Twitter metrics and measure Why (more than how to) analyse Twitter Dr Stephen Dann School of Management  Marketing & Inter...
Twitter!  (What is it good for?) <ul><li>health community (Berger 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>public libraries (Cahill 2009, C...
Uses and usage <ul><li>casual listening platform  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawford 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>creating the ...
Why dissect a living medium?
Metrics <ul><li>What gets measured gets done </li></ul><ul><li>What gets done can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>What gets ...
 
Why bother? “Okay, so if we’re going to do it, can it be done well?”  “No?” “How about medium rare?”
Coding the Streams <ul><li>Krishnamurthy et al (2008)  </li></ul><ul><li>users were classified by  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>f...
Coding the Streams <ul><li>Java et al 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>1,348,543 tweets </li></ul><ul><li>76,177 users  </li></ul><u...
Analysis 2: The Quickening <ul><li>Jansen et al (2009)  </li></ul><ul><li>tweets with brand name  </li></ul><ul><li>expres...
Analysis 3: Oh, those guys <ul><li>Pear Analytics (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>2000 tweets </li></ul><ul><li>11am to 5pm </li>...
Where’s the party @? <ul><li>Honeycutt and Herring (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>four one-hour samples  </li></ul><ul><li>four-...
Categories <ul><li>Naaman, Boase and Lai (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample of 400 tweets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more than one...
Tweet, Tweet, Retweet <ul><li>danah boyd </li></ul><ul><li>Scott Golder </li></ul><ul><li>Gilad Lotan </li></ul><ul><li>Mi...
The consistent theme <ul><li>People keep using Twitter for personal use. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions of “self” </li></ul...
What Twitter looks like… <ul><li>… and how are people using Twitter? </li></ul>Twitter – www.twitter.com ‘ Sup?
Recoding the Platform Let’s do it my way
Theory and Ideology <ul><li>Useful versus Enjoyable </li></ul><ul><li>Bohme (2006) outlines a propensity of society to cla...
Why do it? <ul><li>Twitter is not about the aggregate firehose </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter is how you use it. </li></ul><ul>...
Method <ul><li>Grounded Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Broad categories based on / supported by six prior studies </li></ul><ul>...
Categories and Results Don’t actual scale to the public sphere! Huzzah!  NO MASS GENERALISATION POSSIBLE!
Major Categories <ul><li>Conversational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses an @statement to address another user </li></ul></ul><u...
Minor Categories <ul><li>Conversational </li></ul><ul><li>1. Query </li></ul><ul><li>2. Referral </li></ul><ul><li>3. Acti...
Results - @stephendann
Conversational  <ul><li>Query </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions, question marks or polls  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referral </...
Conversational @USERNAME Beware the polar bears. 30% 850 Response Invading Germany from France. Who's with me? 17% 480 Que...
Conversational
Status (1 of 2) <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative sentiment in the form of personal opinion or e...
Status (2 of 2) <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology or mechanical systems  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical...
Status Firing off e-mail after e-mail to clear my to do list (knowing that's a great way to regenerate to do list items do...
Status
Pass along <ul><li>RT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any statement reproducing another Twitter status using the via @ or RT protoco...
Pass Along http://twitpic.com/2o1c1 - Bus Slogan Generator Time -  http://is.gd/hU2Q 4% 122 Ugc L4D Survivors in Rockband2...
Pass Along
News <ul><li>Headlines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage of breaking news and personal eye-witness accounts of news events </...
News - - - Headlines - - - Sport Between NASA's satellite and autoanalysis of imagery, and Google Map data, scientific pro...
Phatic <ul><li>Greeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements of greetings to the broader Twitter community  </li></ul></ul><ul...
Phatic AAAAAAAAAAAAAAARGH 0% 7 Unclassifiable Good morning Twitterverse. How's the world outside? 1% 17 Greeting Note to s...
Phatic
Questions <ul><li>Useful Twitter classification approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Replicable across multiple accounts? </li></ul...
Questions [email_address]   Or @stephendann
References <ul><li>Böhme, G (2006) Technical Gadgetry: Technological Development in the Aesthetic Economy, Thesis Eleven, ...
References <ul><li>Krishnamurthy, B, Gill, P and Arlitt, M (2008) A Few Chirps About Twitter, WOSN'08, August 18, 2008, 19...
<ul><li>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License. To view a copy of ...
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Twitter Users Guide 2010 Upload

  1. Twitter metrics and measure Why (more than how to) analyse Twitter Dr Stephen Dann School of Management Marketing & International Business, Australian National University @stephendann or stephen.dann@anu.edu.au
  2. Twitter! (What is it good for?) <ul><li>health community (Berger 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>public libraries (Cahill 2009, Cuddy 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>political campaigns (Cetina 2009, Henneburg et al 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>business (Dudley 2009; Power and Forte 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>journalism (Ettama 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>civil unrest and protests (Fahmi 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>social activism (Galer-Unti 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>live coverage of events (Gay et al 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>eyewitness accounts (Lariscy et al 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>government (Macintosh 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>education (Parslow 2009). </li></ul>
  3. Uses and usage <ul><li>casual listening platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawford 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>creating the illusion of physicality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hohl 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>sense of connectedness and relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henneburg et al 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>venue for conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steiner 2009 </li></ul></ul>
  4. Why dissect a living medium?
  5. Metrics <ul><li>What gets measured gets done </li></ul><ul><li>What gets done can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>What gets tweeted can be assembled into little diagrams with neat colour schemes </li></ul>
  6.  
  7. Why bother? “Okay, so if we’re going to do it, can it be done well?” “No?” “How about medium rare?”
  8. Coding the Streams <ul><li>Krishnamurthy et al (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>users were classified by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>follower/following counts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers and ratios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>means and mechanisms of their engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web (61.7%), mobile/text (7.5%), software (22.4%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volume of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tweets per time period </li></ul></ul></ul>http://www.thegreenhead.com/2008/09/slice-solutions-pie-pan-divider-creates-perfect-slices.php
  9. Coding the Streams <ul><li>Java et al 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>1,348,543 tweets </li></ul><ul><li>76,177 users </li></ul><ul><li>April 01, to May 30, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Four meta-categories </li></ul><ul><li>daily chatter </li></ul><ul><li>conversations </li></ul><ul><li>information / URL sharing </li></ul><ul><li>news reporting </li></ul>http://www.thegreenhead.com/2008/09/slice-solutions-pie-pan-divider-creates-perfect-slices.php
  10. Analysis 2: The Quickening <ul><li>Jansen et al (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>tweets with brand name </li></ul><ul><li>expression of brand sentiment </li></ul><ul><li>13-week period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 4, 2008 to July 3, 2008. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>650 reporting episodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 x 50 brands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>149,472 tweets </li></ul>
  11. Analysis 3: Oh, those guys <ul><li>Pear Analytics (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>2000 tweets </li></ul><ul><li>11am to 5pm </li></ul><ul><li>10 working days </li></ul><ul><li>Six part classification </li></ul><ul><li>news (3.6%), </li></ul><ul><li>spam (3.75%), </li></ul><ul><li>self-promotion (5.85%), </li></ul><ul><li>pointless babble (40.55%) </li></ul><ul><li>conversational (37.55%) </li></ul><ul><li>pass-along value (8.70%). </li></ul>
  12. Where’s the party @? <ul><li>Honeycutt and Herring (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>four one-hour samples </li></ul><ul><li>four-hour intervals </li></ul><ul><li>6 a.m. to 6 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, on January 11, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample of 200 tweets coded with grounded methodology </li></ul><ul><li>1) Addressivity: Directs a message to another person </li></ul><ul><li>2) Reference: Makes reference to another person, but </li></ul><ul><li>does not direct a message to him or her. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Emoticon: Used as part of an emoticon. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Email: Used as part of an email address. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Locational 'at': Signals where an entity is located. </li></ul><ul><li>6) Non-locational 'at': Used to represent the preposition 'at' other than in the sense of location. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Other: Uses not fitting into any other category, </li></ul>
  13. Categories <ul><li>Naaman, Boase and Lai (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample of 400 tweets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more than one category was assigned to a single message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampling frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>125,593 unique user IDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ personal’ Twitter users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 friends, 10 followers, 10 messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>911 users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N = 350 users </li></ul><ul><li>The Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Information Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Self Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Opinions/Complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Statements and Random Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Me now </li></ul><ul><li>Question to followers </li></ul><ul><li>Presence Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdote (me) </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdote (others) </li></ul>
  14. Tweet, Tweet, Retweet <ul><li>danah boyd </li></ul><ul><li>Scott Golder </li></ul><ul><li>Gilad Lotan </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft! </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Aspects of Retweeting on Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Process of RT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrtn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution / Authorship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AOL/me too </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self gain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self archive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. The consistent theme <ul><li>People keep using Twitter for personal use. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions of “self” </li></ul><ul><li>Pointless babble </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational </li></ul><ul><li>All criticisms of the use of twitter for pleasure and personal consumption </li></ul>
  16. What Twitter looks like… <ul><li>… and how are people using Twitter? </li></ul>Twitter – www.twitter.com ‘ Sup?
  17. Recoding the Platform Let’s do it my way
  18. Theory and Ideology <ul><li>Useful versus Enjoyable </li></ul><ul><li>Bohme (2006) outlines a propensity of society to classify technology of all forms into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ useful and therefore valuable” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ enjoyable, therefore irrelevant”. </li></ul></ul>Böhme, G (2006) Technical Gadgetry: Technological Development in the Aesthetic Economy, Thesis Eleven, 86 (1): 54-66
  19. Why do it? <ul><li>Twitter is not about the aggregate firehose </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter is how you use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: what (twitter history) as an indicator of how (use of the service) </li></ul>
  20. Method <ul><li>Grounded Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Broad categories based on / supported by six prior studies </li></ul><ul><li>Sub categories developed from theory and data </li></ul><ul><li>Bunch of different boxes for sorting the letters </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Twitter History </li></ul><ul><li>@stephendann </li></ul><ul><ul><li>274 Following / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>355 Followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2841 messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mar 13 2007 to Aug 18 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sujathan (2009) “ Twitter to pdf ” software. </li></ul>
  21. Categories and Results Don’t actual scale to the public sphere! Huzzah! NO MASS GENERALISATION POSSIBLE!
  22. Major Categories <ul><li>Conversational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses an @statement to address another user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An answer to “What are you doing now?”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pass along </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tweets of endorsement of content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifiable news content which is not UGC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content independent connected presence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Junk traffic, unsolicited automated posts, and other automated tweets generated without user consent </li></ul></ul>
  23. Minor Categories <ul><li>Conversational </li></ul><ul><li>1. Query </li></ul><ul><li>2. Referral </li></ul><ul><li>3. Action </li></ul><ul><li>4. Response </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>1. Personal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>3. Location </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>5. Physical </li></ul><ul><li>6. Work </li></ul><ul><li>7. Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Pass along </li></ul><ul><li>1. RT </li></ul><ul><li>2. UGC </li></ul><ul><li>3. Endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>1. Headlines </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sport </li></ul><ul><li>3. Event </li></ul><ul><li>4. Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Phatic </li></ul><ul><li>1. Greeting </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fourth wall </li></ul><ul><li>3. Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>4. Unclassifiable </li></ul><ul><li>Spam </li></ul>
  24. Results - @stephendann
  25. Conversational <ul><li>Query </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions, question marks or polls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An @response which contains URLs or recommendation of other Twitter users. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities involving other Twitter users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch-all classification for conversation @tweets </li></ul></ul>
  26. Conversational @USERNAME Beware the polar bears. 30% 850 Response Invading Germany from France. Who's with me? 17% 480 Query @USERNAME Items under $1000 are exempt. http://is.gd/AV7K 2% 66 Pass-along *waves at @USERNAME* 3% 77 Action Exemplar % N Category 3rd pers plural 73.84 21.97 17.05 13637 30% 850 Response Impersonal pronouns, Auxiliary verbs, Tentative, Discrepancy, QMark 75.33 21.22 10.13 7032 17% 480 Query OtherP, Period 54.31 21.86 18.89 1020 2% 66 Pass-along Conjunctions, Inhibition, Inclusive Biological processes 67.75 23.80 14.74 958 3% 77 Action Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  27. Conversational
  28. Status (1 of 2) <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative sentiment in the form of personal opinion or emotional status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>References to specific dates, times, statements of temporal nature (waiting) and temporal action (“Time to” ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic references and location statements, including statements of traveling, location change </li></ul></ul>
  29. Status (2 of 2) <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology or mechanical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory experiences of a physical nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference to work related activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct statements that answer “What are you doing now?” </li></ul></ul>
  30. Status Firing off e-mail after e-mail to clear my to do list (knowing that's a great way to regenerate to do list items doesn't stop me or help me) 7% 196 work Waiting for my 2pm performance review to start. 6% 170 temporal It's freezing out there this morning 1% 37 physical I liked Modest Mouse after they became famous. 8% 221 personal Well... I'm in trouble. Used 3829.060MB (62.322%) of your 6GB. You have 22 days remaining 4% 106 mechanical Standing in a lecture theatre talking about Marketing Management. 2% 69 location Diplomacy is the art of saying &quot;Nice doggy&quot; until you find a big enough rock. Captaincy is the timely provision of large enough rocks. 5% 140 broadcast Playing with the internet in the name of science 1% 35 activity Work 80.19 23.96 16.59 3881 7% 196 work Prepositions 79.05 19.84 14.11 3160 6% 170 temporal Perceptual processes, feel, body, health 81.91 23.10 16.87 658 1% 37 physical Total function words, Common verbs, Past / Present tense, Adverbs, Cognitive processes, 80.71 19.05 19.35 4121 8% 221 personal Sadness 70.43 22.02 13.88 1985 4% 106 mechanical Articles, space 78.12 22.96 12.67 1115 2% 69 location Friends, Quote 71.21 22.84 11.21 2119 5% 140 broadcast see, Ingestion,Achievement 76.17 23.26 14.41 533 1% 35 activity Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  31. Status
  32. Pass along <ul><li>RT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any statement reproducing another Twitter status using the via @ or RT protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UGC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to content created by the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endorsement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to web content not created by the sender </li></ul></ul>
  33. Pass Along http://twitpic.com/2o1c1 - Bus Slogan Generator Time - http://is.gd/hU2Q 4% 122 Ugc L4D Survivors in Rockband2 singing L7 Pretend We're Dead. http://is.gd/BsVE (HT to @LesbianGamers ). It's seriously amazing. 2% 48 RT I'm looking myself up on Publish or Perish (http://rurl.org/iw4) to find a reference to a paper that cited me because I want to cite them 4% 108 endorsement Pass along Exemplar % N Category Numbers, leisure 52.89 20.61 39.98 1679 4% 122 Ugc SemiC 54.31 24.75 16.85 893 2% 48 RT Parenth, Dash 55.71 21.05 30.12 1777 4% 108 endorsement Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  34. Pass Along
  35. News <ul><li>Headlines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage of breaking news and personal eye-witness accounts of news events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifiable results of sporting events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any tweet which represents the live discussion of an identified or identifiable event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report of weather conditions without commentary </li></ul></ul>
  36. News - - - Headlines - - - Sport Between NASA's satellite and autoanalysis of imagery, and Google Map data, scientific proof where there's smoke, there's fires #bcc2 0% 13 Event News Exemplar % N Category Negative emotion, Anger Certainty Perceptual processes 65.62 22.92 10.67 192 0% 13 Event News Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  37. Phatic <ul><li>Greeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements of greetings to the broader Twitter community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textual equivalent of comments made directly to camera in television or cinema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textual soliloquy, monologue and undirected statements of opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unclassifiable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclassifiable strings of text </li></ul></ul>
  38. Phatic AAAAAAAAAAAAAAARGH 0% 7 Unclassifiable Good morning Twitterverse. How's the world outside? 1% 17 Greeting Note to self: Just because you're carrying tiny vials of hypercaffeine is no reason to start calculating remote delivery systems for them. 2% 49 Fourth wall *wanders through his twitter follower list, blocking all of the automated/spam follower accounts* 1% 30 Action Phatic Exemplar % N Category NIL 33.33 33.33 3.00 6 0% 7 Unclassifiable Future tense, Positive emotion Relativity, time 78.37 29.33 7.70 208 1% 17 Greeting Negations, Quantifiers, Social processes, Humans, Affective processes, Causation, Exclusive 76.44 20.69 12.29 836 2% 49 Fourthwall Anxiety, hear, motion 75.22 26.75 22.80 456 1% 30 Action Linguistic Inquiry Results Dictionary Words >6 letters Words/ Sentence Word Count % N Category
  39. Phatic
  40. Questions <ul><li>Useful Twitter classification approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Replicable across multiple accounts? </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements to the heavy duty lifting? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective manual coding is a feature </li></ul><ul><li>Improved data collection </li></ul>
  41. Questions [email_address] Or @stephendann
  42. References <ul><li>Böhme, G (2006) Technical Gadgetry: Technological Development in the Aesthetic Economy, Thesis Eleven, 86 (1): 54-66 </li></ul><ul><li>Cetina, K K 2009, What is a Pipe? bama and the Sociological Imagination, Theory, Culture & Society 2009 26(5): 129–140 </li></ul><ul><li>Crawford, K (2009)'Following you: Disciplines of listening in social media',Continuum,23:4,525 — 535 </li></ul><ul><li>Dudley, E 2009, Editorial: Lines of Communication, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 2009; 41; 131-134 </li></ul><ul><li>Ettama, J 2009 New media and new mechanisms of public accountability, Journalism 2009; 10; 319-321 </li></ul><ul><li>Fahmi, W S 2009, Bloggers' street movement and the right to the city. (Re)claiming Cairo's real and virtual &quot;spaces of freedom&quot;, Environment and Urbanization 2009; 21; 89-107 </li></ul><ul><li>Galer-Unti, R 2009, Guerilla Advocacy: Using Aggressive Marketing Techniques for Health Policy Change, Health Promotion Practice, 10; 325-327 </li></ul><ul><li>Gay, P Plait, P, Raddick, J, Cain, F and Lakdawalla, E (2009) &quot;Live Casting: Bringing Astronomy to the Masses in Real Time&quot;, CAP Journal, June 26-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Henneburg, S. Scammell, M and O'Shaughnessy, N (2009) Political marketing management and theories of democracy, Marketing Theory 2009; 9; 165-188 </li></ul><ul><li>Honeycutt, C and Herring, S C (2009) Beyond Microblogging: Conversation and Collaboration via Twitter, (2009). Proceedings of the Forty-Second Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-42). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Press. 1-10, http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~herring/honeycutt.herring.2009.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jansen, B, Zhang, M, Sobel, K and Chowdury, A (2009) Twitter power: Tweets as electronic word of mouth, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(11):2169–2188, 2009 http://ist.psu.edu/faculty_pages/jjansen/academic/jansen_twitter_electronic_word_of_mouth.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Java, A, Song, X, Finin, T and Tseng, B (2007) Why We Twitter: Understanding Microblogging Usage and Communities, Joint 9th WEBKDD and 1st SNA-KDD Workshop ’07 , August 12, 2007, p 56-65 </li></ul>
  43. References <ul><li>Krishnamurthy, B, Gill, P and Arlitt, M (2008) A Few Chirps About Twitter, WOSN'08, August 18, 2008, 19-24 </li></ul><ul><li>Lariscy, R Avery, E J, Sweetser, K and Howes, P 2009 An examination of the role of online social media in journalists’ source mix, Public Relations Review 35 (2009) 314–316 </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh, A 2009, The emergence of digital governance, Significance, December, 176-178 </li></ul><ul><li>Naaman, M, Boase, J and Lai, C-H (2010) Is it Really About Me? Message Content in Social Awareness Streams, CSCW 2010, February 6–10 </li></ul><ul><li>Parslow, G, 2009, Commentary: Twitter for Educational Networking, BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 255–256, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Pear Analytics (2009) Twitter Study – August 2009, http://www.pearanalytics.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Twitter-Study-August-2009.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Power, R and Forte, D 2008, War & Peace in Cyberspace: Don’t twitter away your organisation’s secrets, Computer Fraud and Security, August, 18-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Zhao, D and Rosson, M B, How and Why People Twitter: The Role that Micro-blogging Plays in Informal Communication at Work, GROUP’04, May 10–13, 2009, 243-252 </li></ul>
  44. <ul><li>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/au/ </li></ul>

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