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  1. 1. European Imperialism
  2. 2. Imperialism defined: The extension of rule or influence by one government, nation, or society over another.
  3. 3. crap Darth VaderImperial Officer Storm TrooperStorm Trooper
  4. 4. Established, Old World Nations Old World Military Power and Technology Old World Military Power and Technology Less Developed Nations (Africa, New World, India, Pacific Islands) crap
  5. 5. Imperialism: Subtypes Sociologist Lewis Samuel Feuer identifies two major subtypes of imperialism: Regressive Imperialism – Identified by pure conquest, total exploitation, extermination or reductions of undesired peoples, and settlement of desired peoples (colonization) into those territories Progressive Imperialism – Promotes the spread of civilization to allegedly "backward" societies to elevate living standards and culture in conquered territories; allows conquered people to assimilate (blend into) into the imperial society
  6. 6. Major Political, Economic and Social Motivations that Influenced European Imperialism
  7. 7. Political Motivation Nationalism – An extreme form of patriotism, marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries Nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies: The thought process among European nations was basically that the more territory your country controlled abroad, the more prestigious it was to be a citizen of that country.
  8. 8. Political Motivation Berlin Conference (1884-85) – A series of meetings held in Berlin, Germany among European leaders; regulated European colonization and trade in Africa by dividing the continent between 14 European nations. The conference formalized the “Scramble for Africa” The Scramble for Africa – a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers between 1881 and World War I in 1914. Europeans tried to justify their actions as “eliminating the threat of a Europe- wide war over Africa.”
  9. 9. Economic Motivation The Triangle Trade and the later Industrial Revolution led to a search for new markets and raw materials; rubber, palm oil and cocoa become cash crops in European colonies. Mining in diamonds, copper, gold, silver and tin from overseas colonies provided Europeans with great wealth and greater incentive to maintain control there.
  10. 10. Potosi (Cerro Rico or “Rich Mountain”) is also known as “The Mountain That Eats Men Alive.” It has been estimated that during the three centuries of Spanish rule in South America (1545 to 1825) as many as eight million Natives and Africans died in and around the Silver mines.
  11. 11. Economic Motivation Spanish Pieces of Eight (the Spanish dollar) were gold and silver coins mined and minted in the former Inca Empire and became the first worldwide currency The mint mark for the Potosi Mines in present-day Bolivia is also thought to be the origin of the dollar sign.
  12. 12. Social Motivation • Advancements in technology led Europeans to develop racist attitudes as felt they were superior to others. (Europeans saw indigenous Africans and New World natives the same way) • White Man’s Burden – It was believed that it was the responsibility of Europeans to “civilize” non-Westerners. “the rich (whites) have a moral duty and obligation to help ‘the poor’ (coloreds) ‘better’ themselves whether the poor (coloreds) want the help or not.” • Christian missionaries wanted to “civilize” non- westerners by forcing them to adopt their religions.
  13. 13. Major Characteristics of European Imperialism
  14. 14. Characteristics Forms of Colonial Control Colony – Governed internally by a foreign power -- Most government officials are brought in from the outside (Colonial governors, magistrates, etc.) Protectorate – a country with its own internal government, but is controlled by an outside power -- The Greeks, Romans and Mongols all used this approach in ancient times and collected tribute from these leaders as a result
  15. 15. Characteristics Forms of Colonial Control Sphere of Influence – an area claimed by an outside power for exclusive investment and trading -- Mercantilism is an example; trade only occurs with the Mother Country (the country that set up the colony) Economic Imperialism – Independent countries controlled by private interests -- The Dole Fruit Co. in Hawaii benefitted greatly from the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii; the takeover was motivated by companies seeking to avoid high tariffs on Hawaiian goods
  16. 16. The Sun Never Sets on The British Empire – 1919
  17. 17. European Imperialism Patterns of Management
  18. 18. Imperial Patterns of Management Indirect Control – Local government officials have limited self-rule, but laws are based on European styles and rules -- The British ruled its African and Indian colonies in this manner; colonies are basically protectorates; distance from the Mother Country is a factor as well Direct Control – Exclusive use of foreign officials with no self-rule; Laws based only on European law; policies of assimilation (adopting the Mother Country’s culture) used to absorb local population into European culture -- The British attempted – unsuccessfully – to rule Northern Ireland in this manner since they were nearby
  19. 19. Resistance Movements against European Imperialism
  20. 20. Resistance Movements Zulu Wars in South Africa (1879) – The British initiated and won a brief war against the Zulu Tribe; enacted indirect rule afterward Algerian Resistance Movement (1954-1962) – The French win a military victory, but Algerians gain independence Sepoy Rebellion in India (1857) – Sepoys (Indian soldiers) employed by the British East India Company rebel over religious issues; The British win a military victory and enact direct rule for the next 89 years
  21. 21. Resistance Movements Ho Chi Minh in French Indochina (1946-1954) – France, weakened by World War II, cannot contain a rebellion led by Ho Chi Minh. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia all gain independence. Vietnam was split into North and South; sets stage for Vietnam War Emilio Aguinaldo in the Philippines – Aguinaldo led a successful revolt against the Spanish (1896-1898) and a failed revolt against the U.S. (1899-1902). The U.S. controls the Philippines until 1946.
  22. 22. Negative Consequences of European Imperialism
  23. 23. Negative Consequences Native people lose control of their lands and independence – In every case (America, Africa, India, etc.) the indigenous population is brushed aside by superior military technology and organization New diseases like smallpox reduce native populations – Disease was an even bigger factor than military technology in the Native American loss of the New World
  24. 24. Negative Consequences Resistance movements, famines resulting from shifts to cash crop production and harsh working conditions also reduce native populations – The devastation of the indigenous population caused by the Spanish conquest of the New World is one of history’s best examples Problem of identity as Westerners view native cultures with contempt – Racism results as natives are seen as savage, uncivilized and uneducated by Europeans
  25. 25. Negative Consequences Areas stripped of natural resources – The Belgians, for example, stripped The Congo of copper, rubber and uranium while keeping the native population fighting against one another Artificial boundaries either combine rival groups or divide kinship groups that create political problems in the former colonies – Divisions created in Africa within the native populations still have a negative impact on the continent today (civil wars, tribal wars, etc.)
  26. 26. “Positive” Consequences of European Imperialism
  27. 27. “Positive” Consequences European military presence reduces local warfare – Rivalries among native groups are controlled by the Mother Country’s military (conflict is bad for business) Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and education that leads to growth in life expectancy and literacy – Technology from the Mother Country leads to life improvements among the native population
  28. 28. “Positive” Consequences Colonial land equipped with infrastructure to aid economic growth – More technology from the Mother Country results in improvements of basic physical systems, including roads, utilities, water, sewage, etc. Products from colonies valued in the international market – The economic future of the colony improves, but the colony doesn’t really benefit because it’s not independent