Agile Schema Design: An introduction to MongoDB
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Agile Schema Design: An introduction to MongoDB

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Agile schema design with MongoDB talk from CampJS II (August, 2013). http://campjs.com/

Agile schema design with MongoDB talk from CampJS II (August, 2013). http://campjs.com/

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  • 1. #CampJS Agile Schema Design: An introduction to MongoDB Stephen Steneker @stennie Technical Services Engineer, 10gen Australia
  • 2. What is MongoDB?
  • 3. MongoDB is a ___________ database •  Document •  Open source •  High performance •  Horizontally scalable •  Full featured
  • 4. Document Database •  Not for .PDF & .DOC files •  A document is essentially an associative array •  Document == JSON object •  Document == PHP Array •  Document == Python Dict •  Document == Ruby Hash •  etc
  • 5. Open Source •  MongoDB is an open source project •  On GitHub (mongodb/mongo) •  Licensed under the AGPL •  Started & sponsored by 10gen •  Commercial licenses available •  Contributions welcome
  • 6. High Performance •  Written in C++ •  Extensive use of memory-mapped files i.e. read-through write-through memory caching. •  Runs nearly everywhere •  Data serialized as BSON (fast parsing) •  Full support for primary & secondary indexes •  Document model = less work
  • 7. www.etiennemansard.com Horizontally Scalable
  • 8. Full Featured •  Ad Hoc queries •  Real time aggregation •  Rich query capabilities •  Traditionally consistent •  Geospatial features •  Support for most programming languages •  Flexible schema
  • 9. Scalability & Performance Memcached MongoDB RDBMS Depth of Functionality Database Landscape
  • 10. Thousands  of  organisa.ons  are   using  MongoDB.  
  • 11. Common Use Cases •  Content Management –MTV Networks, Forbes, Shutterfly •  High Volume Data Feeds – ShareThis, Stripe, Wordnik •  Operational Intelligence – Intuit, Buddy Media, Traackr •  Product Data Management– CustomInk, Totsy •  Social Networking – foursquare, Disney More case studies and presentations: http://www.10gen.com/use-cases
  • 12. Document Database
  • 13. RDBMS Table, View Row Index Join Foreign Key Partition Terminology ➜ ➜ ➜ ➜ ➜ ➜ MongoDB Collection Document Index Embedded Document Reference Shard
  • 14. Category ·Name ·URL User ·Name ·Email address Article ·Name ·Slug ·Publish date ·Text Tag ·Name ·URL Comment ·Comment ·Date ·Author Typical (relational) ERD
  • 15. Article User ·Name ·Email address ·Name ·Slug ·Publish date ·Text ·Author Comment[] ·Comment ·Date ·Author Tag[] ·Value Category[] ·Value MongoDB ERD
  • 16. We will build a library management application http://www.flickr.com/photos/somegeekintn/3484353131/
  • 17. First step in any application is Determine your entities
  • 18. Library Management Application Entities •  Library Patrons (users) •  Books (catalog) •  Authors •  Publishers •  Categories ??
  • 19. In a relational based app We would start by doing schema design
  • 20. Relational schema design •  Large ERD Diagrams •  Complex create table statements •  ORMs to map tables to objects •  Tables just to join tables together •  For this simple app we'd have 5 tables and 5 join tables •  Lots of revisions until we get it just right
  • 21. In a MongoDB based app We start building our app and let the schema evolve
  • 22. MongoDB collections •  Users •  Books •  Authors •  Publishers
  • 23. Working with MongoDB
  • 24. Examples using mongo shell
  • 25. Start with an object (or array, hash, dict, etc) user = { username: 'stennie', first_name: 'Stephen', last_name: } 'Steneker'
  • 26. Insert the record > use library switched to db library > db.users.insert(user) No database or collection creation needed
  • 27. Querying for the user > db.users.findOne() { "_id" : ObjectId("50804d0bd94ccab2da652599"), "username" : "stennie", "first_name" : "Stephen", "last_name" : "Steneker" }
  • 28. _id •  _id is the primary key in MongoDB •  Automatically indexed •  Automatically created as an ObjectId if not provided •  Any unique immutable value could be used
  • 29. ObjectId •  ObjectId is a special 12 byte value •  Guaranteed to be unique across your cluster •  ObjectId("50804d0bd94ccab2da652599") |-------------||---------||-----||---------| ts mac pid inc
  • 30. Creating an Author > db.author.insert({ first_name: 'j.r.r.', last_name: 'tolkien', bio: 'J.R.R. Tolkien (1892.1973), beloved throughout the world as the creator of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, a fellow of Pembroke College, and a fellow of Merton College until his retirement in 1959. His chief interest was the linguistic aspects of the early English written tradition, but even as he studied these classics he was creating a set of his own.' })
  • 31. Querying for our Author > db.author.findOne( { last_name : 'tolkien' } ) { "_id" : ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), "first_name" : "j.r.r.", "last_name" : "tolkien", "bio" : "J.R.R. Tolkien (1892.1973), beloved throughout the world as the creator of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, a fellow of Pembroke College, and a fellow of Merton College until his retirement in 1959. His chief interest was the linguistic aspects of the early English written tradition, but even as he studied these classics he was creating a set of his own." }
  • 32. Creating a Book > db.books.insert({ title: 'fellowship of the ring, the', author: ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), language: 'english', genre: ['fantasy', 'adventure'], publication: { name: 'george allen & unwin', location: 'London', date: new Date('21 July 1954'), } }) http://society6.com/PastaSoup/The-Fellowship-of-the-Ring-ZZc_Print/
  • 33. Multiple values per key > db.books.findOne({language: 'english'}, {genre: 1}) { "_id" : ObjectId("50804391d94ccab2da652598"), "genre" : [ "fantasy", "adventure" ] }
  • 34. Querying for key with multiple values > db.books.findOne({genre: 'fantasy'}, {title: 1}) { "_id" : ObjectId("50804391d94ccab2da652598"), "title" : "fellowship of the ring, the" } Query key with single value or multiple values the same way.
  • 35. Nested values > db.books.findOne({}, {publication: 1}) { "_id" : ObjectId("50804ec7d94ccab2da65259a"), "publication" : { "name" : "george allen & unwin", "location" : "London", "date" : ISODate("1954-07-21T04:00:00Z") } }
  • 36. Reach into nested values using dot notation > db.books.findOne( {'publication.date' : { $lt : new Date('21 June 1960')} } ) { "_id" : ObjectId("50804391d94ccab2da652598"), "title" : "fellowship of the ring, the", "author" : ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), "language" : "english", "genre" : [ "fantasy”, "adventure" ], "publication" : { "name" : "george allen & unwin", "location" : "London", "date" : ISODate("1954-07-21T04:00:00Z") } }
  • 37. Update books > db.books.update( {"_id" : ObjectId("50804391d94ccab2da652598")}, { $set : { isbn: '0547928211', pages: 432 } }) Change how you work with the data and the database follows
  • 38. The updated Book document db.books.findOne() { "_id" : ObjectId("50804ec7d94ccab2da65259a"), "author" : ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), "genre" : [ "fantasy", "adventure" ], "isbn" : "0395082544", "language" : "english", "pages" : 432, "publication" : { "name" : "george allen & unwin", "location" : "London", "date" : ISODate("1954-07-21T04:00:00Z") }, "title" : "fellowship of the ring, the" }
  • 39. Creating indexes > db.books.ensureIndex({title: 1}) > db.books.ensureIndex({genre : 1}) > db.books.ensureIndex({'publication.date': -1}) 1: ascending sort -1: descending sort
  • 40. Querying with regular expressions > db.books.findOne({title : /^fell/}) { "_id" : ObjectId("50804ec7d94ccab2da65259a"), "author" : ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), "genre" : [ "fantasy", "adventure" ], "isbn" : "0395082544", "language" : "english", "pages" : 432, "publication" : { "name" : "george allen & unwin", "location" : "London", "date" : ISODate("1954-07-21T04:00:00Z") }, "title" : "fellowship of the ring, the" }
  • 41. Adding a few more books > db.books.insert({ title: 'two towers, the', author: ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), language: 'english', isbn : "034523510X", genre: ['fantasy', 'adventure'], pages: 447, publication: { name: 'george allen & unwin', location: 'London', date: new Date('11 Nov 1954'), } }) http://society6.com/PastaSoup/The-Two-Towers-XTr_Print/
  • 42. Adding a few more books > db.books.insert({ title: 'return of the king, the', author: ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), language: 'english', isbn : "0345248295", genre: ['fantasy', 'adventure'], pages: 544, publication: { name: 'george allen & unwin', location: 'London', date: new Date('20 Oct 1955'), } }) http://society6.com/PastaSoup/The-Return-of-the-King-Jsc_Print/
  • 43. Cursors > db.books.find( { author: ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597")}) .sort({ 'publication.date' : -1}) .limit(1) { "_id" : ObjectId("5080d33ed94ccab2da65259d"), "title" : "return of the king, the", "author" : ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), "language" : "english", "isbn" : "0345248295", "genre" : [ "fantasy", "adventure" ], "pages" : 544, "publication" : { "name" : "george allen & unwin", "location" : "London", "date" : ISODate("1955-10-20T04:00:00Z") } }
  • 44. Paging page_num = 3; results_per_page = 10; cursor = db.books.find() .sort({ "publication.date" : -1 }) .skip((page_num - 1) * results_per_page) .limit(results_per_page);
  • 45. Finding author by book Ø  book = db.books.findOne({"title" : "return of the king, the”}) > db.author.findOne({_id: book.author}) { "_id" : ObjectId("507ffbb1d94ccab2da652597"), "first_name" : "j.r.r.", "last_name" : "tolkien", "bio" : "J.R.R. Tolkien (1892.1973), beloved throughout the world as the creator of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, a fellow of Pembroke College, and a fellow of Merton College until his retirement in 1959. His chief interest was the linguistic aspects of the early English written tradition, but even as he studied these classics he was creating a set of his own." }
  • 46. MongoDB Drivers
  • 47. Real applications are not built in the shell
  • 48. MongoDB has native bindings for over 12 languages
  • 49. MongoDB drivers •  Official Support for 12 languages •  Community drivers for tons more •  Drivers connect to mongo servers •  Drivers translate BSON into native types •  mongo shell is not a driver, but works like one in some ways •  Installed using typical means (npm, pecl, gem, pip)
  • 50. Next Steps
  • 51. Install from Homebrew, Mac Ports, tarball, or m!
  • 52. npm install -g m m latest
  • 53. http://education.10gen.com
  • 54. M101JS starts on Monday!
  • 55. http://mongodbsydney2013.eventbrite.com/
  • 56. #CampJS Questions? Stephen Steneker @stennie Technical Services Engineer, 10gen Australia