Hydroelectric power

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Hydroelectric power

  1. 1. An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman 7/09/09<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Energy: the ability to do work<br />Human civilization has harnessed and utilized energy at an exponential rate<br />This is troubling, as society demands more and more energy, while conventional energy becomes less and less available<br />Digestion<br />(Chemical Energy)<br />Combustion<br />(Chemical Energy)<br />Wind <br />(Mechanical Energy)<br />Electricity<br />Unfortunately, most energy sources are gone forever after use. <br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />The sustainable energy focused upon today is Hydroelectric Power<br />We will:<br /><ul><li>Define it as renewable
  5. 5. Examine it’s origins
  6. 6. Observe it’s potential
  7. 7. Discuss it’s costs
  8. 8. Note it’s limitations
  9. 9. Summarize our findings</li></ul>An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  10. 10. Alternative vs. Renewable<br />Changes with society<br />Energy generated from alternatives to the primary energy source<br /> (currently fossil fuels)<br />No implication of pollution! <br />Energy that can replaced rapidly by natural processes<br />Static definition<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  11. 11. Alternative vs. Renewable<br />Key Facts:<br /><ul><li>Today’s standard can be tomorrow’s alternative
  12. 12. Energy cannot be created or destroyed: all energy has a limit
  13. 13. Every time energy is converted, some of it is lost
  14. 14. There is always a form of pollution when harnessing energy</li></ul>An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  15. 15. Hydropower History<br />Hydropower was one of the first “modern” renewable utilized by humanity, when water wheels were discovered (~4,000 B.C.)<br />For almost 6,000 years engineers have innovated and adapted the water wheel to better suit their needs, or increase efficiency.<br />All these wheels shared the same basic principle:<br />They transferred:<br />Kinetic energy<br />to<br />Mechanical energy<br />in order to perform work<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  16. 16. Hydroelectric is born<br />Copper Disc<br />Magnet<br />Rotation<br />It wasn’t until 1831 that a new way to harness hydropower would become possible.<br />It was in 1831, when <br />Michael Faraday discovered the homopolar generator, now commonly known as dynamos.<br />Binding Screws<br />(to capture current)<br />Electricity<br />Hydropower could easily adapted for the repetitive work necessary to generate a steady stream of current from Faraday’s generators<br />However, it was another 50 years, before efficiency improvements were made to Faraday’s design in order for hydroelectricity to become practical<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  17. 17. Hydroelectricity in Infancy<br />By 1890, there were over 200 plants in the United States and Canada<br />Niagara Falls was one of the first hydroelectric plants, powering street lamps<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  18. 18. Hydroelectricity in Growth<br />IN<br />1940<br />1907<br />1936<br />Hydroelectricity accounted for 15% of all electricity in the United States<br />This figure grew to 40%<br />The Hoover Dam was completed, as the largest hydroelectric plant in it’s time<br />(It is currently the 35th largest hydroelectric plant, over 70 years later!)<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  19. 19. The Hydrological Cycle<br />Gravity<br />Heat<br />Solar<br />So…<br />If energy can’t be created or destroyed…<br />Where does the power come <br />from for hydroelectricity?<br />Kinetic<br />Where’s the energy you ask?<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  20. 20. The Hydrological Cycle<br />Electric<br />Kinetic<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  21. 21. Costs<br />After the dam is built and the power plant is installed, Hydroelectric can outcompete all other renewable energies in cost. This is because that hydroelectric plants have very low operating and maintenance costs.<br />As you can see, hydroelectric is extremely competitive in cost <br />(and easily has the best cost to renewability ratio)<br />Furthermore, a hydroelectric plant has a service life of about 100 years, making it a smart investment.<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  22. 22. Hydroelectric Today<br />Environmentalists<br />In 2006, Hydroelectric power accounted for 2/3 of the world’s renewable energy, which was 19% of it’s electricity<br />Yet the steep drop in Hydroelectric power in 2007<br /> has another key reason:<br />2006 was a record year for water availability (rain)<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  23. 23. Environmental Shortcomings<br />Hydroelectric power may not burn fuel or emit C02, <br />but it does affect the environment <br /><ul><li>Organic matter also gathers in the reservoir and rots… </li></ul> releasing greenhouse gases<br /><ul><li>All dams change the food chains and native habitats of river wildlife</li></ul>Methane<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  24. 24. Other Shortcomings<br /><ul><li>Dam failure is a catastrophic event that societies need to avoid and take full precautions for.
  25. 25. While water is indefinitely renewable, it is not a constant/reliable source. There will be times when water availability is beyond capacity to be harnessed, and times when there is not enough to supply electricity demand. Running a business that is dependant upon constant/predictable weather conditions is inherently high-risk.
  26. 26. Many of the best rivers for damming have already been dammed, hydroelectric is best suited for large-scale plants. </li></ul>An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  27. 27. Current Trends <br />As we saw in the previous slides, despite it’s many advantages hydroelectric dams have been getting shut down primarily due to environmental lobbying. However, this was also during a period of cheap energy. Now that energy prices have jumped, we will likely see less hydroelectric dams being shut down. <br />Most environmentalists will agree that hydroelectric still beats fossil fuels or nuclear plants. Most economists will agree that consumers will purchase the product that offers them the most value for their money. Hydroelectric is still the best value renewable energy for the foreseeable future.<br />Furthermore, energy use continued to climb in 2007, despite less hydroelectric power being used. Renewable energy use decreased for the first time in five years.<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />
  28. 28. Conclusion<br />Hydroelectric power was one of the first renewable sources of energy, and therefore the most developed currently. <br />Overtime other renewable sources of energy will develop and become competitive, offering a wider variety of affordable renewable energy.<br />Hydroelectric’s market growth in the United States seems to have reached a plateau and is unlikely to see significant growth in the future.<br />For sources, please refer to the writing sample!<br />An Introduction To<br />Hydroelectric Power<br />By Scott Templeman<br />

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