Natural toxicants:  Should we care if we are eating, breathing or drinking them? What is our Government’s role to protect?...
What is a natural toxin? <ul><li>Natural toxicant are elements and/or compounds that are present in gaseous, solid or liqu...
Are there laws/policies that protect?   <ul><li>Lots! </li></ul><ul><li>There are at least twenty-five separate acts of th...
What are some natural toxins that may be a risk to population health in Canada? There are many natural toxins that may pos...
Lots of laws/policies and regulations… <ul><li>Treasury Board Government of Canada Guidelines on Real Property Management ...
<ul><li>Just not for  natural toxicants … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at least not very well </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Health Canada and Environment Canada combine to define guidelines relative to air quality </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cana...
<ul><li>Lack of compositional (chemical and physical) guidelines of Particle Matter (PM)  </li></ul>What’s missing…
Why not use… Geological earth materials can play a significant role in quality issues: exposure pathways, absorption, biod...
Human body response (bioaccessibility) to earth materials… (Plumlee et al. 2006)
Water <ul><li>The Canada Water Act (1970) enables federal and provincial control over water resource management   </li></u...
What’s missing… <ul><li>Not all municipalities analyse for all natural toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Private wells even less te...
Why not use… Earth science data, knowledge …
Rocks that contain arsenic and cadmium (shale) Shale in Western Canada (after Chorlton and Pai, 1999) Natural  Toxins As Cd
Health affects of Earth Materials (Plumlee et al. 2006)
Soil Some of the regulations… Guided by recommendations of the CCME 1999  Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for the Protect...
<ul><li>Bedrock geology…and… earth science knowledge base:  </li></ul>What’s missing? … mitigating or exacerbating effects...
Why not use… Risk of exposure  Nickel and Chromium  natural toxicants in soil, water, food from rocks Coding based on Whee...
A few of the many  Medical Geology publications….
The Radiation Protection Bureau part of Health Canada  Protect  “the effects of nuclear accidents, radioactivity in water ...
What’s missing… <ul><li>Geological mapping of natural radioactivty: Only a single-stationary monitoring station (receptor)...
Radioactivity map of Canada   Geological Survey of Canada > 40 years airborne and ground radioactivity techniques
Risk Assessments of natural toxins We should care what we are eating breathing and drinking if they contain natural toxica...
What’s Missing? The current Canadian policies/regulations are inadequate.  Only sparse information on earth science knowle...
Framework for Risk Management and Population Health Krewski et al. 2007
An Earth Science- Biology Integration… Modified Krewski et al. 2007 model
<ul><li>1. Essentials of Medical Geology: Impacts of the Natural Environment on Publich Health. Olle Selinus BA, Jose A. C...
<ul><li>16. Canada H. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives for particulate matter Executive Summary Part 1: Science Ass...
<ul><li>31. Canada GSo. Radiation Geophysics Gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. 2010 [updated 2010; cited 2010 19 March, 2010...
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Stephanie douma natural toxicants 2010 linked in 2011

  1. 1. Natural toxicants: Should we care if we are eating, breathing or drinking them? What is our Government’s role to protect? © Stephanie L. Douma, P.Geo., MSc., PHRAM (Cert.)
  2. 2. What is a natural toxin? <ul><li>Natural toxicant are elements and/or compounds that are present in gaseous, solid or liquid form that at specific doses are toxic to humans and occur geologically. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many of these natural toxicants in the periodic table that we breath, drink and ingest (through soils, water, air and food). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Are there laws/policies that protect? <ul><li>Lots! </li></ul><ul><li>There are at least twenty-five separate acts of the federal legislature relating to environmental matters of contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Included are the Canadian Environmental Protection Act; Canadian Environmental Assessment Act designed to protect. </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999) contains provisions that establishes a regime for identifying, assessing and regulating toxic substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Air, water, soil and radiation laws/policies… </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are some natural toxins that may be a risk to population health in Canada? There are many natural toxins that may pose as a risk to Population health. To simplify and to follow the lead of Environment Canada - Priority 1 Substance list (PSL1) http://www.ec.gc.ca/ceparegistry/subs_list/PSL1.cfm . Hexavalent chromium compounds . Inorganic arsenic compounds . Inorganic cadmium compounds . Inorganic fluorides . Oxidic, sulphidic and soluble, inorganic nickel compounds . Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Hazard I.D.
  5. 5. Lots of laws/policies and regulations… <ul><li>Treasury Board Government of Canada Guidelines on Real Property Management </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Canada’s Toxic Substance Management Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Environmental Protection Agency Review </li></ul><ul><li>1995, 1996 Auditor General’s Report </li></ul><ul><li>A Framework for Application of Precaution in Science, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada 2000 Decision Making Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Drinking Water </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy Environments and Consumers Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Priority Substances List </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Just not for natural toxicants … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at least not very well </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Health Canada and Environment Canada combine to define guidelines relative to air quality </li></ul><ul><li>“ Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines” for air, defined by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>“ assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on air quality and ensures that current emission control policies are successfully protecting human health and the environment” </li></ul>Air
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lack of compositional (chemical and physical) guidelines of Particle Matter (PM) </li></ul>What’s missing…
  9. 9. Why not use… Geological earth materials can play a significant role in quality issues: exposure pathways, absorption, biodistributions , chemical conditions of the human body from a geochemical perspective, earth materials in a biosolubility and bioreactivity context, particle shape and size, particle solubility and dissolution rates, …..
  10. 10. Human body response (bioaccessibility) to earth materials… (Plumlee et al. 2006)
  11. 11. Water <ul><li>The Canada Water Act (1970) enables federal and provincial control over water resource management </li></ul><ul><li>Historically the provincial and municipal levels manage drinking water issues </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (CCME) (1999) if the maximum acceptable concentrations continue to be exceeded in drinking water, the local authority responsible for drinking water supplies should be consulted concerning appropriate corrective action. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What’s missing… <ul><li>Not all municipalities analyse for all natural toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Private wells even less testing occurring (up to individual well owner)- </li></ul>
  13. 13. Why not use… Earth science data, knowledge …
  14. 14. Rocks that contain arsenic and cadmium (shale) Shale in Western Canada (after Chorlton and Pai, 1999) Natural Toxins As Cd
  15. 15. Health affects of Earth Materials (Plumlee et al. 2006)
  16. 16. Soil Some of the regulations… Guided by recommendations of the CCME 1999 Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Environment and Human Health, 1999 Canadian Council Ministry of the Environment National Classification System for Contaminated Sites Guidance Document PN1403, 2008
  17. 17. <ul><li>Bedrock geology…and… earth science knowledge base: </li></ul>What’s missing? … mitigating or exacerbating effects of trace elements and accessory minerals, particle crystal structure, surface features, fluid mineral reactions that generate free radicals, mining waters and tailings, smelting by-products, mineralogy ingestion bioaccessibility,respiratory bioaccessibility, soils and neurodegenerative diseases, soil-borne pathogens and uptake of toxicants from involuntary ingestion
  18. 18. Why not use… Risk of exposure Nickel and Chromium natural toxicants in soil, water, food from rocks Coding based on Wheeler’s (1997) Geology of Canada map. Scale: 1:7,600,000 with census areas (2006 from Statistics Canada) overlain. Geographic units by province and territory, 2006 Census Source: Mafic(ultramafic) rocks (purple colour) in Eastern Canada
  19. 19. A few of the many Medical Geology publications….
  20. 20. The Radiation Protection Bureau part of Health Canada Protect “the effects of nuclear accidents, radioactivity in water and food, radon in indoor air, and naturally occurring radioactive materials from non-nuclear industries monitoring system involves a single-stationary monitoring station (receptors) for each of the provinces Soil and Radiation monitoring
  21. 21. What’s missing… <ul><li>Geological mapping of natural radioactivty: Only a single-stationary monitoring station (receptor) for each province… </li></ul>
  22. 22. Radioactivity map of Canada Geological Survey of Canada > 40 years airborne and ground radioactivity techniques
  23. 23. Risk Assessments of natural toxins We should care what we are eating breathing and drinking if they contain natural toxicants. Evidence supports that earth materials can produce PSL 1 substances at toxicant levels to humans from natural sources. This knowledge is available from earth science studies.
  24. 24. What’s Missing? The current Canadian policies/regulations are inadequate. Only sparse information on earth science knowledge and association of naturally occurring toxicants and their abundance Often inaccurate Lacking in the current Health and Environment Canada’s laws/policies is a systematic consultation at all levels and stages in the development of policies/laws regarding human health and geological material (including the natural toxicants listed on the PSL1).
  25. 25. Framework for Risk Management and Population Health Krewski et al. 2007
  26. 26. An Earth Science- Biology Integration… Modified Krewski et al. 2007 model
  27. 27. <ul><li>1. Essentials of Medical Geology: Impacts of the Natural Environment on Publich Health. Olle Selinus BA, Jose A. Centeno, Robert B. Finkelman, Ron Fuge, Ulf Lindh and Pauline Smedley, editor.: Elsevier Academic Press; 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Foundation OT. Resources for the Environment and the Law Catalogue: Canada Water Legislation FAQ's. [web-page]; 2010 [updated 2010 2010-01-13; cited 2010 16 March, 2010]; Responsibilities for regulating water in Canada]. Available from: www.ecolawinfo.org/WaterFAQ-CanWatLeg-aspy . </li></ul><ul><li>3. CEPA Environmental Registry Toxic Substance List. Ottawa; 2010 [updated 2010; cited 2010 19 March, 2010]; Available from: http://www.ec.gc.ca/CEPARegistry/subs_list/ToxicList.cfm . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Secretariat TBoC. Guide to the Management of Real Property Real Property: Description and Context. 2010 [updated 2010; cited]; Available from: http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rpm-gbi/doc/gmrp-ggbi/gmrp-ggbi-02-eng.aspx . </li></ul><ul><li>5. Canada E. Environment Canada's Management of Toxic Substances Ottawa: Government of Canada; 2010 [updated 2010; cited]; Available from: http://www.ec.gc.ca/toxics/EN/index.cfm . </li></ul><ul><li>6. Canada E. CEPA review: the Government response: Environmental protection legislation designed for the future - a renewed CEPA : a proposal ; response to the recommendations of the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development outlined in its fifth report Ottawa; 1995 [updated 1995; cited 2010 March 12 , 2010]; Available from: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ceparegistry/Archives/AR/ar95_96/areng03.cfm . </li></ul><ul><li>7. Canada Go. 88-11E Toxic Substances: Federal-Provincial Control. Ottawa: Government of Canada; 1996 [updated 1996; cited]; Available from: http://dsp-psd.communication.gc.ca/Pilot/LoPBdP/CIR/8811-e.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>8. Canada OotAGo. Auditor General of Canada Report on Contaminated Sites. Ottawa; 2006 [updated 2006; cited 2010 10 March, 2010]; Available from: http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/sds_e_27553.html . </li></ul><ul><li>9. Human health risk assessment for priority substances. (1994). </li></ul><ul><li>10. Canada H. Final Issue Identification Paper. Government of Canada. In press 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Canada H. Health Canada Issue Identificaiton Paper: nGuiding Principles and Policies. Appendix C. 2010 [updated 2010; cited]; Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca </li></ul><ul><li>12. Canada H. First Priority Substances List (PSL1) Assessments. 2010 [updated 2010; cited 2010 18 March, 2010]; Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/contaminants/psl1-lsp1/index-eng.php . </li></ul><ul><li>13. Canada E. Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List Assessment and Report- Chromium and its compounds. In: Canada E, editor. Ottawa; 1994. p. 59. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Canada E. Canadian Environmental Protection Act Priority Substance List Assessment and Report- Inorganic fluorides and its compounds. E. Canada. Ottawa: 59. In: Agency CEP, editor. Ottawa: Government of Canada; 1993. p. 72. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Canada H. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives for Particulate Matter.; 2010 [updated 2010; cited 2010 18 March, 2010]; Environmental and Workplace Health]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/air/naaqo-onqaa/particulate_matter_matieres_particulaires/index-eng.php </li></ul>References…
  28. 28. <ul><li>16. Canada H. National Ambient Air Quality Objectives for particulate matter Executive Summary Part 1: Science Assessment Document. In: Guidelines RbtCFWGoAQOa, editor. Ottawa; 1998. p. 25. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Giddings M. Management of Drinking Water in Canada: Focus on Intergovernmental Cooperation Health Canda. . PHR6101 Risk Management in Government U of Ottawa; 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>18. Canada H. Environmental and Workplace Health; Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines. 2010 [updated 2010; cited]; Available from: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/water-eau/drink-potabl/guide/index-eng.php . </li></ul><ul><li>19. Douma SL. What is the burden of disease to Canadians from natural occurring earth material toxins (Cd, As, Cr, F, Ni, hydrocarbons) and can we estimate the cost of this burden? End of term paper for EPI6281 U of Ottawa- Dr D Krewski professor. In press 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>20. Hough RL. Soil and Human Health. European Journal of Soil Science. 2007;58:12. </li></ul><ul><li>21. Smith DB. Geochemical studies of North American soils results from the pilot study phase of the North AMerican Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Applied Geochemistry. 2009;24(8):2. </li></ul><ul><li>22. Plumlee GSZ, T.L. The medical geochemistry of dusts, soils and other earth materials. In: Turkeian HDHaKK, editor. Treatise on geochemistry Elsevier; 2003. p. 47. </li></ul><ul><li>23. Plumlee GS, Morman, S.A., and Ziegler, T.L. The Toxicological Geochemistry of Earth Materials: An Overview of Processes and the Interdisciplinary Methods Used to Understand Them. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 2006;64:21. </li></ul><ul><li>24. Special Issue: Medical Geology in Developing Countries, Part 1. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH. 2007;29 (2). </li></ul><ul><li>25. Cassio Roberto da Silva BRF, Eduardo Mello De Capitan, Fernanda , Cunha Gd, editors. EFFECTS OF GEOLOGIC MATERIALS AND FACTORS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>2006. </li></ul><ul><li>26. Hallberg R, editor. MEDICAL GEOLOGY: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE FUTURE; 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>27. Appleton JD, Fuge, R., McCall, G.J.H., editor. Environmental geochemistry and health with special reference to developing countries.; 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>28. Boström H, Ljungstedt, N. Trace elements in health and disease. Wiksell Ao, editor.: International, Stockholm; 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>29. Friske PWB, Ford, K.L., Kettles, I.M., McCurdy, M.W., McNeil, R.J., Harvey, B.A. North American soil geochemical landscapes project: Canadian field protocols for collecting mineral soils and measuring soil gas radon and natural radioactivity. Open File Report 6282. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada; 2010 Contract No.: Document Number|. </li></ul><ul><li>30. Canada GSo. Radiation Geophysics Radon. 2010 [updated 2010; cited 2010 19 March, 2010]; Available from: http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/gamma/radon_e.php . </li></ul>
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