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Philippine Culture



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  • 1. The Evolution of Philippine Society and Culture
  • 2. Pre-Colonial Culture, was it Indigenious Culture or Civilization?
  • 3. Webster • Defines civilization as the advanced state of human society in which a high level of
  • 4. Jocano • ‘’The Vision of our Future must be rooted in our Image of the Past,’’ however, strongly contends that: ‘’Filipinos possessed an elaborate civilization in the past. This achievement did not become part of Filipino consciousness, even today, because of the advent of colonization during which a systematic distortion of our perspectives about ourselves was carried out.’’
  • 5. Egyptian Pyramid
  • 6. Great Wall of China
  • 7. Cambodian Angkor Wat
  • 8. Origin of the Philippines
  • 9. Earlier accepted theories about the origin of the Philippines
  • 10. The Filipino Race
  • 11. H. Otley Beyer (eminent anthropologist of the American period • The racial mixture of the Filipinos is as follows: – Malay (40%) – Indonesian (30%) – Negrito (10%) – Chinese (10%) – Indian (8%) – American (3%) – Arab (2%)
  • 12. The Earliest People
  • 13. • Dr. H.O. Beyer’s migration theory arranged the peopling of the Philippines with the coming of the Dawn Man, the prehistoric cousin of the Java man and Peking man of 250,000 years ago.
  • 14. Asian Migrations
  • 15. • According to Prof. Beyer, three Asian peoples are: –Negritos –Indonesians –Malays
  • 16. Negritos
  • 17. Indonesians
  • 18. The Malays Came in three waves; First: brought their mining and smelting technology, and their agricultural system. They were headhunters who chiefly depended on hunting, fishing, and fruit gathering. They developed terrace agriculture with elaborate irrigation systems.
  • 19. • Second wave: brought their syllable system of writing. They were known as the alphabetusing Malays. • Third wave: the Muslim Malays introduced Islam in the Philippines. – More advanced culturally and economically than the Indonesians. – Their culture belonged to the Iron and Porcelain periods. – Lived in organized communities and had domestic and foreign barter trade, wet agriculture, and industries.
  • 20. Malays
  • 21. The First Filipino • Tabon Man (22,000-30,000 years ago) – who lived in Palawan. – The skull cap of this Stone Age human was discovered by Dr. Robert Fox inside Tabon Cave in 1962. – Medium height, and had a high eyebrow and sloping forehead,. – Depend on forest fruits, roots and edible plant, and by hunting wild animals.
  • 22. First Filipino Communities • Barangays – Units of social organization with broader political, economic, and religious features than the family (Jocano 1975). – 30-100 families had distinct culture of their own. – As political organization, it was a consultative monarchy and was considered the barangays carried on trade and commerce not only among themselves, but also with other foreign entities. – They concluded treaty of friendship and alliance with each other through ritual sanduguan (blood compact).
  • 23. Social Classes • Traditional history divided pre-Spanish cosiety into three classes: – The nobles or upper class • The chiefs (Datu or Rajah), their families and relatives – The freemen or middle class • Free-born or freed slaves constituted the majority of the social classes – The dependents or alipins • Aliping namamahay – owned house and properties • Aliping sagigilid – had no right, could be sold anytime by his master, generally they were captives of war
  • 24. Spanish Colonial Society • Ferdinand Magellan – The first European to reach the Philippines – A Portuguese explorer commissioned by the Spanish ruler to search for the Spice Islands. • Villalobos – Named the islands “La Felipinas” in honor of Prince Philip, who later became the King of Spain. • Legazpi (1565) – Successfully established the first Spanish settlement in Cebu.
  • 25. Roy Lopez de Villalobos
  • 26. Encomienda System • Established a feudalistic society which was characterized by a master-slave relationship between the conquistadores and the Indios (natives).
  • 27. Doctrine of Limpieza de Sangre (purity of blood) • Creating a social ranking among various groups.
  • 28. Peninsulares
  • 29. Insulares
  • 30. Indio
  • 31. Frailocracy (Quasi-Theocratic Society) • “Frailocracia” – “rule of the friars”
  • 32. American Colonial Society • Education – The main vehicle of peaceful pacification through education was the establishment of the Public School System by the American-controlled Second Philippine Commission under Taft. – The Commission’s Act No. 74 provided initially for free primary education with English as the medium of instructions.
  • 33. • Pensionado system or the scholarship grant to the United States – Another subtle device created by the Americans to project better their benevolence. – It was recorded that by 1912 more than 200 of this pensionados or “Americanization trainees” had obtained their university degrees in the United States.
  • 34. Politics • Introduction of democracy – Cooper Act – Jones Law – Tydings-McDuffie Law – Bill of Rights
  • 35. Economic Relations • Free trade relations with the United States made the Philippines economically dependent on the United States.
  • 36. Miseducation and Colonial Consciousness • Colonial or “Stateside mentality Literature-Agent of Deculturization Literature during this period was divided into two schools of thought: • reactionary school – whose clientele were the collaborators or “Americanistas” •progressive school – whose proponents were from the “irreconcilables”