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  1. 1. Communication, Persuasion, Avoidance & Reactance MKT4007
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>4 Key Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion & Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Reactance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>All seem easy - but are often ignored! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication Sender Receiver Encodes Decodes Transmitted Message M1 M2 Noise Seems easy? Feedback
  4. 4. Communication Sender Receiver Encodes M1 M1 Noise
  5. 5. Communication Sender Receiver M3 M1 Noise Sweet dreams? M4 M5 M2 M1
  6. 6. Clutter <ul><li>Non-relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>“ creative” marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentrism of marketing managers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Golf-court” talk </li></ul><ul><li>But above all: </li></ul><ul><li>1500 messages daily in 1985, 3600 messages in 1996 (Jhally, 1998), 9000 messages in 2007? </li></ul><ul><li>total message clutter </li></ul>
  7. 7. Response to clutter <ul><li>More “selling” </li></ul><ul><li>Shock advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising Avoidance: 50% of people with PVRs skip ads (Fay, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Yet... most books don’t even mention it! </li></ul>
  8. 8. What happens during a break? (Danaher, 1995)
  9. 9. Ad Avoidance Ad Avoidance Disbelief Mistrust Undesirable Misinformat. Untrue claims Skeptical about claims Unbelievable claims Deceptive claims Misleading Not intelligent Unrealistic scenario Dull Unprofessional Uninteresting Not sophisticated Ads always exaggerate Not informative Only tells good things Incoherent arguments (Tan, 2002)
  10. 10. A model of Internet Advertising Avoidance Excessiveness Exclusiveness Irritation Dissatisfaction Perceived Lack of Utility Perceived Lack of Incentive Search Hindrance Disruption Distraction Perceived Goal Impediment Perceived Ad Clutter Prior Negative Experiences Ad Avoidance Cognitive Affective Behavioural (Cho & Cheon, 2004)
  11. 11. How should we react? <ul><li>No easy answers Consumers have moved from turning out to turning off (Hall, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable marketing (as far as we have it left) </li></ul><ul><li>PR, ‘buzz’, WOM, vWOM </li></ul>
  12. 12. Only Avoidance? <ul><li>Avoidance: People turn off </li></ul><ul><li>Bad news for our communication efforts </li></ul><ul><li>But reality? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Consistency Theory <ul><li>“The world according to myself” or </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency is expected </li></ul><ul><li>If there is inconsistency, then we are disturbed. </li></ul><ul><li>We then aim to restore consistency </li></ul>
  14. 14. How to restore balance? <ul><li>Logically: Learn and adapt! Practically: </li></ul><ul><li>Selective-exposure Simply ignore the dissonance causing message </li></ul><ul><li>Disconfirmation Become more entrenched in your previous conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-Attitudinal Behaviour Actually, it’s not that bad. Though I don’t normally agree. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse-Incentive Effect Feeling good about a sacrifice </li></ul>
  15. 15. Anti-Consumerism
  16. 16. Now consider this <ul><li>Don’t eat unhealthy foods! Eat fruit! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t eat unhealthy foods! Eat fruit! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t eat unhealthy foods! Eat fruit! </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a condom! </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a condom! </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a condom! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t smoke! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t smoke! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t smoke! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reactance <ul><li>“ response to behavioural freedom” universally negative </li></ul><ul><li>Based on two types of threats: 1) Social Threat = external pressure from others (e.g. sales force) 2) Impersonal Threat = exclusivity, non- availability etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. States of Reactance <ul><li>Perception of unfair restriction unknown reason, unjust or unreasonable restriction </li></ul><ul><li>State of Reactance emotional, single-minded, often irrational state of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Activity to “remove” reactance “right the wrong”, overvalue of “unfairl” restriction </li></ul><ul><li>A powerful motivational force! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Results of Reactance <ul><li>The opposite of what is wanted: </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Doing the opposite as told </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Negative brand image </li></ul>
  20. 20. How to deal with it? <ul><li>Acknowledge resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Evoking “anticipated regret”: Scarcity appeals (Cialdini, 1994) Fear appeals + High-efficacy messages (Witte & Allan, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman Effect (Predict what you would do if someone would ask you to do something socially desirable) (Sherman, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative persuasion (Chin, Zanna, Fong, 2003) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>We have to look for sustainable marketing communication </li></ul><ul><li>The main hurdles for persuasion are: - Advertising Avoidance - Invoked Inconsistency - Reactance </li></ul><ul><li>These must be acknowledged and worked with in a IMC environment! </li></ul>