2013 02 frames rev 10-06-12

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VP Product Seminar - Primary Framing - PRELIMINARY

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  • ROOF SLOPE or ROOF PITCH refers to how steep the roof is Expressed as RISE over RUN Run = 12 Common roof slopes for building systems: 1/4:12 1/2:12 1:12 2:12 4:12
  • Eave Height is measured from the floor level (bottom of the base plate) to the eave of the building.
  • Eave Height is measured from the floor level (bottom of the base plate) to the eave of the building.
  • Varco-Pruden offers both Clear Span and Modular frame types.
  • Primary frames are the support members that carry most of the building loads to the foundation. VP uses 50 ksi steel for all primary framing components. Frames are coated with a Bronze primer Special colors are available, check with your division VP can manufacture frame dimensions in increments of 1/16”.
  • Purlins are attached to the primary frames by means of pre-punched holes. -VP uses purlin clips only in certain conditions (steep roof pitches, open web framing systems, 11 1/2” purlins etc.).
  • Bolting Plates are used for most primary frame connections.
  • Bolting Plates are used for most primary frame connections.
  • Clips for girt connections are factory welded.
  • 3. A roof pitch of 1:12 is most common. -1/2:12 is also reasonable when needed. -Roof pitches up to 4:12 & 5:12 are easy to obtain. -VP can design to almost any roof pitch required. -Less than 1/2:12 is not normally recommended (span and roof panel type must be considered). 4. Eave heights normally range from 10’ to 30’. VP has provided buildings with eave heights as high as 80’ and 100’ when required. Eave heights can be specified in 1/16” increments
  • Reverse Taper Columns available. The wall line is at the inside flange. Offers a smooth wall surface on the inside face with-out columns interrupting.
  • Hot Rolled Wide Flange members are also available.
  • Rigid Frames are primary frames most commonly used as interior frames.
  • Typical geometry of a Rigid Frame. The deepest portions of the columns and rafter generally occurs at the “haunch”. Rigid frames come standard with tapered exterior columns, but other options are available. Rigid Frames offer the advantage of economically spanning a distance without the interruption of interior columns.
  • The ridge does not have to be at the center of the span.
  • Rigid Frames can be single slope when needed.
  • Rigid frames transfer loads to the foundation
  • 1. When we need to span a distance without interior columns interrupting the span. 2. VP can provide Rigid Frames as wide as 300’. -RF’s are most economical in spans of 40’ or 50’ up to 100’ and 120’. -Exceeding this can be very expensive. -In wide span buildings, RF’s should be used only when a clear span condition is truly needed.
  • Continuous Beam frames are Modular frames utilizing interior columns to reduce the rafter spans, and consequently the overall cost. CB frames come standard with tapered exterior columns and “I” shaped interior columns, but other options are available.
  • Offset Ridge - Not A Problem
  • Unequal modules - Not A Problem Columns should be spaced to best suit end user and construction needs. 50’ to 60’ is usually an efficient span between columns. This varies according to loads and conditions.
  • Single Slope CB frames are available
  • 1. For wide span buildings in which interior columns are allowed. Most commonly used for large warehouses and manufacturing plants. 2. Any time the span of a rafter is decreased - it will require less steel and be lighter.
  • 3. We pay for steel by the pound - this will decrease the cost. 4. Continuous Beam frames are very common in widths of 60’ through 300’ (depending upon loads). It is possible to span very great widths with CB frames. VP has gone up to 800’ wide.
  • Unibeam frames are primary frames and serve the same purpose as a Rigid Frame or CB Frame.
  • This is a typical Rigid Frame. Now let’s lay a Unibeam Frame on top to see the advantages.
  • Unibeam frames have some advantages over Rigid Frames in certain applications: -They provide more vertical clearance near the sidewalls. -This allows for mechanical work to be above the ceiling line in small office buildings (sprinkler pipes, HVAC ductwork, etc..).
  • Lean-to’s attach at either the eave of the building or below the eave.
  • Each endwall of a building is supported by an “End Frame” .
  • The most common type of End Frame is a “Post & Beam” frame, when future expansion is not anticipated.
  • For buildings with higher eave heights and/or heavy wind loads, the Post and Beam may be made from 3-plate built-up members.
  • For buildings with higher eave heights and/or heavy wind loads, the Post and Beam may be made from 3-plate built-up members.
  • When required, another primary frame type can be placed at the endwall of a building. -This frame could be a Rigid Frame (shown) with endpost -A Unibeam Frame -A CB Frame (recommended for large spans) -Or one of VP’s Open Web frame types This frame would be used in conjunction with end posts to support the endwall girts.
  • Most primary frames are “Moment Resisting”. -This means that they utilize “Rigid Connections” to resist loads imposed.
  • Post & Beam frames are not designed to resist the wind load blowing on the sidewalls of the building.
  • Wind loads from the building sidewalls are usually taken to the foundation by the use of diagonal bracing or the “diaphragm action” of the endwall panels.
  • Rigid Frames are “Moment Resisting” frames. Rigid connections are utilized at the haunches and at the ridge. Pinned connections are used at the bases. Both vertical and horizontal loads are resisted by this configuration.
  • 2013 02 frames rev 10-06-12

    1. 1. PrimaryFramingSystems VP University
    2. 2. BlueScope Manufacturing and VP Service Centers AB SK MB ON QC NB WA ME MT ND OR VT MN NH ID NY SD MA WI MI CT WY Evansville NJ IA PA Annville CA NV NE OH MD Turlock St. Joseph IL IN DE UT CO BlueScope Buildings WV NA – Headquarters VA KS MO Kansas City, MO KY Greensboro GreensboroVisalia Jackson NC TN Laurinburg OK AZ Memphis NM AR SC SC SC SC Pine Bluff Rainsville AL MS GA TX LA San Marcos BlueScope Buildings Manufacturing Facility FL Sales & Engineering Monterrey, MX Office Scale Legend Mile(s) VP Headquarters0 200 400
    3. 3. Service Centers / Sales Regions Northern West Central Eastern 12/9/10
    4. 4. Dry Cutting Plasma (St. Joseph, Missouri) 0005.wmv
    5. 5. Webs
    6. 6. Conrac (welding)
    7. 7. Hand Weld
    8. 8. Structural Steel BeamCompared to Pre-engineeredBeam of Equivalent Strength
    9. 9. Geometry 12XRoof Slope = Rise/Run 15
    10. 10. GeometryDimension to 1/16” 16
    11. 11. GeometryDimension to 1/16” 17
    12. 12. Eave Height 18
    13. 13. Primary Frames Modular (Continuous Beam) Clear Span (Rigid Frame)
    14. 14. Primary Frames
    15. 15. Primary Frameshttp://www.daconstruction.com/steel.htm - Dick Anderson Construction
    16. 16. Primary Frames Carry loads to the foundation Shop Coat is 1 mil thick and gray* in color (bronze and red oxide also available at additional cost). Spans and Eave Heights in increments of 1/16”* as of VPCommand v8.0 February 14, 2010 VP University
    17. 17. Bolts• All Structural Connections use A325T (Full Thread) Bolts (optional A490)• ASTM F1852 Tension Control Bolt Option still available.• All Secondary Connections (except girt to jambs) will be A325T (T = full-thread bolts) ½” x 1½” plated bolts. 23 23
    18. 18. Pre-punched Holes VP primary frames have pre- punched holes for purlin connections VP University
    19. 19. Typical Connections (“A” splice plate) VP University
    20. 20. Typical Connections (“B” splice plate) VP University
    21. 21. Typical Connections Top Bolted Face Bolted Vertical Bolting Plate
    22. 22. Face-boltedcolumn/rafter
    23. 23. Factory Welded Clips Bolted clips used mainly on all export jobs. Avoids damage to welded clips and allows for easier packing of shipping containers.
    24. 24. Primary Framing Solid Web Open Web VP University
    25. 25. Primary FramesFeatures & Benefits What roof pitches are available for Primary Frames? –Usually 1/4:12 to 4:12, steeper pitches available if needed What is the maximum eave height allowed? –As required by the end user VP University
    26. 26. Good Year Blimp Hangar
    27. 27. Good Year Blimp Hangar
    28. 28. Good Year Blimp Hangar
    29. 29. Two-piece bolted column
    30. 30. Exterior Column Variations Straight TaperedTapered Straight Tapered Straight VP University
    31. 31. Straight-Tapered
    32. 32. Tapered-Straight
    33. 33. Tapered-Straight
    34. 34. Interior Column Options Tube3-Plate (Square)Built-up Pipe Wide Flange
    35. 35. Triangle Tube
    36. 36. Primary FramesRigid Frame VP University
    37. 37. Rigid Frames
    38. 38. Rigid Frames (with crane brackets)
    39. 39. Rigid Frame Cross Section VP University
    40. 40. RF with an Offset Ridge VP University
    41. 41. RF Single Slope VP University
    42. 42. Loads to the Foundation LOAD LOADForces VP University
    43. 43. Rigid Frames Features & Benefits Why or when should this type of frame be used? – When CLEAR SPANS are required How wide can a Rigid Frame be? – VP has done them up to 300’ wide VP University
    44. 44. RF (Pitt Panthers-Pittsburgh Steelers)
    45. 45. Baumer Construction Ft. Laramie, OhioHickory Hill Concert Pavilion
    46. 46. Primary Frames Continuous Beam VP University
    47. 47. Continuous Beam Frames VP University
    48. 48. Continuous BeamFrames VP University
    49. 49. CB Frame w/ Offset Ridge VP University
    50. 50. Interior Column at CB
    51. 51. CB Frame withUnequal Modules VP University
    52. 52. CB with unequalspacing
    53. 53. CB with unequalspacing Remember: Everywhere you add an Interior Column you have more foundation and more labor. Int.Col. Spacing less than 30’-0” usually not economical.
    54. 54. CB Frame Options –any building shape VP University
    55. 55. Continuous Beam Frames Features & Benefits When should this type of frame be used? – Wide Span Buildings What does adding interior columns do to the rafter? – Makes it lighter VP University
    56. 56. Continuous Beam Frames Features & Benefits How does this affect the price of the rafter? – The price decreases How wide can a CB frame be? – VP has done them over 800’ wide VP University
    57. 57. Primary FramesUnibeamFrames VP University
    58. 58. Unibeam Frames
    59. 59. RF at same Span asUB Rigid Frame $2053 1362 lbs. UniBeam $2380 1582 lbs.
    60. 60. Unibeam Features & BenefitsTYPICAL RIGID FRAME VP University
    61. 61. Unibeam Features & Benefits Ceiling Line • More vertical clearance at sidewalls with UB • Straight Column with UB vs. Tapered with RF
    62. 62. Truss Frames Wind Bent CT-2
    63. 63. Patent for ClarkPrudhon’s Truss Frame - 1959
    64. 64. Open Web To Column
    65. 65. Rigid Frame Truss
    66. 66. 83
    67. 67. Truss Beam VP University
    68. 68. Piping and wiring can be runthrough an open web frame...... It doesn’t have to go underthe frame.
    69. 69. Crane – VP / Hybrid
    70. 70. 180 x 350 x 202009 IBC35 psf GS20 LL90 mph Wind50 ft. bays Sample Project
    71. 71. Frame Comparisons (Non-discounted prices shown)
    72. 72. Primary Frames Lean-to Frames VP University
    73. 73. Lean-To FramesAt EaveLean-to Below Eave Lean-to VP University
    74. 74. Lean-To
    75. 75. End Frames
    76. 76. Post & Beam End Frames
    77. 77. Materials Back-to-Back Cees 3-Plate Built-UpCornerpost and Endpost G30Acrylic; Rafter is 3-plate VP University
    78. 78. Materials •Endposts are: •G30 acrylic coated cold formed CEEs •riveted back-to- back CEEs •Single CEE (inset girts only) •3-plate weldedCornerpost and solution asEndpost G30 Acrylic; neededRafter is 3-plate •Tube and Hot Roll endwall posts are an option.
    79. 79. Gage Endpost AB
    80. 80. Rigid Frame with End Posts End Posts can be used with any frame type VP University
    81. 81. Post and Beam Stability Automated diaphragm check; If fails, Rods may automatically be designed… …Initially at interior bay… …Then at endbay(s) 100
    82. 82. Post and Beam Stability 101
    83. 83. Half and Full-loadEndframes
    84. 84. Half and Full-loadEndframes  Endpost “clipped” to rafter for wind  No vertical support provided
    85. 85. Soldier / WindColumn A Soldier Column is used to reduce the span of the sidewall girts when long bays ( 30’-0” +) are required. VP University
    86. 86. SoldierColumns VP University
    87. 87. Post and BeamApplied Design Concepts and Considerations
    88. 88. Primary Frames Moment Resisting FramesLoad
    89. 89. P&Bs Are NOT Moment ResistingLoad
    90. 90. How a Post & Beam Frame WorksDiaphragm is the metal panel’sability to resist loads within itssurface.
    91. 91. Post & Beam Frames Bracing or the diaphragm action of wall panels is required to resist wind loads from the side of the building
    92. 92. Ledger Angle at End Frame Location
    93. 93. Pinned and RigidConnection Types Rigid Connections at the haunches and rafter splices Pinned Connections at the base VP University
    94. 94. Concrete CompressionStrength
    95. 95. Concrete CompressionStrength Don’t lose the opportunity to take advantage of higher strength concrete when it’s already specified on the project.
    96. 96. Pinned Base Sidewall Columns
    97. 97. Fixed Base
    98. 98. Fixed Base Column VP University
    99. 99. Crane(some may require fixed base condition)
    100. 100. Frame Deflection Considerations Vertical DeflectionHorizontalDeflection VP University
    101. 101. Unsupported Columns and Rafters Supported Members have Flange Braces Unsupported Members do not have Flange Braces. (may or may not have girts)
    102. 102. Unsupported Columns and RaftersA column or rafter is considered unsupported when it does not have Lateral support. This condition occurs when there are no flange braces attached to the compression (Inside) flange. Unsupported columns are typically more expensive than Supported.
    103. 103. Primary Framing Tips The more you reduce the span of a member the more you reduce the cost (to a certain point)… Tapered members most economical Span frames shortest distance in building
    104. 104. Primary Framing Tips Gage Post and Beam most economical endwall frame Reduce endbay span if possible Reduce Int. Col. Span near sidewalls Do Not specify deflection higher than necessary Open Web frames economical with large spans and heavy loads

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