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Weeks 1 2_lecture_notes

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  • 1. January 24|Introduction to U.S. Foreign Policy  Studying U.S. Foreign Policy  What distinguishes this from IR?  Key Factors and Issues  Historical Overview  Early American Foreign Policy  Post-1914 AFP  Next time: major theories & levels of analysis
  • 2. Studying U.S. Foreign Policy How & why states behave in the international system  International relations  Focus on theinternational system  General theories of state behavior  American Foreign Policy  Focus on single state within the international system  General theories of state behavior + U.S. specific theories and explanations  Examine historical development, policy process & outcomes
  • 3. Key Factor:International system & distribution of power The nature of international power  Pre-1945: military power, brute force  Mercantilism, protectionism  Industrial power = military power = power  Today?  Technological & strategic changes  Economic interdependence & “soft” power Global distribution of Power
  • 4. Key Factor:U.S. politics and society  Political institutions and policy process  Elite and democratic influence  Changing U.S. economy  Political society  Civic knowledge and ignorance  Political culture and ideology
  • 5. Early American Foreign Policy  Independence & separatism  American exceptionalism & Manifest Destiny  Commerce & economic power
  • 6. Early American Foreign Policy Independence and New World Separatism  Ex: Washington’s “Farewell Address”; J. Q. Adams’ “Doctrine of Two Spheres”  Monroe Doctrine (1823)  Americas "not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers."  Opposition to European intervention in New World  Any intervention in Latin America = "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."  “a diplomatic declaration of independence” – Bradford Perkins  Tests of neutrality and independence  Quasi-war (1798-1800) & Warof 1812  No direct challenge of Monroe Doctrine
  • 7. Early American Foreign Policy Independence & New World Separatism American Exceptionalism & Manifest Destiny
  • 8. Early American Foreign Policy Independence & New World Separatism American Exceptionalism & Manifest Destiny  Belief that the U.S. has a special destiny and mission in the world  U.S. hasresponsibility to protect & spread vision of liberty  Variants:  Passive: U.S. serves as exemplar, to be emulated  Active /Messianic: U.S. has responsibility to spread values and rights to other peoples  Survival & stability of democratic-republic govt  Guard against internal & external threats, disorder
  • 9. Manifest Destiny U.S. mission to “carry the glad tidings of peace and good will where myriads now endure an existence scarcely more enviable than that of the beast of the field” And “to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions." - John O’Sullivan
  • 10. Early American Foreign Policy Independence & New World Separatism American Exceptionalism & Manifest Destiny Commerce & Economic Power  Trading privileges & access to foreign markets  Neutrality and universalistic claims  War of 1812: "free ships free goods."  John Hay: “Open Door” policies
  • 11. Early American Foreign Policy Independence & New World Separatism American Exceptionalism & Manifest Destiny Commerce & Economic Power Power politics account  Power measured relative to other states  Ascendance of a state (in time period or conflict) determined by available resources + economic capacity ( -Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers)
  • 12. Early American Foreign Policy Independence & New World Separatism American Exceptionalism & Manifest Destiny Commerce & Economic Power Power politics account  Power measured relative to other states  Ascendance of a state (in time period or conflict) determined by available resources + economic capacity ( -Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers)
  • 13. Woodrow Wilson  “New Freedom” and New Nationalism  Promoting peace, spread of democracy  Reject militarism, colonialism, war  Foreign Policy  Liberal idealism + Progressive realism
  • 14. January 31|Theories of Foreign Policy and StateRelations Analytic tools & building blocks  Definitions  Questions  Levels of analysis  Theories and paradigms Realist theories of state behavior
  • 15. American Foreign Policy Definition: “the goals the nations officials seek to attain abroad, the values that give rise to those objectives, and the means or instruments used to pursue them.” Policy: pattern of government decisions and actions  To advance national interests abroad  What are US national interests?  Pattern = sum of in/actions over time  Contests and change over time
  • 16. Basic tools & “building blocks”  Theories  Questions  Levels of Analysis
  • 17. Basic tools & “building blocks” Theories  Basic assumptions or premises about the world  “lenses” for viewing phenomena  Search for rules to explain foreign policy behavior  IR: theories to explain behavior of ALL states  AFP: theories to explain behavior of US  How can we evaluate a theory?  Does the question make sense?  Are they looking in the right place?  Are they testing it in the right way?
  • 18. Questions What is the question?  Foreign policy behavior  What have countries done in the past?  What should countries do?  What are countries doing and what will they be doing in the future?  Foreign policy making  Why did an action or event occur?  Why did a country adopt a particular policy?  How did a country adopt or select a particular policy? Does it make sense?
  • 19. Levels of Analysis Are they looking in the right place?  System-level  Nature of the world  How the international system influences major actors  Actors = States / countries; intergovernmental organizations; transnational organizations; others?  Structural characteristics:  Organization of authority  States as primary actors  Frequency, scope and level of interaction  Power relations and polarity  Number of poles and distribution of power  Economic patterns, distribution of resources  Norms of behavior
  • 20. Levels of Analysis Are they looking in the right place?  System-level  State-level  State characteristics, actions, foreign policy making  Policy process influences activities and choices  Key variables  Government type  Situation or context  Policy type
  • 21. Levels of Analysis Are they looking in the right place?  System-level  State-level  Individual-level  Focus on individuals and human nature  People as ultimate decision-makers  State action = human “actors on world stage”  Perspectives  Human nature  Organizational behavior  Individual or specific characteristics  Cognitive theories – look at perceptions
  • 22. Theories & theoretical paradigms Categorizing theories  Paradigms = families of theories  Level of analysis  Object or phenomena being tested / explained Major Theories  Realism  Classical realism; neo-realism; neo-classical realism  Liberalism  Classical liberalism, neo-liberalism  Constructivism  Cognitive theories / political psychology
  • 23. Realism State as unitary or primary actor Decisions based on rational, strategic analysis  Cost/benefit analysis, preference-maximizing  Policy driven by national interest  Key premises  Decision-making process  Alternatives?
  • 24. Questions Are there objective, universal laws of human nature? What does rational mean? Do states act this way? Does efficacy always trump ethics or morals?
  • 25. Consequences of anarchy Waltz  System characteristics determine behavior  Ordering principle: anarchy  Differentiation of tasks / functions: none in IR  Distribution of capacity / power  Balance of power  States = unitary actors that seek  Minimum: self-preservation  Maximum: world domination  Seek goals through balancing (internal + external)  System is anarchic, self-help