Disaster Management @ Kudankulam Nuclear
⚝When was the Kudankulam idea began and when it was
⚝What is VVER?
⚝How many Nuclear Plants are there in INDIA?
⚝How many percentage of current is provided by Nuclear
⚝What is the chemical which is used in kudankulam?
⚝Who are the two politicians who signed the project?
⚝What is the Budget of kudankulam?
⚝Do you support Abdul kalam’s decision to start the plant?
⚝Is anyone foreign funds provided for the fight ?
Nuclear In INDIA
⚝We have 19 Plants including kudankulam,
some important are
⚝Rajasthan Atomic power project (1*100,
1*200 and 4*220)
⚝Narora atomic power plant (2*235)
⚝Bhabha atomic research centre
⚝Kakrapur atomic power plant (2*220)
⚝Two units of 1000MW
⚝88 meters tall
⚝8.85 meters below ground level
⚝A special feature undertaken in India for the
first time is a completely steel lined dome for
the inner containment wall and dome for the
reactor building .
VVER water-cooled, water-moderated
⚝Height of 19 m and diameter of 4.5m
⚝Is a series of pressurized water reactor designs
originally developed in the Soviet Union
⚝six primary coolant loops each with a
horizontal steam generator
⚝emergency core cooling
⚝Reactor fuel rods are fully immersed in water kept
at 15 MPa of pressure so that it does not boil at
normal (220 to over 300 C) operating
Passive Heat Removal System
⚝Starting from 36.60m to 52.27m
⚝Other new safety systems include aircraft crash
protection and system to contain the molten
reactor core in the event of a severe accident.
⚝An accident taking place in any nuclear facility of the
NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE including the nuclear
⚝A criticality accident in a nuclear fuel cycle leading to
BURSTS OF NEUTRONS and GAMMA
⚝An accident during the TRANSPORTATION of
⚝The malevolent use of radioactive material as RDD
⚝A large-scale nuclear disaster resulting from a
NUCLEAR WEAPON ATTACK
PREVENTION OF NUCLEAR/RADIOLOGICAL
⚝structured in five levels
⚝Three basic safety functions
⚝controlling the power,
⚝cooling the fuel
⚝confining the radioactive material
ENGINEERED SAFETY FEATURES
⚝Vapour Suppression System to limit the peak pressure of
⚝Liquid Poison Injection System for long- term sub-
criticality of reactors.
⚝Reactor Building Coolers to bring down the primary
⚝Secondary Containment Recirculation System to reduce
activity release, using multi-pass filtering by recirculation.
⚝Specifying the jobs of all the functionaries who have assigned
roles during the emergency
⚝Alerting the plant personnel by sounding the emergency siren
⚝Identified assembly locations for plant personnel and casual
visitors for their accounting, and
⚝assessment of persons trapped in the radiological areas.
⚝Formation of rescue teams and activation of a treatment area.
⚝Radiation survey around the plant and outside the plant and
⚝Assessment of wind speed, wind direction and the affected
sector around the nuclear facility.
⚝Equipment and materials for handling a nuclear emergency are
EXERCISES AND MOCK DRILLS
⚝Training plays an important role in the proper
implementation of various emergency response
activities. Some plans for communication,
Shelters, transport facilities, food, water,
EFFECTS OF A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION
⚝ The effects of a nuclear explosion depend upon the yield and type weapon, height of burst,
⚝ of burst, time of burst and wind conditions at various heights.
⚝ Blast Effect
A sudden burst of a large amount of energy causes very high temperature and pressure in the
surrounding air, resulting in extremely hot and compressed gases. This is accompanied by a
hurricane type, very strong wind, causing further damage, including picking up people or vehicles
and hurling them into any other object.
⚝ Thermal Effect
The extreme high temperature of the air. It results in a firestorm due to the availability of more
and more combustible materials.
⚝ Nuclear Radiations
⚝ Radioactive Fallout
Finally, the residual radioactive substance which might be either in the form of gases or may get
attached to the dust particles, sucked up from the earth by the rising fire ball will come down
slowly and will contaminate a very large area-up to several tens or hundreds of kilometers—
depending upon yield, height of burst and weather conditions.
⚝ Externally or internally within the body may lead to radiation
⚝ Hereditary effects
⚝ Immediate somatic effects could be radiation sickness
⚝ Death of the individual
⚝ Damages in radiosensitive organs.
⚝ Cataract, sterility, skin erythema, skin burns, etc.
⚝ Exposure during pregnancy can result into prenatal death, neonatal
death, mental retardation,
⚝ childhood cancer, etc.
⚝ Psycho-social effects radiation exposure result in anxiety, brain
syndrome, stress disorder
⚝ burst of fear, panic, or aggression.
DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER
⚝Even if the uranium is dried and even if we close the
plant we need to keep the well trained engineers and
technologies to keep the population safe for 10,000
years. All risks like earthquakes, tsunamis and terrorism
still apply to these wastes .
⚝It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100%
security. A small probability of failure will always last.
⚝These areas are prone to high risk in case of terrorist
⚝If accident occurs many scientist say that it is unsafe to
enter the area for another 20 years.
13 REASONS WHY WE DO NOT
WANT THE KOODANKULAM
1.The Plant reactors are being set up without sharing the
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Site Evaluation
Study and Safety Analysis Report with the people, or the
people‘s representatives or the press. No public hearing
has been conducted for the first two reactors either. There
is absolutely no democratic decision-making in or public
approval for this project.
2. The area between 2 to 5 km radius around the plant site,
should be called the sterilization zone.. This means that
people in this area could be displaced.
3. It is quite impossible to evacuate 1 million people
within 30 km radius quickly and efficiently.
4.The coolant water and low-grade waste from the
Plant are going to be dumped into the sea which will
have a severe impact on fish production and catch.
This will undermine the fishing industry, push the
Fisher folks into deeper poverty and misery and
affect the food security of the entire southern Tamil
Nadu and southern Kerala.
5.Even when the Plant projects function normally
without any incidents and accidents, they would be
emitting IODINE 131, 132, 133, CESIUM 134, 136,
137 Isotopes, Strontium, Tritium, Tellurium and
other such radioactive particles into our air, land,
crops, cattle, sea, seafood and ground water. Already
the southern coastal belt is sinking with very high
incidence of cancer, mental retardation, down
syndrome, defective births due to private and
government sea-sand mining for rare minerals
including thorium. The KKNPP will add many more
woes to our already suffering people.
6.The quality of construction and the pipe work
and the overall integrity of the KKNPP structures
have been called into question by the very
workers and contractors who work there in
7. The Minister Mr. Jairam Ramesh announced
that the government has decided not to give
permission to Plant 3-6 as they were violating
the Coastal Regulation Zone stipulations.
8. Many political leaders and bureaucrats try to
reassure us that there would be no natural
disasters in the kudankulam area. How can
anyone ever know?
9. Prime Minster himself has spoken about
danger in terrorist attacks to India‘s nuclear
10. The important issue of liability for the
Russian plants has not been settled yet.
11. In 1988 the authorities said that the cost estimated was
Rs. 6,000 crores. In November 1998, it was Rs.15,500. In
2001,it was Rs.13171 crores. No one knows the 2011
figures of any of these expenses. No one cares to tell the
Indian public either.
12. The March 11, 2011 disaster in Fukushima has made it
all too clear to the whole world that nuclear power plants
are prone to natural disasters.
13.Is it all for us, the people of India? Or for the corporate
profits of the Russian, American and French companies?
Or for the Indian military? Are the lives and futures of the
Indian citizens inferior to all these?
WHAT IS NEEDED?
⚝Trial run of evacuation and medical services
within 30km should be made before the start of
⚝When there was Nuclear disaster at Chernobyl,
Russia. Many large helicopters pour
40 tonnes of Metal powder
800 tonnes of Lime stone
2400 tonnes of Copper
1000 tonnes of Concrete and sand
⚝The government should clearly explain about
the process of dumping the wastes from the
nuclear power plants. Any wastes can be
reused including the feces and the urine but not
the nuclear wastes. Which will be live for
10,000 years. The scientist has not found a
clear idea to dump the wastes.
⚝Only 3% of the electricity is produced by
⚝USA and Russia has announced to give the
people around the nuclear power plant
insurance for Billions of dollars. The
government should think about providing
insurance for the people if all the above needs
Money or LIFE?
We should not think about losing 13,000 crores
in this koodankukam plant because this money is
not the government’s but people’s . If you think
we are wasting Rs.13,000 crores then what about
where government lost
Rs.29,200 crores and what about
where government lost
Rs.5,60,000 crores. This involves the life s of
Southern Tamil people.