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Lecture 1 Intro History Research

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  • 1. The Scope of Human Sexuality
  • 2. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • Sex is everywhere
  • 3. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • January 17, 1998: The Drudge Report first reported the sexual scandal between President Clinton and 22 year old White House intern.
    • July 28, 1998: Lewinsky turn over a semen-stained blue dress to Kenneth Starr’s investigators.
    • August 17, 1998: Clinton gave a nationally televised statement saying that he had “improper physical relations” with Lewinsky.
    • December 19, 1998: Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives
  • 4. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • August 13, 2004:“Dropping a political bombshell, New Jersey Gov. James McGreevey announced his resignation Thursday after revealing that he is gay and that he had an adulterous affair with a man.” -CNN.com
    • November, 2006: Ted Haggard resigned as the leader of the National Association of Evangelicals after his affair with a male prostitute was exposed.
  • 5. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • Senator Larry Craig
    • June 2007: Arrested for soliciting sex in a men’s public restroom in the Minneapolis airport
    • Claimed he had a “wide stance”
    • Plead guilty in August to public misconduct to avoid a trial
    • In Sept., after the scandal broke into the mainstream media, he revoked his plea and claimed he was innocent
    • Resigned from senator of Idaho, and later revoked his resignation
  • 6. Why a Course in Human Sexuality? How big was it? Were they real? Was it good for you?
  • 7. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • Sex is everywhere
    • To gain accurate and factual information about human sexuality.
  • 8. Where are we learning about sex?
    • 74% of teenagers said that friends and TV were their primary sources of information about sex.
      • Three-fourths of all shows contain talk about sex or depict sexual acts.
    • Another primary source: The Internet.
    • Only 10% of college-age students reported their parents as their primary source of information about sex.
      • What message is being sent if parents don’t talk about sex with their children?
  • 9. Why is this important?
    • 45% of all high school students have had sexual intercourse
    • Only 1/3 of sexually active teenagers use condoms
    • 3 million sexually transmitted diseases are reported each year for 10 – 19 year olds.
    • Every year 860,000 pregnancies occur among women age 15-19.
  • 10. Why is this important?
    • Everyone will face sexual decisions
      • Accurate information could prevent you from…
        • Getting an STD
        • Unwanted pregnancy
        • Being in an abusive relationship
        • Being manipulated
        • Stereotyping
      • Accurate information could assist you with…
        • Personal growth (discovering your own sexuality).
        • Maintain healthy sexual relationships and communicate with your partners. (Be assertive, not aggressive!)
        • Identify health concerns beyond STDs
        • Have mind-blowing orgasms
  • 11. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • Sex is everywhere
    • To gain accurate and factual information about human sexuality.
    • To dispel myths and misinformation.
  • 12. Myths
    • Masturbation will…
      • Cause poor eyesight and blindness
      • Causes acne
      • Make hair grow the palms of you hands
      • Cause insanity
    • Pulling out…
    • Can you get HIV from kissing someone?
  • 13. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • Sex is everywhere
    • To gain accurate and factual information about human sexuality
    • To dispel myths and misinformation
    • To examine the diverse spectrum of cultural, societal, and sexual norms
  • 14. Why is this important?
    • Understanding our backgrounds…
      • By learning about different cultures and societies, we can begin to understand how our own society has influenced our sexual attitudes.
    • The benefits of diversity
    • Has religion influenced our society? Our parents? Our personal attitudes?
  • 15. Why a Course in Human Sexuality?
    • Sex is everywhere
    • To gain accurate and factual information about human sexuality.
      • how to conduct your sexual life – positive view of sexuality, sexual health, making decisions!!!.
    • To dispel myths and misinformation.
    • To examine the diverse spectrum of cultural, societal, and sexual norms.
    • To become sexually literate
  • 16. Learning the Language
    • Benefits of becoming familiar with sexual terminology:
      • Being proactive about:
        • Health Problems
        • Birth Control
      • Better communication with your sex partner
      • Understanding yourself
  • 17. Sexuality Knowledge Quiz 1. Sperm can be produced only in an environment several degrees lower than normal body temperature. 2. The hymen is a reliable indicator of whether or not a woman is a virgin. 3. The inner 2/3rds of the vagina is sensitive to the touch 4. Most women are capable of multiple orgasms 5. Although they rarely occur, most men are capable of having multiple orgasms 6. After a vasectomy a man can reach orgasm but cannot ejaculate
    • 7. Women who masturbate to orgasm during adolescence generally have less difficulty reaching orgasm during intercourse than women who never masturbated
    • 8. Douching is an effective method of birth control.
    • Females are capable of ejaculation during orgasm.
    • The man on top position during vaginal intercourse is the position in which females typically gain the most pleasure.
    • Unless testosterone is present during embryonic development, nature has programmed everyone to be female.
    • About 10% of the population are homosexual individuals
  • 18. Sexuality Knowledge Quiz 1. Sperm can be produced only in an environment several degrees lower than normal body temperature. TRUE 2. The hymen is a reliable indicator of whether or not a woman is a virgin. FALSE 3. The inner 2/3rds of the vagina is sensitive to the touch FALSE 4. Most women are capable of multiple orgasms FALSE 5. Although they rarely occur, most men are capable of having multiple orgasms FALSE 6. After a vasectomy a man can reach orgasm but cannot ejaculate. FALSE 7. Women who masturbate to orgasm during adolescence generally have less difficulty reaching orgasm during intercourse than women who never masturbated TRUE 8. Douching is an effective method of birth control. FALSE 9. Females are capable of ejaculation during orgasm. TRUE 10. The man on top position during vaginal intercourse is the position in which females typically gain the most pleasure. FALSE 11. Unless testosterone is present during embryonic development, nature has programmed everyone to be female. TRUE 12. About 10% of the population are homosexual individuals FALSE
  • 19. Sexual Knowledge Quiz
    • 1. False
    • 2. True
    • 3. False
    • 4. False
    • 6. False
    • 7. False
    • 12.. False
    • 13. False
    • 18. False
    • 21. False
    • 22. True
    • 25. True
    • 28. False
    • 30. False
    31. True 32. True 34. False 35. False 38. False 41. True 42. False 44. False 45. False 46. False 47. False 50. True
  • 20. Overarching Themes
    • 1. Culture
    • 2. Morality
    • 3. Attitudes
  • 21. Overarching Themes
    • Definition
    • Traditional ideas, beliefs, values, and material goods passed down from generation to generation within a group. These ideas and values then serve as the basis for patterns of behaviors observed in a group
    • Elements of Culture
    • Food, clothing, music, beliefs (the golden rule), body contact and personal space, religious affiliations/influences
    Culture
    • Culture and Sexuality
    • What is sexually attractive?
    • Conceptions of marriage
    • Age of consent for sex (California – 18; Germany – 14)
    • Take Home Message
    • Different cultures have different sexual beliefs and practices
    • We form our sexual attitudes and beliefs within the context the culture in which we were raised
  • 22. Overarching Themes Morality
    • Example
    • Cheating on your partner
    • Having a 3-way
    • A 15 year old male and a 15 year old female engaging in a sexually active relationship
    • A 12 year old male and a 12 year old female engaging in a sexually active relationship
    • The Heart of Morality
    • Right and Wrong
    • Take Home Message
    • Morality (our sense of right and wrong) is intricately entwined with our sexual practices and behaviors
  • 23. Overarching Themes Attitudes
    • Definition
    • An attitude consists of having positive, negative, or mixed feelings or thoughts toward a person, object, or idea
    • Take Home Message
    • Our personal sexual behavior is largely influenced by the attitudes we have toward human sexuality and specific sexual practices
  • 24. So how did we get here? Historical Perspectives
    • Greeks (775 BC – 150 BC)
    • Sex (within marriage) is…good!
    • The purpose of having sex for procreation was for the benefit of the state
    • Idealization of the body and physical beauty
    • Homosexual relations between older men and younger boys was encouraged
      • These relations were vital to a boy’s education
  • 25. Sexuality Throughout History
  • 26. So how did we get here? Historical Perspectives
    • Judaism (100 B.C. to 100 A.D.)
    • Many children were necessary for agrarian lifestyle (farming, etc.)
    • Sex (within marriage) was considered good and a gift from God
    • Women were treated as property and could be stoned to death for infidelity
    • Homosexuals were punished by death
  • 27. So how did we get here? Historical Perspectives
    • Romans (150 B.C. – 350 A.D.)
    • Women again were considered property of the men
    • Homosexual relationships still present and accepted
  • 28. So how did we get here? Historical Perspectives
    • Romans (150 B.C .– 350 A.D.)
    • During the decline of the Roman Empire (350 – 600 A.D.) sexual debauchery was wide spread
    • Christianity began a moral crusade against the debauchery
    • Christianity’s influence over people’s sexual values began to grow
  • 29. Sexuality Throughout History
    • St. Paul (A.D. 5 – 67)
      • Openly and fanatically persecuted Christians in early adulthood
      • Converted to Christianity after having a vision
      • Viewed women as temptresses and blamed Eve for the expulsion from the Garden of Eden
      • Preached that celibacy was the way to heaven
      • Believed that married couples should avoid sex for pleasurable purposes
    • “… For I delight in the law of God, in my inmost self, but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin which dwells in my members.”
    Christianity
  • 30. Sexuality Throughout History Christianity
    • St. Augustine (A.D. 352 – 430)
    • Troubled Times As A Youth
    • As a youth (college) Augustine lead a hedonistic lifestyle
    • He lived with his concubine, and had a child out of wedlock
    • Many Scholars believe he had a same-sex affair with one of his friends.
    “ I muddied the stream of friendship with the filth of lewdness and clouded its clear waters with hell’s black river of lust.”
  • 31. Sexuality Throughout History St. Augustine (A.D. 354 – 430)
    • A New Beginning
    • After reading the works of St. Paul, Augustine converted to Christianity, became celibate, and cultivated a highly antisexual attitude
    • His Own Words
    • “ They who marry…if the means could be given them of having children without intercourse with their wives, would they not with joy unspeakable embrace so great a blessing? Would they not with great delight accept it?”
    “ God ought to have invented a better way of dealing with the problem of procreation.” “ Lustful sex is the enemy of God.”
  • 32. Sexuality Throughout History St. Augustine (A.D. 354 – 430)
    • Major Contributions
    • Published over 100 titles and became one of the most influential people of Western Christianity. Augustine’s beliefs were shared by nearly all Christian leaders.
  • 33. Sexuality Throughout History Christianity
    • Major Contributions
    • Formulated and disseminated the following:
    • 1. the concept of Original Sin
      • Because all sexual intercourse was sinful, all babies were born with sin
    • 2. having sex for pleasure was unnatural and a sin against nature
    • 3. The purpose of sex is for procreation only
    • These beliefs still have a large influence on modern Christian societies
  • 34. Sexuality Throughout History Sexuality Throughout History Victorianism (1750 – 1900’s)
    • Prudish Ways
    • A period of time marked by extreme antisexual public sentiment (it was very “prudish”)
    • Women came to be viewed as asexual rather than as temptresses
    • Between 1856 – 1932 The United States awarded at least 33 patents for sexual restraining devices
  • 35. Sexuality Throughout History Victorianism (1750 – 1900’s)
    • Misinformation Abounded
    • British doctors concluded that a woman who was menstruating could spoil ham by touching it
    • The loss of semen was as detrimental to a man’s health as the loss of blood
    • Tissot
    • Swiss Physician
    • 1741 published a book about the terrible effects of masturbation
      • Blindness to insanity
  • 36. The Scientific Method It took until 1948…
    • Characteristics of the Scientific Method
    • The scientific method uses systematic and controlled observation, study, and experimentation
    • Systematic
    • Characterized by the use of method or orderly planning
    • Controlled
    • All variables are held constant except for those being studied (e.g., attitudes toward sexual behavior)
    • Population
    • The entire collection of people about which the researcher proposes to draw conclusions
    • Sample
    • A subset of the population which is measured
  • 37. The Scientific Method Sampling Issues
    • Random Sampling
    • Every member of a population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
    • Representative Sample
    • Subgroups are randomly selected in the same proportion as they exist in the population
    • Purpose
    • To eliminate inaccuracies caused by biased samples
    • Example: Consider The Source (The Sample) Of A Survey:
    • Will there be a difference between surveys published in: Playboy vs. Seventeen vs. Redbook
    • Who do these survey’s represent?
    • Take Home Message
    • A sample must accurately represent the population to which the research is generalizing
  • 38. Research Methods Survey Research
    • Purpose
    • To assess people’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors
    • Methods
    • Pen and pencil surveys
    • Face-to-face interviews
    • Pros
    • Can assess a wide range of topics
      • Past events
      • Behaviors that are not directly observable (e.g. the way people think)
    • Cons
    • People may not answer truthfully
      • Fail to remember past events
      • Social desirability bias: people may exaggerate their answers to conform to a societal norm (e.g. men and the number of partners they’ve had)
    • Terminology may be ambiguous
      • What does ‘have sex’ mean?
  • 39. Research Methods Correlation Research
    • Purpose
    • To assess the degree of relationship between two variables
    • What, Exactly, Is A Variable?
    • 1. Level of religiosity
    • 2. Number of sexual partners
    • Characteristics
    • Positive correlation
    • Negative correlation
    • Zero correlation
    • Pros
    • Can provide the foundation for an explanatory relationship between two variables
    • Cons
    • Correlation is not causation!!!
    • We cannot say that one variable causes the other variable to change
  • 40. Research Methods Direct Observation
    • Purpose
    • To observe and record subjects as they are performing an activity
    • Methods
    • Naturalistic observation
      • observing people in their natural environment (e.g. the real world)
    • Participant-Observer method
      • A researcher observes a subject while he or she participates (e.g., Bartell (1970): Swinging study)
    • Pros
    • Real life behaviors are directly observed!
    • Close and accurate physiological measurements can be made
    • Cons
    • Observer bias effect
      • People may act differently if they know they’re being observed
    • Limited ability to generalize to a broad population
  • 41. Seminal Researchers Alfred Kinsey
    • Background
    • Strict, religious father
    • Believed he would go crazy if he masturbated
    • Failed at engineering school, began studying biology » Gall Wasps!
    • Moved to Indiana U., began teaching a marriage course
    • Frustrated by how little accurate information there was about sexual behavior
    • Began survey research with students from his marriage class
    • Collected data from 1938 – 1949
  • 42. Seminal Researchers
    • Purpose of Research
    • To provide a detailed account of people’s sexual behavior
    • Examples
    • Level of sexual activity
    • Age at which they began to masturbate
    • Incidence of homosexuality
    • Major Contributions
    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948)
    Alfred Kinsey
    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
  • 43. Seminal Researchers Alfred Kinsey
    • Research Method
    • Face-to-face Interviews (survey research)
    • 5,300 men, 5,940 women
    • Interviews were well-conducted: over 50% were conducted by Kinsey himself
    • Research Topics
    • Physical data
    • Early sexual knowledge
    • Adolescent sexual behaviors
    • Masturbation
    • Sexual intercourse
    • Homosexual behavior
    • Sexual contact with animals
    • Sexual responsiveness
  • 44. Seminal Researchers Alfred Kinsey
    • Examples of Early Research Findings
    • 21% of men and 6% of women lost virginity by age 16
    • 40% of males and 16% of females preferred to have the lights on during intercourse
    • 50% of married males and 26% of married females engaged in sexual activity outside of marriage
    • Examples of Early Research Findings
    • 37% of males and 13% of females reported engaging in same-sex activity to orgasm
    • 92% of males and 62% of females reported having engaged in masturbation
    • 69% of white males reported at least one sexual experience with a prostitute
  • 45. Seminal Researchers
    • Sample Issues
    • Did not use Random or Representative sampling
    • Overrepresentation of: College students, well-educated individuals, Protestants and prisoners
    • As a result, his findings have been criticized as failing to meet proper scientific criteria
    • Consider the environment…
    • Used 100% method: find a group of individuals and only use them when all members would participate
    Alfred Kinsey
      • Sororities
      • Fraternities
      • Professional groups
  • 46. Seminal Researchers Masters and Johnson
    • Background
    • William Masters and Virginia Johnson: Husband and wife research team
    • Began collecting data in 1954
    • Argued that physiological sexual responses in rats could not explain human sexual responses
    • Purpose of Research
    • To obtain accurate physiological responses to sexual behavior
  • 47. Seminal Researchers Masters and Johnson
    • Research Method
    • Direct Observation
    • Gathered data on sexual behavior in a laboratory setting
    • Examples
    • Electrocardiograph (HR)
    • Electromyograph (muscular contractions)
    • PH measure (acidity of the vagina)
    • Penile strain gauge
    • Vaginal photoplethysmograph (vasocongestion of the genitals)
  • 48. Seminal Researchers Masters and Johnson
    • Sampling
    • 312 men, 382 women total
    • 276 married couples
    • Interviews conducted to weed out exhibitionists and uncomfortable participants
    • Biased Samples?
    • Argument: Physiological responses are can be generalized to populations regardless of personality characteristics
  • 49. Seminal Researchers Masters and Johnson
    • Major Contributions
    • Human Sexual Response (1966)
    • Importance Of Their Findings
    • Developed models for the Sexual Response Cycle
    • Developed techniques for sexual therapy
    • High degree of physiological accuracy due to direct observation
  • 50. Class Responses
  • 51. Class Responses
  • 52. Class Responses

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