Social and cultural change Number who repeat behaviour Number who behave as desired Number who change attitude Number who change opinion Number who learn message content Number who attent to messages and activities Number who receive messages and activities Number of messages places and activities implemented Number of messages sent to media and activities designed Quality of message and activity presentations Appropriateness of message and activity content Adequacy of background information Preparation Implementation Impact Cutlip: PII (1985)
Inputs Quality of message presentation Expert review Feedback/Audience Surveys Awards Appropriateness of message content Readability tests Review Re-testing (Focus Groups) Appropriateness of the medium Case studies Pre-testing Adequacy of background information, intelligence & research Review Existing research data Benchmark research
Outputs Number who consider messages Reader-/Listener-/Viewership stats Attendance Inquiry/Response rate Number who receive messages Circulation figures Audience analysis Number of messages supporting objectives Analysis of media coverage (media content analysis) Number of messages placed in the media Media monitoring (Clipping services) Number of messages sent Distribution statistics
Results Objective achieved/ Problem solved Observation Quantitative research Number who behave in a desired manner Sales statistics,... Quantitative research Number who change attitudes Quantitative research (Cognition acceptance) Number who learn message content Quantitative research
Fairchild 1997 Objective Setting Measurement and the Planning Cycle 1: Audit Where are we now? Existing research / benchmarks 2: Objectives Where do we need to be? Overall Goals Measurable Objectives - Messages - Timescales 3: Strategy and Plan How do we get there Level of measurement 4: Measurement & Evaluation Are we getting there Measurement (L1,2,3?) Continue/Stop/Adjust doing? 5:Result How did we do? Quantity outcome Objectives met? Learning? Value?