CU Berkeley Workshop #2:  Making it work, Effective Facilitation of Clicker Questions
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CU Berkeley Workshop #2: Making it work, Effective Facilitation of Clicker Questions

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So now you’ve got some great questions to use with clickers, but that’s no magic bullet. What might go wrong, and how do we avoid common pitfalls? How do we avoid just giving students the ...

So now you’ve got some great questions to use with clickers, but that’s no magic bullet. What might go wrong, and how do we avoid common pitfalls? How do we avoid just giving students the answer, or what if students are reluctant to discuss the questions? In this interactive workshop, we’ll explore research-based tips and ideas for questioning in a way that allow us to achieve the full benefit of clickers and peer instruction. We’ll discuss common challenges, share tips on getting students to productively argue and reason through the questions, and ways to encourage all students to speak up in response to questions. Time-depending, participants will also get a chance to practice aspects of teaching through questioning.

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  • HAVE PEOPLE SIT BY DISCIPLINE
  • How do you feel about asking students questions in class?How many times have you given a lecture and found that students hadn’t followed you?Can you rely on students to ask questions if they don’t understand something?Can you rely on students to know if they don’t understand something?So, what are the benefits of questioning?Why do you think people don’t question more?
  • During each section, ask people for examples of questions that they wrote that fall into this category. Give clicker booklet for responding.Point out the handout where each one is detailed more.
  • Model each one of these. What are some ways to ask questions? One is to ask rhetorically.Class, what’s another way to ask a question? Target the whole class.John, what’s another way? Target someone else.Are there other ways to ask a question? Let’s think about it. Target class: verbally, clickers, other waysTarget someone in particular: randomly, in seating order, call on particular personWait and then…. Call on volunteers, call on someone who hasn’t volunteered, answer own question
  • During each section, ask people for examples of questions that they wrote that fall into this category. Give clicker booklet for responding.Point out the handout where each one is detailed more.
  • HAVE PEOPLE SIT BY DISCIPLINE
  • Put acronym at top.
  • Animate question
  • Animate problem.Is this a problem? Unreasonable to expect adoption of any method wholesale without modification.Some modifications might increase effectiveness. But some components essential to student learning might be eliminated. Some dropped elements argued to be key to effectiveness by developers. Can’t assume faculty using PI is using as intended. Methods are related to or inspired by PI, but no longer recognizeable as PI, and so not been tested for effectiveness. But we want to KNOW MORE about what is effective and how faculty are using it. After all (NEXT SLIDE), without data on effectiveness, we can’t make informed decisions about instructioal change.
  • Questions threaten studentsI get no volunteers to answerStudents don’t talk to each otherAnswers take me off trackTakes too much time
  • What comes first? Learning goals.
  • Instructor circulates, may need to show that you’re serious
  • Usually one second. Trained to wait 3-5 seconds. Students tend to speak in bursts with 3-5 seconds between bursts: Wait time of 1 second interrupts these bursts.
  • When you see something that should be identified or talked about, say “pause”Say pause, then ask what is the implementation error we paused forThis role is important to your development of your own understanding of how to implement.
  • Weigh advantages of covering more material against checking comprehension and actively involving students. It’s challenging. How a teacher does this determines how well it works. NO RESPONSE: Wait longer. Rephrase the question. Give a hint. Have students discuss. Call on someone. Leave unanswered. SAME PEOPLE: Someone other than X. Ask an easier question and call on new volunteer. Be alert to non-verbal cues. Make it clear that participation required. IF ANSWERS CALLED OUT: Ask it others agree. Ask for other answers. Ask students to think for a minute. Turn away to signal time for thought. Ask to write answers down. IF TAKE TOO LONG: Interrupt and summarize. Set boundaries and expectations. WRONG ANSWER: Break down question so others can see error. Ask for comments. Ask for other answers. Find merit in answer and explain why common mistake.

CU Berkeley Workshop #2: Making it work, Effective Facilitation of Clicker Questions Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Make Clickers Work for You FACILITATION TIPS AND TECHNIQUES Dr. Stephanie V. Chasteen Physics Department & Science Education Initiative Univ. of Colorado at Boulder http://colorado.edu/seiWeb and blog: http://sciencegeekgirl.comEmail: stephanie.chasteen@colorado.edu
  • 2. Short refresher course
  • 3. What do you teach? Show of handsA. ScienceB. Engineering or MathC. Social sciencesD. HumanitiesE. Administration / faculty supportF. Other
  • 4. Have you used response systems (clickers) in your teaching? Take a clicker & turn it on If the green light flashes, your vote has been countedA. Not at all, and I haven’t seen them usedB. Not at all, but I’ve observed their use somewhatC. I’ve used them a littleD. I’ve used them a lotE. I could be (should be?) giving this workshop
  • 5. How familiar are you with Mazur’s “Peer Instruction” Colored cardsA. Fairly familiar, and I like itB. Fairly familiar, but I’m not sure that I like itC. I’ve heard of it but only have a vague idea what it isD. Not familiar at allE. Not sure
  • 6. Introducing Me 6Science Education Initiative http://colorado.edu/SEI Applying scientific principles to improve science education – What are students learning, and which instructional approaches improve learning?Physics Education Research Group http://PER.colorado.edu One of largest PER groups in nation, studying technology, attitudes, classroom practice, & institutional change. Blogger http://blog.sciencegeekgirl.com
  • 7. U. Colorado clicker resources… 7Videos of effective use of clickers http://STEMvideos.colorado.edu2-5 mins longClicker resource page http://STEMclickers.colorado.edu • Instructor’s Guide • Question banks PLUS past workshops And all workshop materials •Literature / Articles I can help you with your institution’s workshops too
  • 8. Why question? 8  How many times have you given a lecture and found that students hadn’t followed you?  Can you rely on students to ask questions if they don’t understand something?  Can you rely on students to know if they don’t understand something?  What are the benefits of questioning?Credit: Rosie Piller whiteboard
  • 9. The more things change…2000 years agoToday
  • 10. When can we ask questions? 11 BEFORESetting up instruction DURING Motivate Developing knowledge Discover Predict outcome Check knowledge Provoke thinking Application Assess prior knowledge Analysis Evaluation Synthesis AFTER Relate to big picture Exercise skill Assessing Demonstrate success Elicit misconception learning Review or recap Exit poll Credit: Rosie Piller and Ian Beatty.
  • 11. Some methods of asking questions 12  Ask rhetorically  Target the class (how?)  Target someone in particular (in what order?)  Wait and then… (call on whom?)  Answer your own question  Leave the question unanswered Or ask out of class  Blogs  Discussion boards  Homework…Credit: Rosie Piller
  • 12. Why use clickers to target the class? An outline of Peer Instruction. 13
  • 13. Clickers are a tool for questioning 14 But not a magic bullet!
  • 14. Anatomy of Peer Instruction 15 Ask Question…Lecture… (Maybe vote)Class Discussion Peer Discussion Vote * See also: Peer Instruction, A User’s Manual. E. Mazur.
  • 15. How is a clicker question the same or different?* 16 * From other types of in-class questions Similar in terms of goals Multiple choice Anonymous (to peers) Every student has a voice – the loud ones and the shy ones Forced wait time You can withhold the answer until everyone has had time to think (choose when to show the histogram) What does this tool help us to do?
  • 16. Peer instruction helps students learn 17Research shows that: Students can better answer a similar question after talking to their peers Peer discussion + instructor explanation works better than either one alone Students like peer instruction, from intro to the junior level Students in courses using peer instruction outperform those in traditional lecture courses on a common test See http://STEMclickers.colorado.edu for various references
  • 17. U. Colorado clicker resources… 18Videos of effective use of clickers 2-5 mins long http://STEMvideos.colorado.eduClicker resource page http://STEMclickers.colorado.edu • Instructor’s Guide • Question banks • Workshops • Literature / Articles
  • 18. Which of these could be clicker questions? 19 BEFORESetting up instruction DURING Motivate Developing knowledge Discover Predict outcome Check knowledge Provoke thinking Application Assess prior knowledge Analysis Evaluation Synthesis AFTER Relate to big picture Exercise skill Assessing Demonstrate success Elicit misconception learning Review or recap Exit poll Credit: Rosie Piller and Ian Beatty.
  • 19. Let’s try it I think the toughest thing about using clickers and peer instruction in class will be:A. Writing good questionsB. Getting students to really think about themC. Getting students to answer the questions / Nobody respondsD. The same students always respond / Not everybody respondsE. It takes too long / I have a lot of content to cover
  • 20. A science-content example 21Which superpower would yourather have? The ability to… A. Change the mass of things B. Change the charge of things C. Change the magnetization of things D. Change the boiling point of things 21 Question: Ian Beatty, UNC Greensboro Image: Thibaultfr on Wikimedia
  • 21. Example question: MathYour sister in law calls to say that she’s having twins. Which of the following is the most likely? (Assume she’s having fraternal, not identical, twins)A. Twin boysB. Twin girlsC. One girl and one boyD. All are equally likely 22Derek Bruff, Vanderbilt
  • 22. Example Question: Survey 23Which of the following are you least comfortable using to solve problems?A. KinematicsB. Newton’s LawsC. Work-Energy TheoremD. Momentum-Impulse TheoremE. Angular Momentum-Angular Impulse Theorem Ian Beatty, UMass Amherst
  • 23. Make Clickers Work for You FACILITATION TIPS AND TECHNIQUES Dr. Stephanie V. Chasteen Physics Department & Science Education Initiative Univ. of Colorado at Boulder http://colorado.edu/seiWeb and blog: http://sciencegeekgirl.comEmail: stephanie.chasteen@colorado.edu
  • 24. Two way conversations with students are vital... 26 ...because students can misunderstand what we say
  • 25. Anatomy of Peer Instruction 27 Ask Question…Lecture… (Maybe vote)Class Discussion Peer Discussion Vote * See also: Peer Instruction, A User’s Manual. E. Mazur.
  • 26. Burning questions?
  • 27. Let’s revisit the question from before I think the toughest thing about using clickers and peer instruction in class will be:A. Writing good questionsB. Getting students to really think about themC. Getting students to answer the questions / Nobody respondsD. The same students always respond / Not everybody respondsE. It takes too long / I have a lot of content to cover
  • 28. Another questionHonestly, I think that I’m most likely to modify this technique of peer instruction to suit me and my students. I know that there are at least ___ parts of the technique that I’ll be changing:A. NoneB. OneC. Two-threeD. Four or more Be prepared to explain your answer and defend!
  • 29. Is there a problem with modifications?I won’t tell you how to teach. You’re smart & you care about instruction. Be strategic about modifications.
  • 30. % of physics faculty reporting to be familiar with RBIS “RBIS”= Research-Based Instructional Strategy* Research-Based Instructional StrategyDancy& Henderson, Pedagogical practices and instructional change of faculty, Am. J. Phys., 78(10), Oct 2010.
  • 31. % of faculty reporting as current user of RBIS “RBIS”= Research-Based Instructional Strategy Of these, how many do you think use consistent with Mazur’s method? ~ 50% (A) <30% (B) 30-70% (C) >70%* Research-Based Instructional StrategyDancy& Henderson, Pedagogical practices and instructional change of faculty, Am. J. Phys., 78(10), Oct2010.Web survey of 722 physics faculty at various institutions, initial sample of 2000.
  • 32. In particular: % of instructors who report using Peer Instruction and also report including the following elements of Peer Instruction: Students discuss ideas in class* 27% Students discuss qualitative/quantitative 27% problems in class* Whole class voting* 38% Conceptual questions* 64% Is this a problem? It depends. * Every classDancy& Henderson, Pedagogical practices and instructional change of faculty, Am. J. Phys., 78(10), Oct2010.Web survey of 722 physics faculty at various institutions, initial sample of 2000.
  • 33. Exercise #1: Core Philosophies 35 What are the underlying principles that make this work? Ask Question…Lecture… (Maybe vote)Class Discussion Peer Discussion Vote * See also: Peer Instruction, A User’s Manual. E. Mazur.
  • 34. Some core philosophies of mine Students learn by teaching each other Students learn by articulating their ideas It’s important for me to hear student ideas I need to know what my students understand during the course of instruction, before the test I value and respect student ideas I want students to know that I value student ideas I want students to feel safe sharing their ideas Clicker questions are an integral part of my lecture
  • 35. Exercise #2 What could possibly go wrong? 37 You ask students a question, and ask them to discuss. You then ask them to share their answers and reasoning in a whole-class discussion What could possibly go wrong?  10 mins In groups of 3-5 brainstorm some of the challenges you imagine in using this. Brainstorm some solutions that are in line with your core philosophies Write on your handout.
  • 36. 1. Ask Question 38What are some challenges/ philosophies /solutions related to asking the question?Philosophies•Questions are integral to lecture•Students can learn by considering aquestion Best practices •Ask several times during lecture •Ask challenging, meaningful questions •Don’t post until ready & give time to read 38 Handout/worksheet / whiteboard
  • 37. 2. Peer Discussion 39 Philosophies: •Students learn through discussion • Students need to know that you value their ideas & that it’s safe to shareWhat are core philosophies in peer discussion? What are challenges / how can you help make it work? Solutions: •Make it clear why you’re doing this • Circulate and ask questions / model •Use questions they want to discuss •Allow enough time (2-5 mins) •Focus on reasoning in wrap-up
  • 38. Student buy-in is key!
  • 39. 3. Wrap-Up Discussion 41 Philosophies? Challenges? What might you do to facilitate an effective wrap-up discussion? Philosophies: •Student ideas are important •Students need to feel safeSolutions:•Establish culture of respect•Consider whether to show the histogram immediately• Ask multiple students to defend their answers• Emphasize reasoning: Why are wrong answers wrongand why right answer is right
  • 40. Giving the answer stops student thinking! 42
  • 41. Effects of increased wait time 43 Changes in student behavior:  More students respond  More students respond without being asked (unsolicited)  Student responses are longer  More alternative explanations are offered All from a few  Student confidence increases more seconds!  There are more speculative responses  Students ask more questions Other changes (on teacher!)  Quantity of questions decreased  Quality of questions increased  Expectations of slower students were revised  Teacher reactions to answers were more appropriate Rowe, Mary Budd (1974)
  • 42. Other things we haven’t talked about? 44 Other challenges / solutions / philosophies?
  • 43. Let’s try it: Mock Class 45In a group of 3-5:1. Choose a question to use2. Assign roles to each member of the group to split up the task of facilitating the question10 minutes
  • 44. Rules for Mock Class 461. You are a “Critical friend”2. Say PAUSE when we should discuss something3. Have fun!
  • 45. Action Plan 47 Take a few minutes to write down your action plan to implement ideas you heard about in the workshop
  • 46. Thanks! Resource Page: http://STEMclickers.colorado.edu Web and blog: http://sciencegeekgirl.com Email: stephanie.chasteen@colorado.edu Many materials in this workshop (particularly the questioning cycle and the participant exercises) were adapted fromRosie Piller, Making Students Think: The Art of Questioning. Short papers published in: Computer Training & Support Conference, 1995; ISPI International Conferences, 1991 and 1996; ASTD National Conference on Technical & Skills Training, 1990. Related workshop description at http://www.educationexperts.net/nstworkshop.html. Other materials (particularly sample clicker questions and goals of clicker questions) adapted from Ian Beatty’s Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) program. http://ianbeatty.com/crs Got questions later? We can schedule a virtual follow-up anytime.
  • 47. Learning Goals Biology: Recognize the components of a cell and describe why each is necessary for the function of a cell Physics: Identify the different ways that light can interact with an object (i.e., transmitted, absorbed, reflected). Chemistry: Explain trends in boiling points in terms of intermolecular interactions Earth science: Understand the formation of the three major types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic) and the processes by which they form, relating them by the rock cycle. Math: Solve a system of linear equations in two variables using algebra or graphing.
  • 48. What Do I do if…? 50What can you do if you ask questions and.. There is no response The same people keep raising their hands The answers are called out before everyone has a chance to think We’ll discuss in The answers take too long Workshop #2. For now: Many of Someone gives a wrong answer these challenges are Only some students are prepared addressed by clickers?