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  • 1. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP
  • 2. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROFILIC STRIP -> The best embedment to the concrete in the market -> Improved compression stability -> Fully integrated with the segment moulds -> Optimal interpenetration of the gasket on itself -> 200 years design life
  • 3. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Forth Generation Fifth Generation GLUED GASKETS ANCHORED GASKETS
  • 4. GUARNIZIONE ANCORATA AL CASSERO UG027A CON STRIP IDROFILICA CHARACTERISTICS OF RUBBER The rubber is a flexible material and non-compressible. Max compres. Relax Max flex. h 6 mm h 10 mm h 40 mm For this reason, in the course of time, the form of hydraulic gaskets gradually has undergone conceptual changes to its shape. It has gone from forms that included a deformation in compression alone to forms that use in form also increasing elongation.
  • 5. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP RUBBER GASKETS FIRST GENERATION COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION • Slight changes in shape and hardness of gasket, cause high variations of compression. • Rapid drop of tightness performances • High stress conditions in the connection system • High reaction forces for closed gaps CONS
  • 6. GUARNIZIONE ANCORATA AL CASSERO UG027A CON STRIP IDROFILICA DEVELOPMENT THE SECOND GENERATION STEP COMPLICATED 1. Forms apparently similar during compression behave a completely different way 2. The evolution of the gasket from the first to the second generation is particularly complex
  • 7. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP RUBBER GASKETS SECOND GENERATION SEPTA DEFLECTION GASKET SEPTA DEFLECTION GASKET CONSPROS • Improves the compression behaviour • Lower forces for the closed gap. • Better hydraulic performance • Remains a certain instability • Need for a taller gasket profile to mantain good watertightness performances.
  • 8. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP SECOND GENERATION GOOD SOLUTION •Good contact between the groove flanks •Contact surfaces between the rubber gaskets even. •Instability of the upper part
  • 9. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • Bad contact between the groove flanks • Contact surfaces between the rubber gaskets neither even or flat • General instability SECOND GENERATION BAD SOLUTION
  • 10. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • Better behaviour in compression and in relaxation • Higher stability to the tightness performances • No stress in the connection systems • Higher stability to compression • Lower forces for the closed gap RUBBER GASKETS THIRD GENERATION «FOLDING» GASKET BY COMPRESSION PROS
  • 11. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • Good contact with groove flanks • Contact surfaces between the rubber gaskets even. • Perfect gasket foldability and no instability. RUBBER GASKETS THIRD GENERATION «FOLDING» GASKET BY COMPRESSION
  • 12. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANALYSIS OF GLUED GASKETS APPLICATION ON CONCRETE SEGMENTS
  • 13. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • Repair from the concrete groove if damaged • Repair and fill cavities higher than 1 mm • Treat the concrete groove with brushes to remove all the roughness A. CONCRETE GROOVE PREPARATION • Dust must be removed from concrete groove • Concrete grooves surface must be dry • Concrete grooves should be oil/grease free B. BONDING • Strictly observe the glue preparation’s procedure • Glue should be applied with paintbrush or spry gun • Glue shall be applied with a constant thickness film • Glue shall be applied particularly on the groove’s flanks • Strictly comply with the solvent evaporation time before the installation of the rubber gasket C. GLUE APPLICATION
  • 14. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • The application should be made only at glue’s right ripeness (the glue should be neither too wet nor too dry) • Rubber gasket must be coupled with concrete segment by a rubber hammer without getting damaged • Operation to be carried out in a specific finishing line using a specific press rig to improving the coupling between gasket and concrete segment D. Rubber gasket application • The pre casting plant must be equipped with a finishing line • It’s necessary to have an additional handling of the segments before their storage. This cause higher damage risks; • It’s necessary to have a special press tool to obtain a perfect coupling between rubber gasket and concrete segment. E. Glued rubber gaskets critical issues
  • 15. GLUED RUBBER GASKET UG032A ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG033A Note: the white cross hatch was made on the profiles prior to the simulation test in order to show more clearly the effects DISPLACEMENT BEHAVIOUR OF THE FRAME CORNER 1 2 3 1. Expulsion of the corner gasket from its groove due to the compression exerted by the erected segment. 2. Unbonding of the rubber gasket due to the reaction forces by the concrete segment during its erection. 3. Higher deformation of the gasket frame corner. MAIN CONS
  • 16. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • Corner geometry perfectly fits to the concrete segment MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE HYDRAULIC WATER TIGHTNESS OF GLUED GASKETS Acute and oblique corner Obtuse and oblique corner
  • 17. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP • Corner geometry perfectly fits to the concrete segment Good fitting Bad fitting
  • 18. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Forth Generation Fifth Generation GLUED GASKETS ANCHORED GASKETS
  • 19. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANALYSIS OF ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A
  • 20. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANCHORING OF RUBBER GASKET TO CONCRETE. RUBBER GASKETS FORTH GENERATION This technological innovation allows to increase in a relevant way the quality of the produced parts but also to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. Installed in the 4.1m diameter TBM tunnel that brings two sets of cables from Sicily to the mainland under the sea (Scilla Tunnel)
  • 21. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP + = Scilla Tunnel Vancouver Evergreen Line
  • 22. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANCHORING OF RUBBER GASKET WITH HYDROFILIC STRIP TO CONCRETE. RUBBER GASKETS FIFTH GENERATION This technological innovation allows to increase in a relevant way the quality of the produced parts but also to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs.
  • 23. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANCHORING OF RUBBER GASKET TO CONCRETE RUBBER GASKETS FIFTH GENERATION • Good contact with groove flanks • Contact surfaces between the rubber gaskets fully even. • Perfect gasket foldability and no instability.
  • 24. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP The gasket maintains a good contact between the surfaces and a proper crushing also to offset 10
  • 25. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP The gasket maintains a good contact between the surfaces and a proper crushing even if accidentally missing the hydrophilic cord
  • 26. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP
  • 27. GLUED RUBBER GASKET UG032A ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG033A • The labyrinth shape of the anchoring part assure an high resistance to the water infiltrations • The concrete makes an imprint that perfectly replicate the gasket anchoring feet’s geometry without gap or air inclusions
  • 28. GLUED RUBBER GASKET UG032A ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG033A ADVANTAGES OF THE RUBBER GASKET UG033A PROS • Guaranteed and remarkably higher adhesion between gasket and the concrete • Ensure that during concrete segments assembly, rubber gasket isn’t being expelled from its groove particularly in the corner zone • Higher hydraulic tightness due of the increasing distance for the water between gasket and concrete. QUALITY
  • 29. GLUED RUBBER GASKET UG032A ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG033A PROS • Shortened process in the precast factory due to time savings for correction of imperfections and cleaning of the groove area • Reduced assembly time of the gasket • Saving costs for glue and glueing equipment TIME SAVING
  • 30. GLUED RUBBER GASKET UG032A ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG033A PROS • No environmental pollution associated with the use of solvent in the glue. ENVIRONMENTAL
  • 31. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET WITH HYDROFILIC STRIP: SELF REPAIR During concrete segment assembly there could be the following actions: • Anomalous deformations of the gasket • Gap and offsets higher than required in the technical specification and for which the gasket is being designed Therefore rubber gasket should work in unplanned conditions causing water infiltrations To overcome this situation, is being added to the rubber gasket a hydrophilic part which swell when in contact with the water. The swelling action allows the recovery of the abnormal gaps and the reinstatement of the sealing.
  • 32. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP ANALYSIS OF ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROFILIC STRIP TECHNICAL FEATURES (STUVA Method)
  • 33. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP Cross section a=274 mm² (including swelling strip Ø 5) b=57,5 mm² Compound EPDM 70 Shore A Groove width at bottom 26 mm Groove depth 10 mm Goove angle 15° Groove dimension 286,8 mm² At full compression the groove is used at 95%
  • 34. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP RUBBER COMPOUND TECHNICAL DATA SHEET DESCRIPTION Compound code PGSA70 or similar Compound type EPDM BLACK TEST TEST METHOD U.M. VALUE STUVA Hardness DIN53505 Shore A 70 N.V. ±5 Tensile strenght DIN53504(S2) Mpa 9,7 ≥ 9 Elongation DIN53504(S2) % 350 ≥ 200 Residual pressure deformation DVR22h at 70°C ISO 815A % 19 ≤ 25 Ozone resistance ISO1431-1 - No cracks not required UV resistance - - - not required Thermal ageing 168h a 70°C Change in hardness DIN53505 % +3% da -5% a +8% Change of crack resistance DIN53504(S2) % +3 da -20 a +10 Change of elongation DIN53504(S2) % -15 da -30 a +10 Stress relaxation 3 months at 70°C ISO3384 % 42 ≤ 45 Restorative capacity at 20°C STUVA % 91 ≥ 80 Fire resistance DIN4102-1 Class B2 not required Operating temperature - °C -40/+100 not required PHYSICAL FEATURES
  • 35. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP WATERTIGHTNESS TEST RIG
  • 36. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP WATERTIGHTNESS DIAGRAM FOR UG027A 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gap ( mm ) Waterpressure(Bar) Offset 0 Offset 5 Offset 10 Offset 15
  • 37. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP LOAD DEFLECTION DIAGRAM FOR UG027A 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Gap (mm) Load(kN/m) Offset 0 UG027A UG027A
  • 38. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP STRESS RELAXATION TEST ACCORDING TO STUVA RECOMMENDATIONS for ANCHORED EPDM GASKET UG027A UG027A
  • 39. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP 4mm PRESENTATION OF THE CORD HYDROPHILIC ACTION
  • 40. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP HYDROPHILIC SWELLING STRIP: MAXIMUM SWELLING
  • 41. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP HYDROPHILIC SWELLING STRIP: EXPANSION PRESSURE/TIME IN CONCRETE WATER
  • 42. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP TECHNICAL IMPLICATIONS OF EPDM GASKET AND HYDROPHILIC SWELLING STRIP AT CONTAMINATED CONDITIONS
  • 43. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP The concentration of chlorydes and sulphates in the Doha’s water is greatly lower than the EPDM resistance. Contaminated Water Basicity 7,47 Ph Chloride 0,7% Sulphate 0,2% EPDM GASKET Excellent resistance of EPDM to water ( pH 7 normal ) Excellent resistance of EPDM to chloric acid Excellent resistance of EPDM to sulfuric acid ( 20% )
  • 44. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP Contaminated Water Basicity 7,47 Ph Chloride 0,7% Sulphate 0,2% Hydrophilic swelling strip Successfully tested within a range from 5 until 12 pH . No negative effect observed in terms of chemical stability. Successfully tested until 0,5% and no negative influence on the chemical stability of hydrophilic observed. Not tested with sulphates but with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and with positive behaviour.
  • 45. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP FULFILLMENT OF THE EMPLOYER’S REQUIREMENTS Hydrophilic anchored rubber gasket UG027A has the features that fulfill Employer’s requirements.  Water resistance up to 4 bar external water pressure (considering the maximum of 38 m waterhed to the tunnel crown );  26 mm gasket groove width at bottom and 17 mm gasket height;  Max gasket force: 45 kN/m at 0 mm gap;  Safety factor of 2,5 for the long-term loads.  Gasket made with EPDM compound;  Gasket tollerances according to UNI EN 3302-1 Class E2;  120 years long term life estimation gasket according to standards ISO 11346 ( Stuva recommendations ) and ISO 3384;  Resistance to Doha’s water conditions.
  • 46. ANCHORED RUBBER GASKET UG027A WITH HYDROPHILIC STRIP THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION www.famaspa.it