Photography is the art, science, and practice of
creating durable images by recording light or
other electromagnetic radiation, either
chemically by means of a light-sensitive material
such as photographic film, or electronically by
means of an image sensor.
Invented in the first decades of the 19th century, photography (by way
of the camera) seemed able to capture more detail and information
than traditional mediums, such as painting and sculpting.Photography
as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of
chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image
produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was
destroyed by a later attempt to duplicate it. Niépce was successful
again in 1825. He made the first permanent photograph from nature
(his View from the Window at Le Gras) with a camera obscura in 1826.
The camera obscura (Latin; camera for "vaulted
chamber/room", obscura for "dark", together "darkened
chamber/room"; plural: camera obscuras or camerae
obscurae) is an optical device that projects an image of its
surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for
entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led
tophotography and the camera. The device consists of a
box or room with a hole in one side. Light from an external
scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside
where it is reproduced, upside-down, but with color
and perspective preserved.
Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person
in 1838, while taking a daguerreotype of a
Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe
shine, long enough to be captured by the
long exposure (several minutes).
Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a
pension for his formula, in exchange for his
promise to announce his discovery to the
world as the gift of France, which he did in
According to "The Development of 35mm Photography"
An early 35mm still camera was the Tourist Multiple from 1914 with
standard 35mm film for 750 exposures that utilized the 18x24mm so-
called half frame like 35mm motion picture cameras did. Several
cameras that were adapted from motion picture photography for
still use were also created around the same time. However, the
prototype Ur-Leica (invented by Oskar Barnack while working for
Ernst Leitz) from 1913 used the standard 24x36mm image size on
standard, 35mm film. It was different and it lead to a revolution in
Features of Photography
1. Film Loading and the film ASA.
a. Un-package your roll of film.
b. Take the roll of film and lay it on top of the cradle (not in) on the left hand
c. Pull up on the same disc from before as you do this, push the roll of film
down into the cradle.
d. Next with the roll of film securely in place, pull the leader across the
back of the camera by grabbing the sides of the film so that no
fingerprints make it on the surface of the film.
e. Insert the leader into one of the two slits on the right spindle. Line up the
sprocket holes on the sprockets. Holding the film in place on the
sprockets and with the leader in a slit on the spindle, with your left hand,
find the advancement mechanism which is connected to the right
spindle but on top of the camera, and spin it out and to the right with
your right thumb. Shut the back door.
ISO or ASA in the most basic terms is the speed with which your film or
digital camera responds to light, so the higher the ISO/ASA rating the
more sensitive the film sensor to light. In terms of film those with with
lower sensitivity (lower ISO speed rating like 50 or 100) requires a longer
exposure and is thus called a slow film, while stock with higher sensitivity
(higher ISO speed rating such as 400 or 800) can shoot the same scene
with a shorter exposure and is called a fast film.
2. Single Lens Reflex (SLR) viewfinder and composition.
The design that made the SLR famous is based on the way the lens and
camera body capture an image. When a user looks through the
viewfinder he is not seeing the image itself. What he sees is a reflection.
A mirror inside the camera body captures the image coming through
the lens and bounces it up to the viewfinder. This system allows the user
to see and photograph the exact image coming through the lens. A
photographer using a cameras with the viewfinder on the side sees the
image from an angle and not the true photograph image.
3. Lens opening (f/stop) and exposure
The lens itself is designed to capture images with different speeds and
light exposures. This is measured through two criteria: aperture size
(the size of the lens-shutter opening) and f-stops (the amount of light
exposure allowed). Changing these measurements can create
images such as photographs taken with little light using a long
exposure or blurred motion photographs of someone running by
slowing the time the lens stays open.
4. Shutter speed and timed exposure.
Exposure is the amount of light collected by the sensor in your
camera during a single picture. If the shot is exposed too long the
photograph will be washed out. If the shot is exposed too short the
photograph will appear too dark.
5. Natural and Artificial Lighting
Light sources can be either natural or artificial. Sun is the primary source
of natural light, and lightbulbs or lamps are the artificial sources. Light is
a form of electromagnetic energy that, in the case of natural
light, comes from the sun as the source and, in case of artificial
light, illuminates via energy from another source.
6. Macro and Micro lenses
Take the two photographs for example. The first image is a very good
example of a close up photograph, taken with a Nikon telephoto lens.
While the second photograph is a macro shot, allowing for bigger
magnification and showing the finest detail. A true macro lens allows
the photographer to capture finer detail, the hairs on an insects face, or
the pattern in its eye.
a filter is a device or process that removes from a signal some
unwanted component or feature. Filtering is a class of signal
processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial
suppression of some aspect of the signal. Most often, this means
removing some frequencies and not others in order to suppress
interfering signals and reduce background noise.