile services. AERONAUTICAL SERVICES EARTH OBSERVATION Aerospace surveillance WRC-12 decided that necessary spectrum would be WRC-12 focused on “The importance of Earth available for the introduction of applications and WRC-12 addressed the lack of spectrum avail- observation radiocommunication applications” concepts in air traffic management that can support able for aerospace surveillance and tracking NewsAnalysis IPTV Analysis in collecting and exchanging Earth observa- data links carrying safety-critical aviation informa- the launch and manoeuvring of spacecraft WRC-12 tion data to maintain and improve the accuracy tion. These systems will enhance aeronautical and provided an additional allocation in the of weather forecasts. The Conference urged communications capability and – in conjunction frequency band 154−156 MHz to the radioloca- administrations to protect the Earth observation with more precise navigational capabilities – allow tion service in some countries. systems in the related frequency bands. flight routing to be more efficient, resulting in fewer delays, shorter flight times on average, lower 17