Working Across Cultures Terence Jackson Stephan Dahl Student Induction Workshop
Objectives <ul><li>Use a conceptual framework for describing cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance...
Why understand cross-cultural differences? An organization you are working with  is undergoing necessary changes in order ...
Geert Hofstede (1980) Individualism-Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity-Femininity Uncertainty A...
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions <ul><li>Power distance : the extent to which inequalities among people are seen as normal <...
How can we understand group dynamics? Participating Selling Delegating Telling High Low Maintenance/ Relational Behaviour ...
Task-Maintenance Behaviour <ul><li>TASK </li></ul><ul><li>Gives opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks information </li></ul><ul>...
Cross-cultural conflict <ul><li>Perceived goal incompatibility (win-lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived opportunity  for blo...
Conclusions <ul><li>Values (across cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived goal incompatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived ...
Is learning cultural? <ul><li>You are trying to find a definition of integrated marketing communications for an assignment...
Possible Answers <ul><li>You can find very good definitions in the library. Try looking for recent journal articles. </li>...
What contributes to different learning styles/types? Culture Personality Education Experience Time Motivation
Why do you learn? I want the  Knowledge All I want is a Master I don’t care if it is immed. useful My parents told me to I...
Why do you learn? I want the  Knowledge All I want is a Master I don’t care if it is immed. useful My parents told me to I...
Why do you learn? … Active  intention to understand the material that is  presented in its' wider context,  by reflection ...
What is the role of the lecturer? Moderator Facilitator Source of  Knowledge
What is the role of the lecturer? Moderator Facilitator Source of  Knowledge Encourage  students  to find out and  engage ...
Maybe more like this Transfer Knowledge  as commodity Shape Like  clay Build Can be more active or passive Travel Guide th...
Is it? <ul><li>Is it cultural? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you comfortable with? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you react to an...
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Cross Cult Student Induct

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A workshop on culture and learning styles for new students at Middlesex University.

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Cross Cult Student Induct

  1. 1. Working Across Cultures Terence Jackson Stephan Dahl Student Induction Workshop
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Use a conceptual framework for describing cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance and main points of effective group working in a cross-cultural situation </li></ul><ul><li>Document styles of teaching & learning </li></ul><ul><li>Understand differences in TLA styles </li></ul>Reality itself is constructed by members of a society for their collective use, and a society’s culture is that particular reality. (Adapted from Berger and Luckmann, 1967 by Redding and Stening, 2003)
  3. 3. Why understand cross-cultural differences? An organization you are working with is undergoing necessary changes in order to become more competitive. You know that to be successful, key members of staff must take ownership of this change. You encourage senior managers to be more participative, and involve their staff in discussions about the change process, and invite their suggestions. You begin to hear remarks like ‘He is the manager, why isn’t he managing’, and ‘We don’t understand, can you tell us what you want us to do.’
  4. 4. Geert Hofstede (1980) Individualism-Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity-Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Score Score Greece 112 Malaysia 104 Portugal 104 Arab countries 80 Belgium 94 W. Africa 77 Japan 92 France 68 France 86 Belgium 65 Italy 75 E. Africa 64 Germany (FR) 65 Portugal 63 W. Africa 54 Greece 60 Netherlands 53 Spain 57 E. Africa 52 Japan 54 S. Africa 49 S. Africa 49 USA 46 USA 40 Great Britain 35 Netherlands 38 Sweden 29 Germany (FR) 35 Denmark 23 Great Britain 35 Singapore 8 Sweden 31 Denmark 18 Austria 11
  5. 5. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions <ul><li>Power distance : the extent to which inequalities among people are seen as normal </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance : reference for structured situations versus unstructured situations </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism-collectivism : whether people are used to acting as individuals or pat of a cohesive group </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity-femininity : whether people prefer the ‘hard’ values such as assertiveness and competition, or soft values of personal relations, quality of life, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How can we understand group dynamics? Participating Selling Delegating Telling High Low Maintenance/ Relational Behaviour Low High Task Behaviour
  7. 7. Task-Maintenance Behaviour <ul><li>TASK </li></ul><ul><li>Gives opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks information </li></ul><ul><li>Proposes goals/tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Provides direction </li></ul><ul><li>Energizes </li></ul><ul><li>Tests practicality </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages participation </li></ul><ul><li>Compromises </li></ul><ul><li>Relieves tension </li></ul><ul><li>Helps communication </li></ul><ul><li>Listens to ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Builds trust </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cross-cultural conflict <ul><li>Perceived goal incompatibility (win-lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived opportunity for blocking or interfering (stopping someone meeting their goals) </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective (across cultures) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conclusions <ul><li>Values (across cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived goal incompatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived blocking of goals </li></ul><ul><li>So…. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce obstacles to communication between participants </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise the exploration of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Address the needs of everyone involved </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a model for future conflict resolution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Is learning cultural? <ul><li>You are trying to find a definition of integrated marketing communications for an assignment. You go to your lecturer in IMC and ask him about a definition. What answer do you expect? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Possible Answers <ul><li>You can find very good definitions in the library. Try looking for recent journal articles. </li></ul><ul><li>IMC is the process of managing all sources of information about a product or service to which a customer or prospect is exposed, which behaviorally moves the consumer towards a sale and maintains customer loyalty. (Schultz, 1991) </li></ul>What is your reaction?
  12. 12. What contributes to different learning styles/types? Culture Personality Education Experience Time Motivation
  13. 13. Why do you learn? I want the Knowledge All I want is a Master I don’t care if it is immed. useful My parents told me to I can apply things I learn in other areas I want a year In London I like to explore and understand I just learn what I need to pass
  14. 14. Why do you learn? I want the Knowledge All I want is a Master I don’t care if it is immed. useful My parents told me to I can apply things I learn in other areas I want a year In London I like to explore and understand I just learn what I need to pass “ Surface” learning “ Deep” learning
  15. 15. Why do you learn? … Active intention to understand the material that is presented in its' wider context, by reflection and relating the new material with previously learned material and a generally critical and active approach to learning (Ramsden, 2003) Passive learning. The student is not critically relating new information to any previously known theories or information, but rather relies on memorising the material. (Ramsden, 2003) “ Surface” learning “ Deep” learning
  16. 16. What is the role of the lecturer? Moderator Facilitator Source of Knowledge
  17. 17. What is the role of the lecturer? Moderator Facilitator Source of Knowledge Encourage students to find out and engage Test if knowledge is repeated
  18. 18. Maybe more like this Transfer Knowledge as commodity Shape Like clay Build Can be more active or passive Travel Guide the student where to go Garden Seeding plants Simple Theories: Student passive Developed Theories: Student actively involved Fox (1983)
  19. 19. Is it? <ul><li>Is it cultural? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you comfortable with? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you react to an opposing style? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies do you have for coping? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think is expected? </li></ul>

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