Project Title: To what extent do the innovative pedagogical techniques promoted on the PGCE/PCE in selected Welsh FE colleges continue, over time, to impact on classroom practice and what, if anything limits their usage. Researchers - Carolyn Harries & Julie Jones
Research Objectives Primary Objective To research the extent to which FE college lecturers within the University of Glamorgan’s education partnership employ and apply the student-centred and innovative pedagogies promoted on the PGCE / PCE with particular reference to time lapsed from when they undertook the course.
Research Objectives Secondary Objective: To determine whether the training received on the PGCE have a shelf life, and if so to identify reasons for its decline and how it is extended
Research methods Primary methods of collection: Research questionnaire Focus Groups Structured interview Secondary data Internal inspection and Estyn data PMAR data etc. Data Analysis Frequency of responses in each category Cross-tabulation of responses Assigning categories to teaching methods & subject areas
Focus group questions Do you think your teaching methods have changed since you have been on the PGCE / PCE? If yes: how would you describe this change? have you noticed any improvement in your learner’s learning? If yes – how do you account for this?
Does anyone feels that the choice of teaching method they use is constrained in any way? If yes - how would you best describe these constraints and how does it constrain the teaching method used?
Focus group questions Do your teaching methods change according to student ability? If yes – in what way do they change?
When you complete the PGCE/PCE do you foresee that you would require on going development in teaching and learning? If yes, what form should this take?
Selection of teaching methodsDirective methods Computer assisted instruction Digital presentation Pair work Handouts Note taking Oral feedback by teacher * Written feedback by teacher * Teacher explanation Interactive use of Digital Whiteboard Group work * Teacher demonstration Interactive Quiz Wikis, Blogs Videos/DVDs Research using Internet *
Selection of teaching methodsNon-directive methods Personalised instruction Mastery learning Simulation Discussion Peer tutoring Team teaching Problem solving Games Homework Questioning * Flashcards * Student demonstration Collaborative work Advanced Organisers Case Study Role play
Teaching methods and entry qualifications (group 1)
Responses to open ended questions Group 1 Most effective methods Demonstration & practice – 35% Group work - 27% Questioning & Discussion - 12% Least effective methods ILT - 20% Note taking - 12% Handouts - 8% The majority of respondents agreed that the PGCE had been helpful in demonstrating different methods of teaching Others agreed that it reinforced what they already knew All respondents expected that they would have to update their teaching skills periodically
Responses to open ended questions - Group 2 Most effective methods Group work 40% Student Demonstration and Practice 20% Discussion 20% Role Play 20% Least effective methods ILT 40% Teacher Explanation 35% All respondents agreed that the PGCE had been helpful in introducing them to different methods of teaching All respondents agreed that updating their teaching skills was necessary, those employed within colleges felt that the responsibility to ensure further training lay with the colleges The majority of training provided was in the area of IT
Similarities & differences between group 1 & 2 Similarities Questioning, Oral feedback, group work, teacher demonstration, & problem solving had similar high usage in both groups Collaborative work had similar medium usage Mastery learning low usage in both Wiki’s & Blogs – low usage Differences Higher usage of interactive whiteboard in group 2 Higher usage of teacher explanation in group 1 Higher usage of handouts in group 1 Pair work higher in group 2 Homework had a higher usage in group 2
Teaching method where entry qualification is GCE ‘A’ level group 1 & 3
Teaching method where entry qualification is NVQ L3
Responses to open ended questions Group 3 Most effective methods: Demonstration 22% Group & Collaborative work 15% Role play 11% Least effective methods: Internet research & Digital proj. 19% Handouts & Note taking 15% Role play 15% All respondents felt that they continued to use the teaching methods introduced on the PGCE but that they were often constrained by the time available to develop their students’ knowledge and skills Respondents advised that they had attended college based staff development when this was available Development of ICT skills was available on a more regular basis than any other training
Similarities & differences between group 1, 2 & 3 Similarities Teacher explanation similar in group 1 & 3, high usage Questioning & oral feedback similar across three groups Discussion similar in 2 & 3 , medium usage Differences Teacher demonstration high in group 3 Pair work much lower usage in group 3 Personalised instruction and Computer aided instruction high in group 3
Conclusions - Primary Objective All respondents are aware of and use multiple teaching methods There is a greater focus on Directive methods that on Non-directive methods, particularly in group 1 Respondents in group 2 & 3 tend to use Non-directive methods more frequently than those in group 1 There is little differences in usage within groups in terms of subject matter and qualification levels Perceived constraints appear to have little impact on teaching methods used.
Conclusions - Secondary Objective The results of the survey do not prove conclusively that the use of innovative strategies diminishes over time There were notable differences in usage between group 1 & 2 and between group 2 & 3 Feedback from focus groups and structured interviews identified that the PGCE/PCE had been significant in developing all classroom skills and raising awareness of innovative teaching methods.
Recommendations for further research How are teaching methods applied, e.g. to what extent is oral or written feedback ’reinforcing’ and developmental of student’s learning? e.g. how is questioning used, are Socratic methods applied to challenge the learner and to encourage greater thought or is questioning used simply to assess knowledge
Recommendations for further research Find out at what point in their career to teachers or trainers undertake greater supervisory and course development work and how does this impact on their teaching? Survey of first-line managers to determine their view of how a PGCE course impacts on teaching performance Further analysis of how research methodologies impact on responses to surveys