Strong, G. (2007, Oct 02). Has txt kild the ritn wd?, The Age, 1-2
In this newspaper article Strong outlines the impact that technology has had on the evolution
of literacy, given the introduction of new and fast growing literacy skills of ‘texting’ and
‘emoticon’. The success of ‘texting’, Strong explains, is due to the development of a society
of ‘short attention span’ individuals. A society that has adopted ‘texting’ because of its ‘short-
message’ concept and of its ‘lack of emotional content’. Society wishes to avoid/minimize its
face-to-face communication. The article further discusses how ‘texting’ structure and its
uniqueness has crept even into spoken language. Society is including ‘texting language’
O.M.G. (Oh My God) and ‘L.O.L.’ (laugh out loud). The author mentions how Shakespeare
influenced the English language and would ‘texting’ be in the same arena.
The New London Group (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social
futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66 (1), 60-93 Retrieved from EJS database.
The article describes the beginnings of The New London Group as they venture on
their journey to redefine the term ‘literacy’ and ‘what it means to be literate’. It
elaborates how The New London Group came to realize that the Information
Computer Technology had broaden the scope of literacy by introducing a
multiplicity of different literacy aspects such as digital text, images and The
Internet. The article explains that literacy presently is not centered on a language-
based format but on a multiplicity of communication and information aspects.
The article discusses the need for the development of a different ‘literacy
pedagogy’ based on the escalating cultural and linguistic diversity in today’s
Anstey, M., & bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning Multiliteracies: changing
times, changing literacies (pp. 56-81). Newark, Delaware: International Reading
The chapter, ‘Developing Pedagogies for Multiliteracies’ explores the
characteristics and outlines of a Multiliterate Curriculum. The authors
demonstrate that Multiliterate Curriculum are to incorporate the Productive
Pedagogies framework and the Four Resources Model for students to develop as
multiliterate individuals. Anstey and Bull investigate the classroom as a Social
Environment by addressing the need for teachers to be sensitive to the diversity
within their classroom by examining that their pedagogical practices are not
excluding some students based on their social and cultural backgrounds. The
chapter includes lesson plans/implementation and teacher talk analysis that may
assist teachers in their pedagogical practices.
Callow, Jon, (2010). NOW literacies – everyday classrooms reading, viewing and creating
multimodal texts video. Online video retrieved from
Dr Jon Callow’s online video ‘everyday classrooms reading, viewing and creating
multimodal texts’ rationalizes the impact culture has had on literacy by creating
visual texts which are easily accessable to society and which result in a
sophisticated standard of multiple literacies – written, visual and multimodal. The
author explains that is is important that teachers identify and include visual and
multimodal texts in classroom literacy in order to support twenty-first century
students. Dr Callow discusses how teachers’ pedagogy impacts on children’s
viewing literacy, ‘decoding text’and ‘text meaning’. He infers that these strategies
are to be applied also when children are viewing images thus engaging children to
develop a deeper understanding how visual text enhances meaning. Dr Callow
refers to this pedagogy as ‘intellectually rigorous’.
Rennie, J. (2009). Multiliteracies and Diversity in Education: New Pedagogies for Expanding
Landscapes. Australian Educational Researcher (Australian Association For Research In
Education In Education), 36 (1), 111-112
Dr Jennifer Rennie is a senior lecturer at Monash University. Her purpose in
writing the book was to examine the traditional aspects of literacy with that of
literacy in the twenty-first century – Multiliteracies. Given today’s learners’
diverse characteristics and the many facets of literacy, the author poses the
question ‘what constitutes literacy today?’ the article suggests that it is
imperative that the current educational systems and policies, which rely on the
traditional view of literacy, be reformed to address Kalantzis and Cope (2005)
theory where teachers are originators of the learning environments and learners
are accountable for their own learning. Dr Rennie’s intended audience is pre-
service and classroom teachers and examples how ‘learning by design’ can be
practised in diverse classrooms are included.
Callow, J. (2011). When image and text meet: teaching with visual and
multimodal texts. PETA Paper (Primary English Teaching Association
Dr Jon Callow is a researcher in visual literacy. The purpose of the article was to
draw the reader’s attention to the integration of multimodal texts in The Australian
Curriculum and explore how multimodality focuses on image and text. The article
draws on teachers’ viewpoint and their pedagogical approach to picture books and
images. The author discusses the concept of ‘visual Metalanguage’ and
incorporates examples of annotated picture book images and teaching practices
that will assist teachers in incorporating visual literacy in the pedagogical
Felten, P. (2008). Visual Literacy. Change, 40 (6), 60-64
The author emphasizes that today’s culture is saturated with visual communication
and the impact this visual explosion has had on literacy. The author’s perspective
is that images are now central to communication and ‘meaning-making’. The
article introduces a wide range of publications on Visual Literacy. The topic is
well researched as it includes differing points of view. Being literate in the
twenty-first century is more than just understanding words and texts: it includes
multiply modes of representation texts.
Mouly, F. (2011). Visual Literacy. Children & Libraries: The Journal Of The
Association For Library Service To Children, 9 (1), 12-14
The author emphasizes the special connection that graphic novels have with visual
literacy. The article brings to light the approach comics have in presenting stories
visually. Comics have been around for more than a century and they are now
appearing in schools as a means to encourage students to read and develop their
visual literacy skills. The article lists numerous proficient uses of comics in
developing literacy. It is evident from the article that author’s graphic novels are
being promoted. The article does not quote any supporting research.
Rowsell, J., Hamilton, M., & McLean, C. (2012). Visual Literacy as a Classroom
Approach. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55 (5), 444-447. Retrieved
from: Education Research Complete, Ipswich, MA: August 9, 2013.
The authors enlightens the reader to what Visual Literacy is and how it has
infiltrated the learning environment of the twenty-first century. The article states
how learners are interacting with Visual Literacy and the ways that these learners
proficiently use it. It discusses the reasons why Visual Literacy needs to be
included in a teacher’s pedagogy and provides multiple examples/strategies on
how to apply Visual Literacy thus developing learners as critical analyst.
Purvis, J.R. (1973). Visual Literacy: An Emerging Concept. Educational
Leadership, 30 (8), 714-716.
This article explores how Visual Literacy has emerged through technological
development and the misconceptions that educators have on what Visual Literacy
entails. The author informs the reader on the four general types of learning
experiences that have contributed to the development of Visual Literate
individuals. The article covers the reasoning behind the importance of
incorporating Visual Literacy into the educational environment as a mirror to the
individual’s technological home environment. The author provides response to
the Visual Literacy in the United States of America and lists pertinent resources.
In the past, the contexts for learners to acquire ‘literacy’ was through
comprehension and composition of written texts. ‘Literacy’ can no longer
be defined as simply paper-based with words proceeding from the top left to
the bottom right. The concept of ‘literacy’ is culturally determined.
(Emmitt, Komesaroff & Pollock (2007)
Technology is also changing the nature and use of literacy. ‘Literacy’in the
twenty-first century means more than learning the skills of reading and
writing. Luke, Freebody and Land (2000:20) define literacy as, ‘the flexible
and sustainable mastery of a repertoire of practices with the texts of
traditional and new communications technologies via spoken language,
print, and multimedia.
The term ‘Multiliteracies’was introduced by the New London Group (1996)
which deemed it necessary to broaden the concept of literacy to include
linguistic and cultural diversity as well as computer-based multimedia texts.
Multiliteracies is used to describe the multiple nature of literacy that has
developed because of social practices in the twenty-first century: the
combination of text and graphics and cultural process where its roots have
grown strong and firm as it engages, stimulates and involves children in
having rich and varied literacy experiences. Today’s children have grown up
with technology and are often referred to as ‘digital natives’ (Prensky 2001)
and defines them as individuals who have grown up with a society
surrounded by digital technologies. The volume and complexity of literacy
these ‘digital natives’ achieve at home probably exceeds that which they do
Teachers mainly are ‘digital immigrants’ because they have adapted their
worldview to accommodate the idea of computer technology. Teachers need
to be aware of how children use Multiliteracies at home and build upon these
experiences to maximal their learning.
The Australian curriculum places Multiliteracies firmly within the core of the
primary English Curriculum as it recognizes the rapid ways that today’s
children communicate with technology. Kress, (2003) states that, ‘New
technologies are largely accountable for the fact that young children are
increasingly encountering multimodal forms of texts’.
Learners of the twenty-first century arrive at school having rich and varied
literacy experiences and have already learned to make sense of visual
literacy. These individuals are well-equipped with Multimodal texts that
comprise multiple symbols, words and pictures. Learners need to learn in
authentic, meaningful and real situations reflecting the visual
literacy/Multiliteracies nature of their society.
Choosing an ICT component for this assignment was not an easy task. My
schooling years were of the time when ICT was new and not so easily
assessable in the classroom. Prensky (2011) would refer to me as a ‘digital
immigrant’ an individual who has not grown up with digital tools but have
adopted several aspects of ICT but would rather use the ‘old ways’.
I approached this part of the assignment with the willingness of furthering
my technological knowledge. Therefore, I set my sights on using the
program PowerPoint and uploading the presentation onto YouTube.
I have learnt many things on my technological journey – ‘not giving up;
computers are stubborn and at times it is best to walk away’. The main
element that kept me on my target was to demonstrate to the younger
generation of the family that even a ‘digital immigrant’is a life-long learner.
SELF-REFLECTION ON ICT LEARNING
SELF-REFLECTION ON ICT LEARNING
My reflection on completing this assignment was one of exhilaration and
Rapid changes have taken place in ‘literacy’ and ICT has had a strong
influence on these enormous transformations. Through this experience I
came to the realization that ICT is essential in teaching literacy because it
centers on what the learners of the twenty-first century and beyond are
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