Japan is one of the few non- European countries tomodernize while retaining its own culture.
Under the first constitution of Japan in1890 (the Meiji Constitution if 1890), Japan established the first modern legislature called “the Imperial Diet”.The Japanese constitution is apparently premised upon the Representative democracy.
People in Japan no longer have any sovereign power after the enactment of the constitution and the only powers they have are those granted by the Constitution.Local residents are granted broader rights of participation.
There is also a strict limitation as to where the political participation in Japan is concerned and this is the reason why not many of the citizens are interested in politics. Japanese attitudes towards politics or self- assessments of personal motivation may therefore be more casual or superficial than among people who are, in certain senses, more “politicized”
One aspect of post-war Japan’s political culture is that Japanese social relations are essentially based on hierarchy. Individuals are taught that the groupcomes first, and they are willing to accept hard work, poor living conditions, and limited personal liberty to support the group.
Japanese tend to accept values based on subservience to authority.It was male-oriented and paternalistic, though female members was no recognized.
A sense of conformism and group loyalty is a dominant feature of the Japanese culture. Japanese Prime ministers rise to their position because of their amicability and in their skills at consensus building. Seldom do they rise to their position because of the strength of their personality or the force of their ideas.
Japanese politics have long been characterized by strong political factions.Many political analysts believed that Japan’s pre-1994 electoral systemcontributed to the strength of factions.
In order to win votes, candidates had to distinguish themselves from their party’s other candidates, often by developing a personal following, or faction.
In domestic politics, the LDP continued to hold the reins of government throughout the 1970s, although the party’s cabinets changed frequently, due largely to factional infighting.In the aftermath of the scandals, the LDP lost its absolute majority in the lower house between 1976 and 1980.
Women are likely to be concerned about public policy issues due to the fact, in some extent that these issues are regarded to their primary role in thehousehold as a wife and a mother to the family. Japanese women claim that they are politically independent.
Women have higher voting rates because they believe that voting is a civic duty.Membership in women’s associations increases probability of voting.
Housewives are just as interested in politics and voting.Middle-aged women have a high probability of voting.
NPC is the theory that explains the changes in political attitudes and actions of the public in advance industrialized societies.
According to Nakatani, Clark and Inglehart, there are three major factors as the cause of the rise of this New Political Culture.• Economic- from agriculture and manufacturing to rise of technology or “high tech”• Social- increase in the number of smaller families, extended family and the weakening of family links to education and occupations.• Governmental- highlighted the developed welfare state programs that have solved many of the major problems of the past.
Some studies have found NPC Features in Japan at the local political elite level. HOSHU KAKUSHIN- the equivalent of classic left right ideology in western societies.
In the Past:• Hoshu meant support for a prewar regime and the rearmament of Japan,• Kakushin meant support for an anti prewar regime and the opposition to the rearmament of Japan.
In the Present:• Hoshu meant support for small governments, market economy, and economic development.• Kakushin meant support for big governments, equality and participation.
NPC citizens refuse to be treated as “clients” of parties or the government as they have more personal resources (education, income, communication skill, etc.).They are more active in joining issue-specific organizations and seeking participation in general policy formation.