KEN Need Focus and Priorities Hard Rock Café Clarity Positioning Challenge: KSFs Transformation>Information
WENDY Support is there, not commitment. There is a lot that people don’t know about libraries. Support is only marginally related to use. Don’t focus on users. Perceptions of the librarian are highly relevant to support. “Passionate librarians” who are involved in the community make a difference. The library occupies a clear position as a provider of practical answers and information. This is a crowded space. Reposition. Belief that the library is a transformational force in people’s lives is directly related to their level of funding support. Increasing support may not necessarily mean a trade-off with financial support for other public services. Elected officials are supportive… but not committed to increased funding. Identifying and engaging super supporters and probable supporters is critical.
WENDY Research: “passionate” librarians who are visibly involved with the community make a difference. They are known to engage supporters. Example of Rose Powers, branch head at Chicago PL.
WENDY Research implies much about they way we must craft and target our messages. Transformations often conveyed by stories. Denning: “springboard stories”: short, hero, aha moment, urgency and action. Collect and tell them strategically. Infrastructure for our desired future: prosperity, quality of life, social cohesion. Necessity: group with the essentials. Future rather than nostalgia (though nostalgia has some appeal). Focus on the benefits in ROI terms. Rich body of evidence.
KEN Governing magazine free/Governing Summit Annual/Ken’s blog Alliances based on Results > Ideology Values over Polls Scan for Threats Problem > Solution Focus on Common Goals Innovate in Place Groom the Next Generation Base on strategically developed, clearly articulated outcomes Use clear metrics on inputs, outputs, outcomes Align budget with overall jurisdictional goals and objectives Reduce administrative requirements; focus on results (LSSI) Use audits less for chasing dollars and more for ensuring efficient and effective ops. Collect data – tamely, relevant, robust What needs to be done and why – what do citizens want; what do decision-makers want Budget for Outcomes Show the Citizen Value Trade Rules for Results Validate Plan by the Numbers Ask
KEN BUDGET – GO THROUGH Cs
KEN Rationality/ appeals/ consultation Carville Matalin Socio/Economic/Educational Context; History Connecting with Changing Agendas Legitimacy Trust Relationships View of Colleagues Tactics: Ingratiation (make them feel important) Assertiveness (make demands) Rationality (explain reasons) Sanctions (administrative means for compliance) Exchange of benefits (trade-offs) Upward influence (appeal to higher levels) Blocking (prevent from achieving goal) Coalitions (enlist others to influence) Inspirational Appeals Consultation Most common: rational and inspiration appeals and consultation Least common: exchange, coalitions and pressure tactics (blocking and sanctions) Least successful: controlling and power
KEN COMMITMENT AND CONSISTENCY -- VALUES
KEN WHAT DOES NOT WORK IN ISOLATION Demand for Services Entreaties from Patrons/Customers Advocacy by Stakeholders Lobbying by Boards Effectiveness of Service Perceptions of Service ? Lobbyists Power and control INTUITION The hard sell. No compromise Persuasion is not great arguments (need credibility, emotional language, mutual beneficial) One-shot effort. Conger. HBR Persuasion is not convincing and selling but learning and negotiating.
WENDY It is not my job Lack competence (or a plan) Talking is not influencing There are no silver bullets or quick fixes Do not try to influence everyone (focus on reports and opinion leaders) WHY NOT DO THESE THINGS?
WENDY Definition Public Relations Publicity Marketing Lobbying At the Table
WENDY Connect Agendas; Their Reasons/Not Yours; About relationships and Respect; Banking
KEN Power: possession of control, authority or influence over others Influence: act of producing an effect without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command Control > Direct Influence > Indirect Influence > No Influence REWARD / COERCIVE / LEGITIMATE (POSITION) / REFERENT (ATTRACTED TO YOU) / EXPERT (mgrs overvalue credibility and expertise)
WENDY CRUTCHFIELD AND GRANT
Joan Rivers; CURSE OF HIGH PUBLIC SATISFACTION; POLICE / FIRE POOR PERFOMANCE LOW EXPECTATIONS VS SOCCER FIELDS IF BRUTE FORCE NOT WORKING NOT USING ENOUGH! About relationships About approaches About context About issues About issues – framing; information; expertise
WENDY TARGETING AND ENGAGING KEY INFLUENCERS,INCLUDING FORMER BOARD MEMBERS, MUNICIPAL LEADERS, PEOPLE ACROSS THE LEFT/RIGHT SPECTRUM, KEEPING THE TENT BIG
WENDY REPUTATION FOR WHINY-TONED LETTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS ADVOCATE-CENTRED, STAFF, CENTRED COMMUNICATIONS FALL FLAT
KEN Importance of networks for all staff Know your MLA, council members, provost, deans not about wining but negotiating for long haul Couples— Coercion no Rationality no “ You know, we’ve been together for a while now. We share the same goals” then the pitch. Yet we do not do this… even existing partnerships. Especially under stress.
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Reshaping the Advocacy Debatefor Stronger Learning, Schools, Librariesand Communities Stephen Abram Additional Credit: Ken Haycock & Wendy Newman
Not Business as Usual! Change is speeding up (D’oh!) Boomers aren’t the largest demographic Demographics have changed radically (although opinions haven’t caught up) Kids have materially changed (brain, genome, IQ, development …) Technology has changed more than everything Personal matters – e.g. shared home lines to personal mobile “Everything bad is good for you” Managing the ‘Commons’ as strategy not service space Role of quality curation versus consumer web search Library staff T&D, webinars and conferences, TALL Texans / NELI EveryLibrary.org PAC2
What we know is POWERFUL! Via Stephen’s Lighthouse Blog “Curb Your librarian Frustration in 8 Easy Steps” New York State 2012 Summary of School Library Research Ken Haycock OLA Summary of School Library Impact Studies Advance: McKinley HS Study by Project Tomorrow Project Tomorrow reports to Congress Alison Head and Information Fluency research Foresee Data and overall Usage Data Pew Internet & American Life reports Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation studies IMLS, NCES, ARL, ACRL, ALA, LJ, etc.3
What We Never Really Knew Before 27% of our users are under 18. 59% are female. 29% are college students. 5% are professors and 6% are teachers. On any given day, 35% of our users are there for the very first time! Only 29% found the databases via the library website. 59% found what they were looking for on their first search. 72% trusted our content more than Google. But, 81% still use Google. (Wikipedia too)
2010 Eduventures Research on Investments 58% of instructors believe that technology in courses positively impacts student engagement. 71% of instructors that rated student engagement levels as “high” as a result of using technology in courses. 71% of students who are employed full-time and 77% of students who are employed part-time prefer more technology- based tools in the classroom. 79% of instructors and 86 percent of students have seen the average level of engagement improve over the last year as they have increased their use of digital educational tools. 87% of students believe online libraries and databases have had the most significant impact on their overall learning. 62% identify blogs, wikis, and other online authoring tools while 59% identify YouTube and recorded lectures. E-books and e-textbooks impact overall learning among 50% of students surveyed, while 42% of students identify online portals. 44% of instructors believe that online libraries and databases will have the greatest impact on student engagement. 32% of instructors identify e-textbooks and 30% identify interactive homework solutions as having the potential to improve engagement and learning outcomes. (e-readers was 11%) 49% of students believe that online libraries and databases will have the greatest impact on student engagement. Students are more optimistic about the potential for technology.
Sadly… New research shows . . .Library leaders are seen positively but not perceived to work with politicians or other community leaders for community development or betterment.
Advocacy Positioning Issues• Transformation not information Transactions.• Broad infrastructure not institutional walls.• Necessity not nice to have.• Future focused rather than past and tradition.• Return on investment (for me) not altruism for others.• Education and Information Professionals not ‘Service’ or Servant• Impact and Outcomes not Statistics and Effort• Values based not Motherhood and Apple Pie
The 70’sOld realities: generation gap power in numbers petitions “squeaky wheel” confrontation expected money available
NowNew Realities “Boomers” in power But diversity rules numbers = mandate interest groups less influential confrontation no longer effective money available but only for government priorities and emergencies
The Decision-maker’s Environmentvolatility of the public mood/staff moralegeneral dissatisfaction, distaste for the governing/administrative process and those within itpublic expectations & dogma tax relief spending cuts social program maintenance deficit reduction
The Decision-maker’s environment the reality that revenues grow more slowly than expenditures trickle down effect: federal-state municipal-institutional result: cost containment, fiscal conservatism, “hanging tough” look for “real savings” and “scapegoats” less responsive to special interests
The Decision-maker’s environment What points can we make that are more compelling than their need to “hang tough” in the current environment?What proofs do we have?Role of social media?
What is Lobbying? Influencing decision- makers in the legislative process to take a certain position which they may otherwise not have taken.
Leadership Defined Leadership is a process of social influence through which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.
What WorksRationality/ appeals/ consultationSocio/Economic/Educational Context; History Connecting with Changing Agendas Legitimacy Trust Relationships View of ColleaguesTactics:Ingratiation (make them feel important)Assertiveness (make demands)Rationality (explain reasons)Sanctions (administrative means for compliance)Exchange of benefits (trade-offs & compromise)Upward influence (appeal to higher levels)Blocking (prevent from achieving goal)Coalitions (enlist others to influence)Inspirational AppealsConsultation
What Works with PoliticiansCoalitionsNetworks of groups and individualsInfluential: personal values and beliefs and measures of ideology; belief about the outcome.Motivation: satisfying constituents, gaining influence, making good policyRelationships with them and THEIR networksAligning with their learning style(s)Stories
What Does Not WorkWHAT DOES NOT WORK IN ISOLATION✖ Demand for Services (Threats)✖ Entreaties from Patrons/Customers✖ Advocacy by Stakeholders✖ Lobbying by Boards✖ Effectiveness of Service✖ Perceptions of Service? Lobbyists✖ Power and control✖ INTUITION• The hard sell.• No compromise• Persuasion is not great arguments• (need credibility, emotional language, mutually beneficial)• One-shot effort.• Persuasion is not convincing or selling but learning and negotiating.
“Relationships cause people to want to be with you, but respect causes them to want to be empowered by you.”“The reality is that difficulties seldom defeat people; lack of faith in themselves usually does it.”
What is Advocacy?• Understanding the agenda (e.g. smaller government)• creating a common agenda with decision-makers• lobbying effectively• working with the media• delivering the right message• to the right person• network of advocates
Three things to remember:People do things for their reasons not yoursPeople pay attention to the things that they love and valueTell people what they need to hear, not what you want them to know.
What is Lobbying? Influencing decision- makers in the legislative process to take a certain position which they may otherwise not have taken.
What is Public Relations? Getting the library’s message across This is who we are and what we do, this is when and where we do it and for whom... This is the Benefit.
What is Marketing? finding out what the customer needs and changing, when necessary, to meet those needs who are you, and what do you need, how, where and when can we best deliver it to you, tell you about it, [and what are you willing to pay or fund?]
What is Advocacy? marketing an issue support and awareness are built incrementally your agenda will be greatly assisted by what we have to offer
Advocacy is:• telling the/a library story• creating conditions that allow others to act on your behalf• expanding someone’s consciousness• evoking or creating memories• confirming your identity• enhancing awareness, appreciation, support• Shared agenda – ALL types of libraries• HAVING A GOAL
Advocacy is:• an exercise in creativity and initiative• an art and a science• creating relationships, partnerships, coalitions• respecting other people’s views, priorities and reasons• a responsibility of leaders• about potential and the future: the survival of libraries• Non partisan
Betrayal One of the main roles of an advocate is to “wake up” ourselves and others, and it is often through some form of betrayal that we receive such a wakeup call.
Roles in Advocacy It is critical that groups in the sameenvironment are working in acoordinated and congruent mannertoward the same objectives.
Roles in Advocacy Decision makers feel uncertain and confused when groups or individuals supposedly working together assert different priorities. It also gives them an excuse to do nothing.
What’s at Stake?Library users tell us of:the need for the librarian as a gateway and navigator to the increasingly overwhelming world of information and knowledge.the need for the library as a public place for community, learning and for intellectual discourse. (cynefyn)the need for the electronic delivery of full text information and graphics to the user’s desktop –where they are.Shared inspiration, community and learning
What’s at Stake? Research tells us that the public and our users are consistently more supportive of libraries, librarians and library funding than our decision makers. Positions: Economic Learning Impact Social & Access Mediation
What’s at Stake? “People love their libraries, but libraries cannot live on love alone.” Harness your passion! Find your courage!
Finding your passion...Dig down deeply underneath your concerns and find out what is really important to you about libraries.
Finding your courage...knowing what you really believe, and being passionate in that belief, is the first step in finding the courage to speak out.
Finding your courage... The more you make your issue about the other person’s needs, it becomes less about you. And if it is not about you, what is there to be afraid of?
The Advocacy PlanStart by asking these questions...Do we all have the same understanding of the issue? Words matter.Do we all agree that action must be taken?Do we have the time to dedicate to a serious planning effort?Will we make the time?
The Advocacy Plan Understand the environment in which your decision-makers are working. It determines the context for your planning.
Influencing Decision-makers Neutral position Your position Contrary position Neutral position Your positionWhat we want to do is move someone from the position they are currently at to a new position on an issue.
What influence techniques work on you?How were others successful in influencing yourposition? What did they do? What did they say? Your original position, Your new describe it: position,describe it:
Why be an advocate?If you don’t stand up for yourselfand what you believe, who will doit for you?If you do nothing, will decision-makers usually do the right thing?You are your own best advocate!
The 5-step Advocacy Plan 1. Objectives 2. Target Groups 3. Strategies what? where? when?who? how? 4. Communication Tools 5. Evaluation
The 5-Step Advocacy Plan Objective: have a clear, measurable objective.
Objective Make sure your objectives are SMART: Specific Measurable Action-oriented with Responsibilities stated and Timed
The 5-step Advocacy PlanTarget Group(s): know who isimportant in the achieving of yourobjective; find out all you canabout them and their interests.
Target Groups Your most important target group is often the smallest in number and thus potentially the easiest to reach.
Target Groups deliver the right message to the right person who is important to a particular decision maker? get them to help champion your cause what is their context? research, research, research
Strategies What are the obstacles? Physical Personal Semantic Environmental
Strategies: Overcoming ‘obstacles’ Factors in the environment influencing government decisions public opinion fiscal pressures interest groups media coverage timing: budgets, shuffles, elections opposition parties civil servants
The 5-step Advocacy Plan Strategies1. What?2. Where?3. When?4. Who?5. Why?6. How?
StrategiesWhat?Acknowledge all thefactors that maystand in the way ofachieving yourobjective: theobstacles.
Strategies: overcoming obstacles Creating a Common Agenda credible, relevant information is the key to success accurate information earns trust; misinformation will destroy it anyone can whine about an issue, not everyone can solve it your issue is never alone on the agenda
Strategies: overcomingobstacles The agenda gap: your agenda and the government or organization’s agenda may or may not be the same governments/organizations make decisions based on perceived public/ organizational interest the development of your position must reflect an understanding of their agenda
Strategies: overcomingobstacles Creating a Common Agenda this understanding will allow you to bridge the agenda gap this understanding is critical to your being perceived as credible and with constructive solutions
StrategiesWhere? “on their turf”When? on their time schedule, opportunistic tooWho? decide carefully who will do the communicating - match carefully for credibility
Strategies “People love their libraries,How? Determine what your key message but libraries will be - use cannot live on “soundbites” love alone.”
The 5-step Advocacy Plan Communication Tools: Take a look at your strategies and decide what communication tool will most effectively deliver your message.
The Most Effective Communication Tools word-of-mouth one-on-one meetings telephone group meetings public meetings, forums
Mass Communication ToolsE-mailTweetsLinkedInFacebookG+YouTubeletterspromotional materialinstructional materialnews releasesadvertisingbusiness cardsWebsitesT-shirts, buttons, bookmarks
Communication tools -protocol invitations thank you’s photographs special events awards
CommunicationAdvocacy is about RESPECTunderstand what makes the other person “tick” - speak their languagebe briefbe appreciativebe specificbe informativebe courteousWIIFTShare and be social and memorable
The 5-step Advocacy PlanEvaluationPlan now how you will measureyour success. (link back to yourobjective.)
Evaluationpart of planning: state measures of success in your objectivesaccountabilitydid you meet your objectives?what worked? Didn’t?would you do it again?what changes would you make?
SummaryAn effective advocate: knows how to access and use necessary resources knows how to contact key decision-makers writes an effective letter to a decision-maker knows who can get to the key decision-makers
SummaryAn effective advocate: • understands the governing environment • says “thank you”.... often • understands the importance of timing • never, ever cries “wolf” • is never a “lone wolf” • Knows the humanity of decision makers
Forces for Good: High-Impact NonprofitsPresents six practices of high impact non-profits:offering advocacy efforts and serviceharnessing market forces and leveraging the power and resources of businessengaging individuals from outside the organizationworking with and through other organizationslearning to adaptsharing leadership by empowering others
Lessons about tipping pointsConcentrate resources on a few key areas…connectors, mavens, salespeopleDo not do what you think is right… test your intuitionsRecognize phases… Early adopters; early majority; late majority; laggards
So… It is about advocacy and leadership… It is about relationships and influence… It is understanding the target – values, networks, connections, promises, colleagues, context… It is understanding the tactics and strategies and choosing appropriately and strategically… It is part of life in the organization and should be funded, supported and measured…
Conclusions…there is no one right answer, as situations and contexts vary… but there is evidence about what works and it is generally not what we are doing now…a critical new role dilemma is how to move advocacy based on evidence up the priority list in our organizations…we need more action-based research projects...We need leaders who understand and exercise social influence…The relationship is the message…