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Prior analysis of Twitter and a way forward to create something new in the space of Twitter analysis

Prior analysis of Twitter and a way forward to create something new in the space of Twitter analysis

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  • Twitter metrics and measure Why (more than how to) analyse Twitter Dr Stephen Dann School of Management Marketing & International Business, Australian National University @stephendann or stephen.dann@anu.edu.au
  • Twitter! (What is it good for?)
    • health community (Berger 2009)
    • public libraries (Cahill 2009, Cuddy 2009)
    • political campaigns (Cetina 2009, Henneburg et al 2009)
    • business (Dudley 2009; Power and Forte 2008)
    • journalism (Ettama 2009)
    • civil unrest and protests (Fahmi 2009)
    • social activism (Galer-Unti 2009)
    • live coverage of events (Gay et al 2009)
    • eyewitness accounts (Lariscy et al 2009)
    • government (Macintosh 2009)
    • education (Parslow 2009).
  • Uses and usage
    • casual listening platform
      • Crawford 2009
    • creating the illusion of physicality
      • Hohl 2009
    • sense of connectedness and relationship
      • Henneburg et al 2009
    • venue for conversation
      • Steiner 2009
  • Why dissect a living medium?
  • Metrics
    • What gets measured gets done
    • What gets done can be measured
    • What gets tweeted can be assembled into little diagrams with neat colour schemes
  •  
  • Why bother? “Okay, so if we’re going to do it, can it be done well?” “No?” “How about medium rare?”
  • Coding the Streams
    • Krishnamurthy et al (2008)
    • users were classified by
      • follower/following counts,
        • Numbers and ratios
      • means and mechanisms of their engagement
        • Web (61.7%), mobile/text (7.5%), software (22.4%)
      • volume of use
        • Tweets per time period
    http://www.thegreenhead.com/2008/09/slice-solutions-pie-pan-divider-creates-perfect-slices.php
  • Coding the Streams
    • Java et al 2007
    • 1,348,543 tweets
    • 76,177 users
    • April 01, to May 30, 2007
    • Four meta-categories
    • daily chatter
    • conversations
    • information / URL sharing
    • news reporting
    http://www.thegreenhead.com/2008/09/slice-solutions-pie-pan-divider-creates-perfect-slices.php
  • Analysis 2: The Quickening
    • Jansen et al (2009)
    • tweets with brand name
    • expression of brand sentiment
    • 13-week period
      • April 4, 2008 to July 3, 2008.
    • 650 reporting episodes
      • 13 x 50 brands
    • 149,472 tweets
  • Analysis 3: Oh, those guys
    • Pear Analytics (2009)
    • 2000 tweets
    • 11am to 5pm
    • 10 working days
    • Six part classification
    • news (3.6%),
    • spam (3.75%),
    • self-promotion (5.85%),
    • pointless babble (40.55%)
    • conversational (37.55%)
    • pass-along value (8.70%).
  • Where’s the party @?
    • Honeycutt and Herring (2009)
    • four one-hour samples
    • four-hour intervals
    • 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, on January 11, 2008
    • Sample of 200 tweets coded with grounded methodology
    • 1) Addressivity: Directs a message to another person
    • 2) Reference: Makes reference to another person, but
    • does not direct a message to him or her.
    • 3) Emoticon: Used as part of an emoticon.
    • 4) Email: Used as part of an email address.
    • 5) Locational 'at': Signals where an entity is located.
    • 6) Non-locational 'at': Used to represent the preposition 'at' other than in the sense of location.
    • 7) Other: Uses not fitting into any other category,
  • Categories
    • Naaman, Boase and Lai (2010)
    • Sample of 400 tweets
      • more than one category was assigned to a single message.
    • Sampling frame
      • 125,593 unique user IDs
      • ‘ personal’ Twitter users
      • 10 friends, 10 followers, 10 messages
      • 911 users
    • N = 350 users
    • The Categories
    • Information Sharing
    • Self Promotion
    • Opinions/Complaints
    • Statements and Random Thoughts
    • Me now
    • Question to followers
    • Presence Maintenance
    • Anecdote (me)
    • Anecdote (others)
  • Tweet, Tweet, Retweet
    • danah boyd
    • Scott Golder
    • Gilad Lotan
    • Microsoft!
    • Conversational Aspects of Retweeting on Twitter
    • Process of RT
      • Preservation
      • Shrtn
      • Attribution / Authorship
    • Rationale
      • Amplify
      • Entertain
      • Comment
      • Visible listening
        • Agreement
        • Support
        • AOL/me too
        • Self gain
        • Self archive
  • The consistent theme
    • People keep using Twitter for personal use.
    • Discussions of “self”
    • Pointless babble
    • Conversational
    • All criticisms of the use of twitter for pleasure and personal consumption
  • What Twitter looks like…
    • … and how are people using Twitter?
    Twitter – www.twitter.com ‘ Sup?
  • Recoding the Platform Let’s do it my way
  • Theory and Ideology
    • Useful versus Enjoyable
    • Bohme (2006) outlines a propensity of society to classify technology of all forms into
      • “ useful and therefore valuable”
      • “ enjoyable, therefore irrelevant”.
    Böhme, G (2006) Technical Gadgetry: Technological Development in the Aesthetic Economy, Thesis Eleven, 86 (1): 54-66
  • Why do it?
    • Twitter is not about the aggregate firehose
    • Twitter is how you use it.
    • Analysis: what (twitter history) as an indicator of how (use of the service)
  • Method
    • Grounded Theory
    • Broad categories based on / supported by six prior studies
    • Sub categories developed from theory and data
    • Bunch of different boxes for sorting the letters
    • Personal Twitter History
    • @stephendann
      • 274 Following /
      • 355 Followers
      • 2841 messages
      • Mar 13 2007 to Aug 18 2009
    • Sujathan (2009) “ Twitter to pdf ” software.
  • Categories and Results Don’t actual scale to the public sphere! Huzzah! NO MASS GENERALISATION POSSIBLE!
  • Major Categories
    • Conversational
      • Uses an @statement to address another user
    • Status
      • An answer to “What are you doing now?”.
    • Pass along
      • Tweets of endorsement of content
    • News
      • Identifiable news content which is not UGC
    • Phatic
      • Content independent connected presence
    • Spam
      • Junk traffic, unsolicited automated posts, and other automated tweets generated without user consent
  • Minor Categories
    • Conversational
    • 1. Query
    • 2. Referral
    • 3. Action
    • 4. Response
    • Status
    • 1. Personal
    • 2. Temporal
    • 3. Location
    • 4. Mechanical
    • 5. Physical
    • 6. Work
    • 7. Activity
    • Pass along
    • 1. RT
    • 2. UGC
    • 3. Endorsement
    • News
    • 1. Headlines
    • 2. Sport
    • 3. Event
    • 4. Weather
    • Phatic
    • 1. Greeting
    • 2. Fourth wall
    • 3. Broadcast
    • 4. Unclassifiable
    • Spam
  • Results - @stephendann
  • Conversational
    • Query
      • Questions, question marks or polls
    • Referral
      • An @response which contains URLs or recommendation of other Twitter users.
    • Action
      • Activities involving other Twitter users
    • Response
      • Catch-all classification for conversation @tweets
  • Conversational @USERNAME Beware the polar bears. 30% 850 Response Invading Germany from France. Who's with me? 17% 480 Query @USERNAME Items under $1000 are exempt. http://is.gd/AV7K 2% 66 Pass-along *waves at @USERNAME* 3% 77 Action Exemplar % N Category 3rd pers plural 73.84 21.97 17.05 13637 30% 850 Response Impersonal pronouns, Auxiliary verbs, Tentative, Discrepancy, QMark 75.33 21.22 10.13 7032 17% 480 Query OtherP, Period 54.31 21.86 18.89 1020 2% 66 Pass-along Conjunctions, Inhibition, Inclusive Biological processes 67.75 23.80 14.74 958 3% 77 Action Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  • Conversational
  • Status (1 of 2)
    • Personal
      • Positive or negative sentiment in the form of personal opinion or emotional status
    • Temporal
      • References to specific dates, times, statements of temporal nature (waiting) and temporal action (“Time to” )
    • Location
      • Geographic references and location statements, including statements of traveling, location change
  • Status (2 of 2)
    • Mechanical
      • Technology or mechanical systems
    • Physical
      • Sensory experiences of a physical nature
    • Work
      • Reference to work related activity
    • Activity
      • Direct statements that answer “What are you doing now?”
  • Status Firing off e-mail after e-mail to clear my to do list (knowing that's a great way to regenerate to do list items doesn't stop me or help me) 7% 196 work Waiting for my 2pm performance review to start. 6% 170 temporal It's freezing out there this morning 1% 37 physical I liked Modest Mouse after they became famous. 8% 221 personal Well... I'm in trouble. Used 3829.060MB (62.322%) of your 6GB. You have 22 days remaining 4% 106 mechanical Standing in a lecture theatre talking about Marketing Management. 2% 69 location Diplomacy is the art of saying "Nice doggy" until you find a big enough rock. Captaincy is the timely provision of large enough rocks. 5% 140 broadcast Playing with the internet in the name of science 1% 35 activity Work 80.19 23.96 16.59 3881 7% 196 work Prepositions 79.05 19.84 14.11 3160 6% 170 temporal Perceptual processes, feel, body, health 81.91 23.10 16.87 658 1% 37 physical Total function words, Common verbs, Past / Present tense, Adverbs, Cognitive processes, 80.71 19.05 19.35 4121 8% 221 personal Sadness 70.43 22.02 13.88 1985 4% 106 mechanical Articles, space 78.12 22.96 12.67 1115 2% 69 location Friends, Quote 71.21 22.84 11.21 2119 5% 140 broadcast see, Ingestion,Achievement 76.17 23.26 14.41 533 1% 35 activity Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  • Status
  • Pass along
    • RT
      • Any statement reproducing another Twitter status using the via @ or RT protocol
    • UGC
      • Links to content created by the user
    • Endorsement
      • Links to web content not created by the sender
  • Pass Along http://twitpic.com/2o1c1 - Bus Slogan Generator Time - http://is.gd/hU2Q 4% 122 Ugc L4D Survivors in Rockband2 singing L7 Pretend We're Dead. http://is.gd/BsVE (HT to @LesbianGamers ). It's seriously amazing. 2% 48 RT I'm looking myself up on Publish or Perish (http://rurl.org/iw4) to find a reference to a paper that cited me because I want to cite them 4% 108 endorsement Pass along Exemplar % N Category Numbers, leisure 52.89 20.61 39.98 1679 4% 122 Ugc SemiC 54.31 24.75 16.85 893 2% 48 RT Parenth, Dash 55.71 21.05 30.12 1777 4% 108 endorsement Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  • Pass Along
  • News
    • Headlines
      • Coverage of breaking news and personal eye-witness accounts of news events
    • Sport
      • Identifiable results of sporting events
    • Event
      • Any tweet which represents the live discussion of an identified or identifiable event
    • Weather
      • Report of weather conditions without commentary
  • News - - - Headlines - - - Sport Between NASA's satellite and autoanalysis of imagery, and Google Map data, scientific proof where there's smoke, there's fires #bcc2 0% 13 Event News Exemplar % N Category Negative emotion, Anger Certainty Perceptual processes 65.62 22.92 10.67 192 0% 13 Event News Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  • Phatic
    • Greeting
      • Statements of greetings to the broader Twitter community
    • Fourth wall
      • Textual equivalent of comments made directly to camera in television or cinema
    • Broadcast
      • Textual soliloquy, monologue and undirected statements of opinion
    • Unclassifiable
      • Unclassifiable strings of text
  • Phatic AAAAAAAAAAAAAAARGH 0% 7 Unclassifiable Good morning Twitterverse. How's the world outside? 1% 17 Greeting Note to self: Just because you're carrying tiny vials of hypercaffeine is no reason to start calculating remote delivery systems for them. 2% 49 Fourth wall *wanders through his twitter follower list, blocking all of the automated/spam follower accounts* 1% 30 Action Phatic Exemplar % N Category NIL 33.33 33.33 3.00 6 0% 7 Unclassifiable Future tense, Positive emotion Relativity, time 78.37 29.33 7.70 208 1% 17 Greeting Negations, Quantifiers, Social processes, Humans, Affective processes, Causation, Exclusive 76.44 20.69 12.29 836 2% 49 Fourthwall Anxiety, hear, motion 75.22 26.75 22.80 456 1% 30 Action Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  • Phatic
  • Questions
    • Useful Twitter classification approach?
    • Replicable across multiple accounts?
    • Improvements to the heavy duty lifting?
    • Subjective manual coding is a feature
    • Improved data collection
  • Questions [email_address] Or @stephendann
  • References
    • Böhme, G (2006) Technical Gadgetry: Technological Development in the Aesthetic Economy, Thesis Eleven, 86 (1): 54-66
    • Cetina, K K 2009, What is a Pipe? bama and the Sociological Imagination, Theory, Culture & Society 2009 26(5): 129–140
    • Crawford, K (2009)'Following you: Disciplines of listening in social media',Continuum,23:4,525 — 535
    • Dudley, E 2009, Editorial: Lines of Communication, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 2009; 41; 131-134
    • Ettama, J 2009 New media and new mechanisms of public accountability, Journalism 2009; 10; 319-321
    • Fahmi, W S 2009, Bloggers' street movement and the right to the city. (Re)claiming Cairo's real and virtual "spaces of freedom", Environment and Urbanization 2009; 21; 89-107
    • Galer-Unti, R 2009, Guerilla Advocacy: Using Aggressive Marketing Techniques for Health Policy Change, Health Promotion Practice, 10; 325-327
    • Gay, P Plait, P, Raddick, J, Cain, F and Lakdawalla, E (2009) "Live Casting: Bringing Astronomy to the Masses in Real Time", CAP Journal, June 26-29
    • Henneburg, S. Scammell, M and O'Shaughnessy, N (2009) Political marketing management and theories of democracy, Marketing Theory 2009; 9; 165-188
    • Honeycutt, C and Herring, S C (2009) Beyond Microblogging: Conversation and Collaboration via Twitter, (2009). Proceedings of the Forty-Second Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-42). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Press. 1-10, http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~herring/honeycutt.herring.2009.pdf
    • Jansen, B, Zhang, M, Sobel, K and Chowdury, A (2009) Twitter power: Tweets as electronic word of mouth, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(11):2169–2188, 2009 http://ist.psu.edu/faculty_pages/jjansen/academic/jansen_twitter_electronic_word_of_mouth.pdf
    • Java, A, Song, X, Finin, T and Tseng, B (2007) Why We Twitter: Understanding Microblogging Usage and Communities, Joint 9th WEBKDD and 1st SNA-KDD Workshop ’07 , August 12, 2007, p 56-65
  • References
    • Krishnamurthy, B, Gill, P and Arlitt, M (2008) A Few Chirps About Twitter, WOSN'08, August 18, 2008, 19-24
    • Lariscy, R Avery, E J, Sweetser, K and Howes, P 2009 An examination of the role of online social media in journalists’ source mix, Public Relations Review 35 (2009) 314–316
    • Macintosh, A 2009, The emergence of digital governance, Significance, December, 176-178
    • Naaman, M, Boase, J and Lai, C-H (2010) Is it Really About Me? Message Content in Social Awareness Streams, CSCW 2010, February 6–10
    • Parslow, G, 2009, Commentary: Twitter for Educational Networking, BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 255–256, 2009
    • Pear Analytics (2009) Twitter Study – August 2009, http://www.pearanalytics.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Twitter-Study-August-2009.pdf
    • Power, R and Forte, D 2008, War & Peace in Cyberspace: Don’t twitter away your organisation’s secrets, Computer Fraud and Security, August, 18-20
    • Zhao, D and Rosson, M B, How and Why People Twitter: The Role that Micro-blogging Plays in Informal Communication at Work, GROUP’04, May 10–13, 2009, 243-252
    • This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/au/