The history of the living organisms conquering land Nutrients in food Nutrients in urine <ul><li>The situation in the prim...
What happened when the living organisms conquered land ? Nutrients in food Nutrients in urine 2 The situation after the fi...
After just a few tousand years:
Where are the green fields my ancestors were bragging about?
Interlude: <ul><li>What are ’nutrients’ ? </li></ul>’ Nutrients’ are the essential elements needed to construct a body The...
Nutrients Without gaseous phases  — must be transported as solids or liquids More common in the Earth crust than in the bo...
Nutrients are essential for life  -- but phosphorus is the most crucial
We need a method to use the phosphorus molecules several times, without losses,  so we can retain  phosphorus on land! !
If we could transfer the phosphorus seamless from organism to organism without losses to sea, we might solve it !
PO 4 DNA Urine Consumption Recycling Reconstruction The regenerative cycle, basic for living systems -- ecosystem level: A...
Petrified newspaper found in the Cretaceous – Devon geosynclinal
PO 4 DNA Urine Consumption Recycling Reconstruction The regenerative cycle   High exergy Low exergy
Ecosystem maturation Immature system <ul><li>Low diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Annual plants </li></ul><ul><li>Competition <...
Present times
In preindustrial times, the farmland nutrients came from the meadows Meadows PO 4 N A certain amount of meadows were neede...
During industrialisation, people moved into cities
PO 4 N The nutrients that went away to the cities never came back Manure Feed Food PO 4 These nutrients were collected by ...
The impoverished land produced insufficient harvests This triggered emigration The industrialisation process might have be...
The situation was solved by the invention of artificial fertilizers By that, the nutrients from the meadows became unneces...
But in the cities, the situation was becoming problematic PO 4 Food PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 P...
But the invention of the piping system eased the problems PO 4 Food PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 P...
However, at the end of the pipe, new problems were encountered Plancton algae multiplied gladly from the new phosphorus PO...
Already 50 years after the introduction of the process,  it was realised that it was the phosphorus  that caused the probl...
Naturally, they solved the problem in their usual expedient way Large particle filtration Sedimentation Sedimentation Aera...
The problem to be solved was: ” How to get  (moderately)  clean water from the polluted water?” This problem was solved . ...
Sludge However, the question  not  asked was: ” How to recycle the  phosphorus  to avoid the problem?” A large part of the...
Food Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 Most of the food to the city comes from very large distances ..while the phoshorus in the sl...
Food Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 This means that there will be an accumulation of phosphorus around the city PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 P...
Food Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 At that time, the investment in water purification plants  becomes meani...
Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 The HEAP-effect, in a saturated system When saturated, the sys...
<ul><li>H ampered </li></ul>E ffluent A ccumulation P rocess The  HEAP  trap
<ul><li>H   ampered  E   ffluent  A   ccumulation  P  rocess   </li></ul>(stored  amount) The HEAP trap: (leakage) kQ=J Q ...
The HEAP effect -- diffuse nutrient leakage <ul><li>Is an  inevitable  effect of urban agglomerations </li></ul><ul><li>Is...
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Heap explain ecounit

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folke Günthers

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Heap explain ecounit

  1. 1. The history of the living organisms conquering land Nutrients in food Nutrients in urine <ul><li>The situation in the primordial sea, 400 millon years ago </li></ul>CREATCEAN SEA
  2. 2. What happened when the living organisms conquered land ? Nutrients in food Nutrients in urine 2 The situation after the first animals had conquered land
  3. 3. After just a few tousand years:
  4. 4. Where are the green fields my ancestors were bragging about?
  5. 5. Interlude: <ul><li>What are ’nutrients’ ? </li></ul>’ Nutrients’ are the essential elements needed to construct a body These elements need to be attainable in right proportions E.g.: You need four times more tires than steering wheels to build a car
  6. 6. Nutrients Without gaseous phases — must be transported as solids or liquids More common in the Earth crust than in the body The constituents of an animal (or vegetable) body: H O C N S P Na K Ca … 64 P H O C N S Na K Ca … 64 With gaseous phases — can be transported by the air – phosphorus is the most important nutrient ! P 10 times more common in the body than in the Earth crust
  7. 7. Nutrients are essential for life -- but phosphorus is the most crucial
  8. 8. We need a method to use the phosphorus molecules several times, without losses, so we can retain phosphorus on land! !
  9. 9. If we could transfer the phosphorus seamless from organism to organism without losses to sea, we might solve it !
  10. 10. PO 4 DNA Urine Consumption Recycling Reconstruction The regenerative cycle, basic for living systems -- ecosystem level: A seamless transport of phosphorus from organism to organism!
  11. 11. Petrified newspaper found in the Cretaceous – Devon geosynclinal
  12. 12. PO 4 DNA Urine Consumption Recycling Reconstruction The regenerative cycle High exergy Low exergy
  13. 13. Ecosystem maturation Immature system <ul><li>Low diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Annual plants </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Export </li></ul><ul><li>Fast change </li></ul><ul><li>Water export by drainage </li></ul>Mature system <ul><li>High diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial plants </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient circulation </li></ul><ul><li>On-site consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Slow change </li></ul><ul><li>Water export by evaporation </li></ul>Maturation A v a i l a b l e s o l a r e x e r g y
  14. 14. Present times
  15. 15. In preindustrial times, the farmland nutrients came from the meadows Meadows PO 4 N A certain amount of meadows were needed to feed the farmland Manure Feed Food Farmland PO 4 Phosphorus and nitrogen were collected by the meadow plants
  16. 16. During industrialisation, people moved into cities
  17. 17. PO 4 N The nutrients that went away to the cities never came back Manure Feed Food PO 4 These nutrients were collected by the meadow plants In the cities, they also needed food, food from the farms The food contained nutrients The export led to an impoverishment of the agricultural land Food PO 4
  18. 18. The impoverished land produced insufficient harvests This triggered emigration The industrialisation process might have been halted by the loss of nutrients from farmland PO 4 Food
  19. 19. The situation was solved by the invention of artificial fertilizers By that, the nutrients from the meadows became unnecessary Even more food could be produced PO 4 Food PO 4 Food
  20. 20. But in the cities, the situation was becoming problematic PO 4 Food PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion
  21. 21. But the invention of the piping system eased the problems PO 4 Food PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion
  22. 22. However, at the end of the pipe, new problems were encountered Plancton algae multiplied gladly from the new phosphorus PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion
  23. 23. Already 50 years after the introduction of the process, it was realised that it was the phosphorus that caused the problems in the water Therefore, the politicians asked the technicians for a way to remove the phosphorus from the waste water PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion PO 4 Pollu-tion
  24. 24. Naturally, they solved the problem in their usual expedient way Large particle filtration Sedimentation Sedimentation Aeration Flocculation Rotation Filtering Air Aluminum sulphate Sludge The problem Problem solved!
  25. 25. The problem to be solved was: ” How to get (moderately) clean water from the polluted water?” This problem was solved . The problem Problem solved!
  26. 26. Sludge However, the question not asked was: ” How to recycle the phosphorus to avoid the problem?” A large part of the phosphorus is contained in the sludge
  27. 27. Food Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 Most of the food to the city comes from very large distances ..while the phoshorus in the sludge is placed on a much smaller area City
  28. 28. Food Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 This means that there will be an accumulation of phosphorus around the city PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 After some time, the leakage from this heap will equal what is put on The larger the amount accumulated, the larger the leakage
  29. 29. Food Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 At that time, the investment in water purification plants becomes meaningless
  30. 30. Food Food PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 PO 4 The HEAP-effect, in a saturated system When saturated, the system leaks at the same rate as it is loaded With effiecient waste water treatment methods (P precipitation), this state is attained faster City
  31. 31. <ul><li>H ampered </li></ul>E ffluent A ccumulation P rocess The HEAP trap
  32. 32. <ul><li>H ampered E ffluent A ccumulation P rocess </li></ul>(stored amount) The HEAP trap: (leakage) kQ=J Q J Q kQ (stored amount) Leakage = input
  33. 33. The HEAP effect -- diffuse nutrient leakage <ul><li>Is an inevitable effect of urban agglomerations </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inevitable effect of deficient nutrent recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Can be solved by a changed settlement infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(or an extremenly expensive transportation system) </li></ul></ul>
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