Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment Course : Organizational Communication Presenter : Megan Steinmetz
About Me <ul><li>Megan Steinmetz </li></ul><ul><li>Junior here at NKU </li></ul><ul><li>Currently I am studying Public Rel...
Assignment <ul><li>Research Paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a topic from text: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miller, ...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>My paper focuses on gender diversity and the challenge of dealing with sex...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Even though sexual harassment exists, one may or may not realize that they...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Critical theorists argue that “ideology is not a neutral concept but is in...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>“ For organizational communication theorists, then, it is important to fin...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>R. P. Clair argues that “certain framing devices serve to accentuate or co...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>If these women speak out and tell someone that they are being harassed, an...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Bingham (1991) says that since some organizations do not have organization...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Women use framing devices, one of which is called: “Accepting Dominant Int...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>This ideology that women who are sexually harassed must feel “harmonious” ...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Men can be victims of sexual harassment in organizations as well; but men ...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Bingham (1991) also notes that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional beliefs ...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Another issue that is a part of sexual harassment consists of sexual innue...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><ul><li>Therefore, according to Keyton and Menzie (2007), “by contextualizing ...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>As Dougherty (2001) states, “97% of organizations now report having sexual...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>In the future, research can be conducted to further knowledge about sexual...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Managers should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an open-door policy </li></ul>...
Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>To conclude the paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of gender diversi...
Any questions? Thanks for your time!
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Critical Approach And Sexual Harassment Power Point2

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In my organization communication class, I did research on the critical approach and sexual harassment in organizations.

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Critical Approach And Sexual Harassment Power Point2

  1. 1. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment Course : Organizational Communication Presenter : Megan Steinmetz
  2. 2. About Me <ul><li>Megan Steinmetz </li></ul><ul><li>Junior here at NKU </li></ul><ul><li>Currently I am studying Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Took organizational communication course last semester with Dr. Yungbluth </li></ul>
  3. 3. Assignment <ul><li>Research Paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a topic from text: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miller, K. (2006). Organizational communication: Approaches and processes. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I chose sexual harassment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate topic to one of three approaches in the text: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical approach (my topic) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>My paper focuses on gender diversity and the challenge of dealing with sexual harassment in the work environment. </li></ul><ul><li>I believe the critical approach to the study of organizational communication best describes this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical theorists believe that specific societal structures and processes lead to fundamental imbalances of power, which then lead to the oppression and alienation of social groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, critical theorists strive to expose these imbalances and relieve the oppressed group by bringing these issues to their attention (Miller, 2006). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Even though sexual harassment exists, one may or may not realize that they are doing it to someone, or that it is being done to them. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because people have an ideology , or rather people assume things happen and these actions are rarely questioned or scrutinized (Miller, 2006). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Critical theorists argue that “ideology is not a neutral concept but is intimately tied to systems of power and domination” (Miller, 2006, p. 127). </li></ul><ul><li>Miller goes on to state that this concept leads to the concept of hegemony . </li></ul><ul><li>Hegemony is a “process in which a dominant group leads another group to accept subordination as the norm” (p. 128). </li></ul><ul><li>If someone in an organization is being harassed by someone in power, they will accept this as normal and not file any complaints. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>“ For organizational communication theorists, then, it is important to find ways in which people can participate in free and open communication about power and control in the organizations in which they work” (Miller, 2006, p. 123). </li></ul><ul><li>This explains the critical model of emancipation because this process helps to liberate people who may be dominated by sexual harassment at work. </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation brings about awareness to those that are being oppressed and unable to seek help when dealing with the challenge of sexual harassment. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>R. P. Clair argues that “certain framing devices serve to accentuate or confront the hegemonic experience of women in organizations” (as cited in Miller, 2006, p. 134). </li></ul><ul><li>Clair goes on to say that female targets of sexual harassment frame their stories so that the incidents are kept quiet in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>She also discovered a significant hegemonic characteristic of men and women in the work environment in that “the very ways women talk about harassment, they normalize it and suppress further discussion of harassment as an oppressive feature of the workplace” (p. 134). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>If these women speak out and tell someone that they are being harassed, and then the situation repeats itself, or in fact worsens; this does not help female personnel feel free of oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>Since this happens, women are only more subservient, and therefore the patriarchy has dominated them once again in the organization where they work. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Bingham (1991) says that since some organizations do not have organizational and group solutions when it comes to sexual harassment; for example when women do not have social support from coworkers in the workplace, individual action may be her only hope to change the actions of her harasser(s). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Women use framing devices, one of which is called: “Accepting Dominant Interests” (Miller, 2006, p. 135). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miller (2006) explains that when women use this particular framing device, it means that they accept the sexual harassment and it is less important than managerial concerns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>According to Bingham (1991): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a woman does not want to formally report the sexual harassment she may feel compelled to maintain a harmonious (or at least tolerable) working relationship with the man who has harassed her, especially if he is a supervisor. Thus, she may be concerned with relational factors such as respect, trust, cooperation, and affiliation. (p. 92) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>This ideology that women who are sexually harassed must feel “harmonious” is why women in this type of working environment may feel as if they are indeed being suppressed by their supervisor(s). </li></ul><ul><li>In this situation, a critical theorist would want the victim of sexual harassment to voice her opinion and report the incident to someone of a higher position than her abuser; or seek help outside of the organization </li></ul>
  13. 13. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Men can be victims of sexual harassment in organizations as well; but men and women see sexual harassment differently because of different experiences with both fear and power (Miller, 2006). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Bingham (1991) also notes that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional beliefs that women are provocative sex-objects and men are sexual aggressors also may contribute to harassment by encouraging sexual behavior at work, and by removing responsibility for harassing communication from perpetrators. (p. 94) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This definitely creates a misunderstanding in the workplace because of traditional beliefs and the ideologies that people assume women are sex-objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the assumption influences sexual harassment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Another issue that is a part of sexual harassment consists of sexual innuendos. </li></ul><ul><li>Men find using sexual innuendos as a stress-reliever where most women seem to find it a form of sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example a man might whistle or comment on a woman’s clothing when what she is wearing has nothing to do with their work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual innuendos usually involve statements that are intentionally ambiguous, so the offender can claim “That’s not what I meant.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><ul><li>Therefore, according to Keyton and Menzie (2007), “by contextualizing the sexual aspect of the conversation in work tasks, the harasser in one sense legitimizes his or her actions” (p. 95). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though the harasser may use innuendos, the delivery of their message can have multiple meanings and confuse the person receiving the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the harasser knows what they are saying and knows their intended message, they essentially have power over the victim. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The victim is left confused on whether the conversation was legitimate, or inappropriate, and is oppressed because they are not comfortable re-addressing the conversation. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>As Dougherty (2001) states, “97% of organizations now report having sexual harassment policies while 84% of employees report that they are well informed about their employer’s sexual harassment policy” (p. 372-373). </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment is part of everyday work life, and people are even aware of it; but it is still being tolerated too easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller (2006) states that “Societal structures and processes allow the dominant class to shape organizational ideology” (p. 128). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>In the future, research can be conducted to further knowledge about sexual harassment. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people who are victims of sexual harassment are afraid to go to their supervisors for fear of possibly losing their job and having to ‘save face.’ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Managers should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an open-door policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach employees how to deal with confrontation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with sexual harassment in a face-to-face manner so that nonverbal cues can be read by the victim of harassment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a mediator to help in the situation so that the individuals do not have to go through the experience alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have online policies that employees can read from their intranet and they should review these on a yearly basis </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Critical Approach and Sexual Harassment <ul><li>To conclude the paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of gender diversity is related to the critical approach through the concepts of power, ideology, hegemonic control, and emancipation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to have a healthy work environment, and to avoid high statistics of sexual harassment, listening to the victims of sexual harassment and taking their concerns seriously can help change societal views of this issue. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Any questions? Thanks for your time!

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